[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a significant public health problem of unknown etiology, the pathophysiology has not been elucidated, and there are no characteristic physical signs or laboratory abnormalities. Some studies have indicated an association of CFS with deregulation of immune functions and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. In this study, we examined the association of sequence variations in the glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1) with CFS because NR3C1 is a major effector of the HPA axis. There were 137 study participants (40 with CFS, 55 with insufficient symptoms or fatigue, termed as ISF, and 42 non-fatigued controls) who were clinically evaluated and identified from the general population of Wichita, KS. Nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in NR3C1 were tested for association of polymorphisms and haplotypes with CFS. We observed an association of multiple SNPs with chronic fatigue compared to non-fatigued (NF) subjects (P < 0.05) and found similar associations with quantitative assessments of functional impairment (by the SF-36), with fatigue (by the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory) and with symptoms (assessed by the Centers for Disease Control Symptom Inventory). Subjects homozygous for the major allele of all associated SNPs were at increased risk for CFS with odds ratios ranging from 2.61 (CI 1.05-6.45) to 3.00 (CI 1.12-8.05). Five SNPs, covering a region of approximately 80 kb, demonstrated high linkage disequilibrium (LD) in CFS, but LD gradually declined in ISF to NF subjects. Furthermore, haplotype analysis of the region in LD identified two associated haplotypes with opposite alleles: one protective and the other conferring risk of CFS. These results demonstrate NR3C1 as a potential mediator of chronic fatigue, and implicate variations in the 5' region of NR3C1 as a possible mechanism through which the alterations in HPA axis regulation and behavioural characteristics of CFS may manifest.
Genes Brain and Behavior 03/2007; 6(2):167-76. · 3.60 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To describe the epidemiology of type specific recurrent genital herpes, and to compare the duration of recurrent genital lesions caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2.
Participants were enrolled at clinics across the United States. Adults suspected of having active genital herpes were eligible. Lesions were cultured for HSV and typed. Data from 940 participants with recurrent culture positive HSV lesions were analysed. Pearson's chi(2) and Fisher's exact tests, multivariate logistic regression models, and a stratified Cox proportional hazards model were used to compare epidemiological characteristics and lesion duration of HSV-1 and HSV-2.
HSV-1 was present in 4.2% of the recurrent HSV culture positive lesions. HSV-1 was most prevalent among whites (6.5%) and individuals with 0-2 recurrences in the previous year (9.1%) and, among men, in those with rectal/perirectal lesions (13.2%). Longer lesion duration was not significantly associated with virus type (hazard ratio (HR) 0.95, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.65 to 1.38, p = 0.79), but was associated with male sex (HR 0.85, 95% CI 0.74 to 0.99, p = 0.04), and HIV seropositivity (HR 0.62, 95% CI 0.48 to 0.81, p<0.01).
The authors found that, in the United States, recurrent genital HSV-1 is relatively rare in the STD and HIV clinic setting, especially among black people. Among men, rectal/perirectal recurrent lesions are more likely to be caused by HSV-1 than are penile lesions. In addition, lesion duration depends on sex and HIV status but not virus type. These findings shed new light on the type specific epidemiology of recurrent genital HSV, and suggest that type specific testing can inform the prognosis and management of genital herpes.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The incidence and prevalence of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) for children aged <18 years were estimated in 2 US cities, Atlanta and Seattle, in 1996. All otolaryngologists in a 24-county area in metropolitan Atlanta (101 physicians) and an 8-county area in metropolitan Seattle (139 physicians) agreed to participate in the study. Medical record chart abstraction was performed only for children with documented current residence in the study area (21 patients in Atlanta and 14 patients in Seattle). The incidence rate for juvenile RRP was 1.11/100,000 population in Atlanta and 0.36/100, 000 in Seattle. The prevalence rate was 2.59/100,000 population in Atlanta and 1.69/100,000 in Seattle. In neither city did prevalences differ significantly when stratified by sex or race. Extrapolation of these estimates to the US population suggests that 80-1500 incident cases and 700-3000 prevalent cases of juvenile RRP will occur in the United States during 1999.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We conducted this study to determine whether infection with human herpesvirus (HHV) 6A, HHV-6B, or HHV-7 differed between patients with chronic fatigue syndrome and control subjects. We recruited 26 patients and 52 nonfatigued matched control subjects from Atlanta. Serum samples were tested by enzyme immunoassay for seroreactivity to HHV-6, and all were seropositive. Lymphocyte specimens were cocultivated with cord blood lymphocytes and assayed for HHV-6 and HHV-7; neither virus was isolated. Finally, lymphocytes were tested by use of 3 polymerase chain reaction methods for HHV-6A, HHV-6B, and HHV-7 DNA. HHV-6A or HHV-6B DNA was detected in 17 (22.4%) of 76 samples, and there were no significant differences (by matched analyses) between patients (3 [11.5%] of 26) and control subjects (14 [28%] of 50). HHV-7 DNA was detected in 14 subjects, and although control subjects (12 [24%]) were more likely than patients (2 [7.7%]) to be positive, the difference was not statistically significant. We found no evidence that active or latent infection with HHV-6A, HHV-6B, HHV-7, or any combination these 3 HHVs is associated with chronic fatigue syndrome.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cerebellar symptoms at onset are unusual in HTLV-I/II-associated tropical spastic paraparesis (TSP). A prospective study of neurological disorders in Panama (1985-1990) revealed 13 patients with TSP and 3 with HTLV-I/II-associated spinocerebellar syndrome (HSCS) presenting at onset loss of balance, wide-based stance and gait, truncal instability, and mild leg ataxia (vermian cerebellar syndrome), with absent upper limb dysmetria but with postural tremor, downbeat nystagmus, and dysarthria. In 4-5 years, spinal cord manifestations of TSP developed, including spastic paraparesis, pyramidal signs, bladder and sphincter disturbances. Two patients were infected with HTLV-I and another one, a Guaymi Amerindian woman, with HTLV-II. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated cerebellar atrophy involving predominantly the superior vermis. Mild axonal peripheral neuropathy in the lower limbs, dorsal column involvement and inflammatory myopathy were found by neurophysiology studies. There are 14 similar cases reported in Japan and Canada, but to our knowledge these are the first documented cases of HSCS in the tropics. A cerebellar syndrome constitutes another form of presentation of HTLV-I/II infection of the nervous system.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Unusual health problems have been reported by Gulf War (GW) veterans, but no single etiology has been linked to these illnesses. This study was conducted to determine the association between self-reported GW deployment stressors and an illness defined by a combination of fatigue, mood-cognition, and musculoskeletal symptoms. A total of 1002 GW veterans from this cross-sectional survey of four Air Force units completed a self-administered questionnaire that asked about symptoms, demographic and military characteristics, and stressors during deployment. Severe and mild-moderate illness was positively associated with self-reports of pyridostigmine bromide use, insect repellent use and belief in a threat from biological or chemical weapons. Injuries requiring medical attention were only associated with severe illness. These results suggest a link between self-reported chemical, emotional, and physical exposures, and GW veterans' illness. Further research is needed to determine physiological and psychological mechanisms through which such stressors could have contributed to this symptom complex.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was undertaken to assess the association between detection of high-risk types of human papillomavirus and various demographic and behavioral characteristics and to further relate this association to cervical histopathologic findings.
A total of 1007 patients with a Papanicolaou test result reported as high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion or with 2 results reported as atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion were referred from city and county clinics to a colposcopic clinic. All women had a cervical smear obtained, underwent colposcopically directed biopsy and endocervical curettage, and had a specimen taken for human papillomavirus deoxyribonucleic acid detection by polymerase chain reaction. Demographic information was obtained from each patient.
Human papillomavirus deoxyribonucleic acid was identified in 655 (66%) of the specimens. High-risk human papillomavirus types (16, 18, 31, 33, and 35) were detected in 463 (70.7%) of these specimens. The prevalence of evidence of human papillomavirus (koilocytosis) and grade 1 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in the biopsy specimen decreased significantly with age, whereas the prevalence of grade 2 or 3 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in the biopsy specimen increased with age. There was a significant age-dependent decreasing trend in detection of high-risk human papillomavirus deoxyribonucleic acid among women who had human papillomavirus-associated changes, grade 1 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, and grade 2 or 3 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in the biopsy specimen. The prevalences of high-risk human papillomavirus among patients with grade 1 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and grade 2 or 3 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia were similar, and both were significantly higher than among women with no evidence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia or koilocytosis in the biopsy specimen. Risk factors associated with grade 2 or 3 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia were different from those associated with human papillomavirus-associated changes and with grade 1 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.
The detection of high-risk human papillomavirus was age-dependent for all histologic categories. Patients with grade 2 or 3 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia had a prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus that was similar to that among women with grade 1 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia but significantly higher than that among women whose biopsy specimens appeared normal or demonstrated only the presence of human papillomavirus-induced changes (koilocytosis). This suggests that separation of human papillomavirus-associated changes only from grade 1 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia may be of significance in tissue diagnosis.
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 03/2000; 182(2):257-64. · 3.88 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To explore whether HIV types 1 and 2 and CD4 cell count affect cervical neoplasia independent of human papillomavirus (HPV) in women with high or low numbers of sexual partners residing in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire.
The study population and methods are described in the companion paper. Additional methods include a Papanicolaou smear for cytological diagnosis and statistical analysis.
In maternal women, both HIV-1 and high risk HPV were significant independent risk factors for squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL) (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 11.0 (95% CI 1.1-112) and 5.4 (1.5-18.8), respectively). Only high levels of HPV DNA in the lavage were associated with SIL (OR 13.2 (3.6-47.8)) in the maternal group. In female sex workers, high risk HPV was significantly associated with SIL (OR 23.7 (4.4-126)); HIV seropositivity was not. Any positive level (high or low amounts) of HPV DNA was significantly associated with SIL in sex workers (ORs 15.9 (3.3-76) and 12.7 (3.6-44), respectively). There was no association of SIL with CD4 cell counts < or = 500 x 10(6)/l in HIV seropositive women from either group.
HPV or HIV-1 infection independently affect cervical neoplasia in women with low numbers of sex partners.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To explore whether HIV serostatus (HIV-1, HIV-2, and dual (HIV-D) reactivity) and CD4 cell count affect human papillomavirus (HPV) in two groups of women from Côte d'Ivoire.
We conducted a cross sectional study of two groups of women. One group had low numbers of lifetime sex partners (maternal women, n = 258) and were enrolled based on HIV serostatus. The other group had high numbers of sex partners (female sex workers, n = 278) and all consenting self identified sex workers were admitted to this study. We collected epidemiological and clinical data, and cervicovaginal lavage for HPV testing.
The groups had different distributions of HIV seroreactivity, but the rates of HPV DNA detection were similar. Most of the HPV DNAs detected in both groups were high risk types. A strong association of high risk HPV DNA and HIV-1 seropositivity was found in both maternal women (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 7.5 (95% CI 3.2-17.4)) and in sex workers (OR 5.0 (2.1-12.0)). The maternal group also showed an association of high risk HPV DNA detection with HIV-2 (OR 3.7 (1.6-8.5)) and HIV-D (OR 12.7 (4.3-37.5)) that was not observed in the sex workers. In addition, the association of high risk HPV DNA with HIV-1 in the maternal group was independent of low CD4 cell count, while in the sex workers the association depended on CD4 cell counts < or = 500 x 10(6)/l.
We found that an association between HPV and HIV varied depending on the sexual behaviour and CD4 cell count of the population examined.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To characterize the spectrum of juvenile-onset recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) in the United States and to obtain data about the natural course of the disease and its response to treatment.
Twenty tertiary-care pediatric otolaryngology centers throughout the United States.
All patients with active RRP aged less than 18 years at the participating sites.
Number of surgical procedures performed per year, progression of papillomas to previously nondiseased anatomical sites, drug interventions and other adjuvant therapy, and need for tracheostomy.
Data were collected from 399 children enrolled from January, 1, 1997, through December 31, 1998. There were 51.9% male; 62.7% white, 28.3% black, 9.0% other or unknown racial group; 10.8% Hispanic ethnicity. Mean age at diagnosis was 3.8 years (range, 0.1-16.3 years) and mean duration of disease was 4.4 years (range, 0.03-18.9 years). The mean number of surgical procedures per child was 4.4 per year (range, 0.2-19.3 per year). Children whose RRP was diagnosed at younger ages (<3.0 years) were 3.6 times more likely to have more than 4 surgical procedures per year (P=.001) and almost 2 times more likely to have 2 or more anatomical sites affected (P=.008) than were children whose RRP was diagnosed at later ages (> or =3.0 years), after adjusting for sex, race, and years of treatment.
Children whose disease was diagnosed before age 3 years were more likely than children aged 3 years or older to have more severe disease as measured by the mean number of surgical procedures performed and by the number of anatomical sites affected. The registry will form the basis for future analysis on the outcome of disease, natural course of RRP under management strategies, prevention strategies, and public health importance.
Archives of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery 07/1999; 125(7):743-8. · 1.78 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human papillomaviruses (HPV) infect epithelial tissues but have not been previously detected within mesenchymal cells. During a systematic investigation of FIGO stage Ib cervical cancers with colorimetric in situ hybridization, we detected HPV 16 DNA within the stromal compartment of an unusual undifferentiated carcinoma. The mesenchymal nature of the HPV-containing cells was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. No viral particles were identified. Sequencing the majority of the HPV 16 genome identified few changes from the revised reference clone; all previously reported in other HPV 16 variants. These viral changes are unlikely to explain the exceptional mesenchymal localization of the HPV 16 DNA in this case.
Human Pathlogy 05/1999; 30(4):483-5. · 2.84 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The association between human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA copy number and cervical disease was investigated. Viral DNA copy number for the most common high-risk HPV types in cervical cancer (types 16, 18, 31, and 45) was determined in cervical cytobrush specimens from 149 women with high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (CIN II-CIN III), 176 with low-grade CIN (CIN I), and 270 with normal cytology. Quantitative, PCR-based fluorescent assays for each of the HPV genotypes and for the beta-globin gene were used. The amount of cellular DNA increased significantly with increasing disease; thus, HPV was expressed as copies per microgram of cellular DNA. The assay had a dynamic range of >10(7), allowing documentation for the first time of the wide range of HPV copy numbers seen in clinical specimens. Median HPV DNA copy number varied by more than 10(4) among the viral types. HPV16 was present in the highest copy number; over 55% of HPV16-positive samples contained more than 10(8) copies/microgram. Median copy number for HPV16 showed dramatic increases with increasing epithelial abnormality, an effect not seen with the other HPV types. HPV16 increased from a median of 2.2 x 10(7) in patients with normal cytology, to 4.1 x 10(7) in CIN I patients, to 1.3 x 10(9) copies/microgram in CIN II-III patients. Even when stratified by cervical disease and viral type, the range of viral DNA copies per microgram of cellular DNA was quite large, precluding setting a clinically significant cutoff value for "high" copy numbers predictive of disease. This study suggests that the clinical usefulness of HPV quantitation requires reassessment and is assay dependent.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology 04/1999; 37(4):1030-4. · 4.07 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Type-specific serologic assays for herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2 based on glycoprotein G-1 (gG-1) (HSV-1) and gG-2 (HSV-2) discriminate between antibodies against HSV-1 and HSV-2. We previously developed a Western blot assay using gG-1 and gG-2 expressed in baculovirus, performed extensive validation studies, and determined that it was both sensitive and specific for type-specific detection of HSV antibody. Here we report that, among a cohort of Thai military recruits, the serostatus of some individuals changed from positive to negative over time (6.6% among those ever positive for HSV-1, and 14.9% among those ever positive for HSV-2). We tested a subset of these specimens in three other gG-based assays: an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, an immunoblot strip assay, and a Western blot assay. Positive-to-negative shifts occurred in every assay; the frequency of the shifts ranged from 6. 1% to 21.2% of the specimen sets tested. There was only limited agreement among the assays concerning which individuals lost reactivity. This inaccuracy, exhibited by all of the assay protocols, was not predicted by validation studies employing specimens from cross-sectional studies and was most pronounced in HSV-2 testing. This argues for the inclusion of serial blood specimens in serologic assay validation procedures.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology 03/1999; 37(2):376-9. · 4.07 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The development of cervical carcinoma is influenced by multiple factors, including the presence of certain high risk types of human papillomavirus. The purpose of the current study was to investigate possible cooperating genetic changes by examining the expression of p53, p62 myc, and p21 ras in cervical biopsy specimens.
Three hundred and ninety-five cervical biopsy specimens representing normal through high grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) were screened by immunohistochemistry for expression of p53, p62myc, and p21ras.
Neither the proportion of tissues staining positive for a given protein nor the staining patterns within the epithelial layers differed significantly among normal or CIN biopsy samples. However, grade specific nuclear staining of p21ras was found in the cells of 10 lesions that were classified as CIN I by histology.
These results established the normal distribution and expression patterns of p53, p62myc, and p21ras within 395 cervical biopsy samples representing normal through CIN III histology. The expression of these proteins (e.g., staining intensity and layer of epithelium staining positive) is similar in normal tissues and those demonstrating all grades of CIN.
Cancer 11/1998; 83(7):1401-8. · 5.20 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gulf War (GW) veterans report nonspecific symptoms significantly more often than their nondeployed peers. However, no specific disorder has been identified, and the etiologic basis and clinical significance of their symptoms remain unclear.
To organize symptoms reported by US Air Force GW veterans into a case definition, to characterize clinical features, and to evaluate risk factors.
Cross-sectional population survey of individual characteristics and symptoms and clinical evaluation (including a structured interview, the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36, psychiatric screening, physical examination, clinical laboratory tests, and serologic assays for antibodies against viruses, rickettsia, parasites, and bacteria) conducted in 1995.
The cross-sectional questionnaire survey included 3723 currently active volunteers, irrespective of health status or GW participation, from 4 air force populations. The cross-sectional clinical evaluation included 158 GW veterans from one unit, irrespective of health status.
Symptom-based case definition; case prevalence rate for GW veterans and nondeployed personnel; clinical and laboratory findings among veterans who met the case definition.
We defined a case as having 1 or more chronic symptoms from at least 2 of 3 categories (fatigue, mood-cognition, and musculoskeletal). The prevalence of mild-to-moderate and severe cases was 39% and 6%, respectively, among 1155 GW veterans compared with 14% and 0.7% among 2520 nondeployed personnel. Illness was not associated with time or place of deployment or with duties during the war. Fifty-nine clinically evaluated GW veterans (37%) were noncases, 86 (54%) mild-to-moderate cases, and 13 (8%) severe cases. Although no physical examination, laboratory, or serologic findings identified cases, veterans who met the case definition had significantly diminished functioning and well-being.
Among currently active members of 4 Air Force populations, a chronic multisymptom condition was significantly associated with deployment to the GW. The condition was not associated with specific GW exposures and also affected nondeployed personnel.
JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 10/1998; 280(11):981-8. · 29.98 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite considerable research on chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and conditions associated with unexplained chronic fatigue (CF), little is known about their prevalence and demographic distribution in the population. The present study describes the epidemiology and characteristics of self-reported CF and related conditions in a diverse urban community. The study used a cross-sectional telephone screening survey of households in San Francisco, followed by interviews with fatigued and nonfatigued residents. Respondents who appeared to meet case definition criteria for CFS, based on self-reported fatigue characteristics, symptoms, and medical history, were classified as CFS-like cases. Subjects who reported idiopathic chronic fatigue (ICF) that did not meet CFS criteria were classified as ICF-like cases. Screening interviews were completed for 8,004 households, providing fatigue and demographic information for 16,970 residents. Unexplained CF was extremely rare among household residents <18 years of age, but was reported by 2% of adult respondents. A total of 33 adults (0.2% of the study population) were classified as CFS-like cases and 259 (1.8%) as ICF-like cases. Neither condition clustered within households. CFS- and ICF-like illnesses were most prevalent among women and persons with annual household incomes below $40,000, and least prevalent among Asians. The prevalence of CFS-like illness was elevated among African Americans, Native Americans, and persons engaged in clerical occupations. Although CFS-like cases were more severely ill than those with ICF-like illness, a similar symptom pattern was observed in both groups. In conclusion, conditions associated with unexplained CF occur in all sociodemographic groups but appear to be most prevalent among women, persons with lower income, and some racial minorities.
The American Journal of Medicine 10/1998; 105(3A):83S-90S. · 4.77 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to identify factors explaining the correlations among unexplained severe fatigue of different durations (1-5 months or > or =6 months) and symptoms reported as being significant health problems during a preceding 4-week period. Between June and December of 1994, a cross-sectional, random digit dialing telephone survey was conducted among residents of San Francisco, California. All subjects who reported having severe fatigue lasting for > or =1 month and a random sample of nonfatigued subjects were asked to participate in a detailed telephone interview. Data from 1,510 individuals aged 18-60 years who did not have medical or psychiatric conditions that could explain their severe fatigue were analyzed. Common factor analyses identified three correlated factors (defined as "fatigue-mood-cognition" symptoms, "flu-type" symptoms, and "visual impairment") that explained the correlations among fatigue lasting for > or =6 months and 14 interrelated symptoms. No factor explained the correlations among fatigue lasting for 1-5 months and other symptoms. The combination of fatigue of > or =6 months' duration and selected symptoms overlaps with published criteria used to define cases of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Although symptoms described in this study were reported as appearing within the preceding month, and CFS symptoms must have been present for the previous 6 months, these results provide empirical support for the interrelations among unexplained fatigue of > or =6 months' duration and symptoms included in the CFS case definition.
American Journal of Epidemiology 07/1998; 148(1):72-7. · 4.78 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our purpose was to assess the usefulness of the polymerase chain reaction assay for detection of human papillomavirus infection for prognostic value in the triage strategies for high-grade (grade 2 or 3) cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in women referred for colposcopy after abnormal Papanicolaou smears.
A total of 1007 women referred to a colposcopic clinic providing care for an indigent population were studied. Four hundred fifty-four women were referred after two Papanicolaou smears reported as atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or low grade-squamous cervical intraepithelial lesion, and 553 were referred after a single smear reported as high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion. All women had a cervical smear, colposcopy-directed biopsy, and endocervical curettage performed. A sample for human papillomavirus deoxyribonucleic acid detection by polymerase chain reaction was obtained.
High-risk human papillomavirus types were detected in 463 (46%) of 1007 women studied. There was a significant increase of the frequency of high-risk human papillomavirus by the increasing severity of biopsy findings ranging from 32.7% in women without cervical intraepithelial neoplasia on biopsy to 60% in women having grade 2 or 3 on the biopsy specimen. Women having a negative Papanicolaou smear found to have high-risk human papillomavirus deoxyribonucleic acid at the time of colposcopy had a significantly higher rate of grade 2 or 3 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia on the biopsy specimen than did women without high-risk human papillomavirus. There was no such difference observed in women with a cytologic finding of low- or high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions at the time of colposcopy. The polymerase chain reaction assay appears to be more sensitive than the commercial human papillomavirus profile test. The positive predictive value for grade 2 or 3 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of both tests was similar (21.7% and 22.8%, respectively).
The human papillomavirus is associated with high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, but the screening for human papillomavirus deoxyribonucleic acid does not have prognostic value in women reported as having atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions on two precolposcopy Papanicolaou smears.
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 07/1998; 178(6):1235-44. · 3.88 Impact Factor