[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effect of ethanol on mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue at the level of Peyer's patches and the intestinal lamina propria in female rats and to determine whether this action of ethanol is modulated during the estrous cycle. Adult female rats showing proestrus or diestrus day 1 were treated intraperitoneally (ip) with ethanol (4 g/kg). Untreated and saline-injected rats were used as controls. The animals were sacrificed by decapitation 0.5 h after ethanol administration. Immunoglobulin A (IgA) immunoreactive cells were analyzed by indirect immunohistochemistry using mouse anti-rat IgA and a Dako LSAB+ kit. The number of IgA-immunoreactive cells in Peyer's patches was unaltered by ethanol treatment at both phases of the estrous cycle. However, stereological analysis revealed a significant increase in the number of IgA-immunoreactive cells (p < 0.01) in the intestinal lamina propria following acute ethanol administration at proestrus and on diestrus day 1. The results indicate that the intestinal lamina propria, the effector site of the mucosal immune system, can be affected by a single dose of ethanol at both phases of the estrous cycle.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Data about the structure and immunohistochemistry of the lenticulostriatearteries (LSAs), although very important for medical research and clinicalpractice, have been rarely reported in literature.
Fourty serially sectioned LSAs were stained with hematoxilinand eosin, and prepared for immunohistochemistry.
Our examination revealed a typical endothelial lining and a narrow subendothelialspace with subintimal smooth muscle cells occasionally. The internalelastic lamina was fragmented or absent in the smallest LSAs branches. The mediacoat, with a mean diameter of 148.5 μm, contained typical smooth muscle cellswhich formed 14.2 layers on average and showed a positive immune reactions foralfa-actin, desmine, laminin and collagen IV. The thin adventitial coat containedfibroblasts, collagen fibers, and nerve bundles, with the strongest immunopositivityto thyrosin hydroxilase. The immune reactions against CD31 and CD34 proteins,endothelial nitric oxide synthase, S 100 protein, neurofilament protein and synaptophysin,seem to be performed in the LSAs wall for the first time. Similarly,the thickness of the LSAs wall and its coats have never been reported, nor thenumber of the smooth muscle cell layers.
Our results related to the structure and immunohistochemistry ofthe LSAs could be important in cerebrovascular pathology, neurology and neurosurgery.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Comprehension of the mesencephalic syndromes that affect oculomotor nerve fascicles requires a detailed knowledge of their relationship with the adjacent structures and the blood supply of the central midbrain region. This was the reasoning behind our study, which was performed in ten serially sectioned midbrains stained with cresyl violet and luxol fast blue, in three microdissected midbrains, and in two injected and cleared specimens. Three continuous groups of the intramesencephalic oculomotor nerve fascicles were distinguished: the caudal, intermediate and rostral. The caudal fascicles, which most likely innervate the superior rectus and the levator palpebrae superioris muscles, extend through the superior cerebellar peduncle just caudal to the red nucleus and close to the lateral lemniscus. The intermediate fascicles, devoted to the medial rectus and the inferior oblique muscles, always pass through the superior cerebellar peduncle, just medial to the caudal part of the red nucleus (60 %), and less frequently (40 %) through the nucleus itself. The rostral oculomotor fascicles, which terminate in the inferior rectus and sphincter pupillae muscles, course medial to the rostral part of the red nucleus. While the rostral and intermediate oculomotor fascicles are supplied only by the medial twigs of the paramedian mesencephalic perforating arteries, the caudal fascicles are also nourished by the lateral branches of the same perforating arteries. The data obtained form an important basis for the explanation of certain mesencephalic syndromes, and even anticipate some new syndromes not yet described in the literature.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The lenticulostriate arteries (LSA) and their microanatomy, region of supply and atherosclerosis were examined in 24 microdissected brains, arterial casts, and histological specimens. The LSA ranged from 2 to 12 in number and from 0.10mm to 1.28mm in diameter. They always arose from the initial segment of the middle cerebral artery (MCA), often from the MCA leptomeningeal branches (38.24%), and rarely from the insular segment (2.94%). They always originated as individual branches, often (61.76%) with their own common stems. In two hemispheres we found that the LSA supplied either a larger or a smaller portion of the basal ganglia and internal capsule than usual. The number of twigs to the innominate substance (substantia innominata) (3-11), and their diameters (0.07-0.30mm), has been described for the first time, to our knowledge. Microatheromas were found in two LSA. Data about the LSA microanatomy and territory could form the basis of safer neurosurgery, more accurate neuroimaging evaluation, and precise neurological diagnosis in patients with focal ischemic lesions in the basal ganglia and internal capsule.
Journal of Clinical Neuroscience 08/2012; 19(10):1416-21. · 1.25 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: This study was performed to investigate expression and distribution of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in the rat adrenal cortex, acute effect of ethanol on its expression and possible role of endogenous nitric oxide (NO) in this phenomenon. Methods: Adult female Wistar rats showing diestrus day 1 were treated with: a) ethanol (2 or 4 g/kg body weight (b.w.), ip), b) N(ω)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), well-known competitive inhibitor of all isoforms of NO synthase (NOS), (30 mg/kg b.w., sc) followed by ethanol (4 g/kg, ip) 3 h later and c) L-NAME (30 mg/kg b.w., sc) followed by saline (ip) 3 h later. Untreated rats were used as controls. Adrenocortical expression of GR was estimated by immunohistochemistry. Results: Strong nuclear GR staining was observed throughout the cortex of control rats. Acute ethanol treatment significantly decreased the expression of GR in the zona fasciculata and zona reticularis. Blockade of NO formation had no influence on this effect of ethanol, whereas L-NAME itself induced significant decline in GR immunoreactivity. Conclusions: Obtained findings are the first to demonstrate localization and distribution of the GR throughout the rat adrenal cortex and to suggest that ethanol as well as endogenous NO may modulate adrenocortical expression of this steroid receptor.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) isolated from healthy dental tissues are being investigated as an alternative source of MSCs for the treatment of damaged tissues and inflammatory diseases. Here we investigated whether MSCs from periapical lesions (PL-MSCs) also possess multi-lineage differentiation capacity and immunomodulatory properties.
PL-MSCs, isolated by collagenase/DNAse digestion from surgically extracted PLs, were compared with MSCs from non-inflamed dental pulp (DP-MSCs) and dental follicle (DF-MSCs) for their phenotype and multi-potent differentiation potential. The anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of PL-MSCs were studied in co-culture with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PB-MNCs) and PL-inflammatory cells (PL-ICs).
PL-MSCs were characterized by typical MSCs phenotype, lower clonogenicity and self-renewal rate, compared to DF-MSCs and DP-MSCs. These cells possess the potential to differentiate into adipocyte-, osteoblast- and chondrocyte-like cells in vitro, which differs from that of DP-MSCs and DF-MSCs. PL-MSCs inhibited phytohemaglutinine-induced proliferation of PB-MNCs and production of IL-2, IFNγ and IL-5 in the co-culture, probably via TGF-β-dependent mechanisms. These cells also suppressed the production of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α by PL-ICs via soluble mediators, whereas the suppression of IL-8 production required a direct cell-to-cell contact.
The differentiation potential of PL-MSCs and their immunosuppressive/anti-inflammatory properties could be beneficial for the treatment of chronic periodontal diseases.
Journal Of Clinical Periodontology 06/2012; 39(9):807-16. · 3.69 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The pancreas appears to be a major source of ghrelin during fetal development, but the ontogeny of ghrelin cells in the human pancreas and their developmental relationship with α- and β-cells remain largely unknown. In the present study, we examined the dynamics of ghrelin cell growth, colocalization of ghrelin with major pancreatic hormones and defined the similarities and differences among developmental patterns of ghrelin-, glucagon- and insulin-expressing cells in the human pancreas. To this end, paraffin-embedded pancreatic tissue sections from human embryos and fetuses were assessed by immunohistochemistry. Ghrelin-positive cells were first detected in the pancreas of 11-week-old fetuses. With advancing gestational age, both ghrelin- and glucagon-expressing cells were increasingly observed at the periphery of the developing islets, whereas insulin-containing cells were typically found in the islet core. Double immunohistochemistry showed that ghrelin-expressing cells were clearly separate from insulin-, somatostatin- and pancreatic polypeptide-containing cells. In contrast, cells coexpressing ghrelin and glucagon were sporadically detected during both the early and late fetal periods. Furthermore, morphometric analysis revealed a similar trend in the volume density of ghrelin- and glucagon-positive cells, and a contrasting pattern in β-cell density at specific time points during the development of the human pancreas. This study demonstrates that the developmental pattern of ghrelin cells, although clearly distinct, is quite similar to that of glucagon-expressing cells. The obtained findings indicate a close lineage relationship between these cell populations, a functional relationship between their secretory products and an auto/paracrine mode of ghrelin-glucagon interaction in pancreatic development.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Numerous studies were aimed to detect and characterize various tumor markers in patients with oral planocellular carcinoma in order to reduce moratlity and mobidity rates of these patients, as well as to establish the correlation between the expression of specific tumor marker and prognostic outcome. The aim of this study was to determine patohistological characteristics of tumor and peritumor tissue in patients with oral planocellular carcinoma, with special regard to the expression of Bcl-2, as well as to point out the significance of clinicomorphological correlations for clinical use.
Sixty-two patients with oral planocellular carcinoma, stage II and III, were examined. The patients were surgically treated for this condition at the Clinic for Maxillofacial Surgery, Military Medical Academy, Belgrade. Surgical specimens were obtained from both tumor and peritumoral tissues. Patohistologic degree of tumor differentiation and the immunohistochemical expression of Bcl-2 were determinated for each specimens.
Twenty-four (39%) patients had tumor dimension T1, while six (9%) and thirty-two (52%) patients had tumor dimension T2 and T3, respectively. Patohistologic analysis of peritumor connective, fat, muscle and bone tissue samples confirmed the presence of tumor infiltration. The expression of Bcl-2 in peritumor tissue samples correlated significantly with tumor's histologic grade (rho = 0.468; p < 0.001), nuclear grade (rho = 0.430; p < 0.001) and nucleocytoplasmic ratio (rho = 0.410; p = 0.001).
This results suggest that the expression of Bcl-2 in combination with patohistologic findings could have a prognostic value in patients with oral planocellular carcinoma.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the appearance, localization and density of ghrelin cells in the human stomach during prenatal development. For this purpose the antrum and corpus of embryos, fetuses and infants are stained immunohistochemically by the streptavidin-biotin technique. The presence of P/D1 cells at 11 weeks of fetal development, their highest density during the first detection and higher density in the corpus than in antrum, and their localization in the glandular base of stomach gland, all suggest that ghrelin plays a major role in the early stages of the developing stom-ach.
Archives of Biological Sciences 01/2011; 63(1):21-28. · 0.79 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Specific microanatomical characteristics of the trigeminal nerve root (TNR) blood supply and close neurovascular relationships with surrounding vessels as well as their possible clinical significance were the main reasons for this study.
The vasculature of 25 adult and four fetal TNRs were microdissected and examined under the stereoscopic microscope, after injecting their arteries with India ink.
The trigeminal vessels, which varied between two and five in number, arose from two or three of the following arteries: the superolateral pontine (92%), anterior inferior cerebellar (AICA) (88%), inferolateral pontine (72%), and superior cerebellar (SCA) (12%). The trigeminal vascular twigs had a mean diameter of 0.215 mm. A single vessel may supply either the motor portion of the nerve root or the sensory portion or both. The trigeminal vasculature formed the proximal and distal rings. The proximal ring was located at the trigeminal root entry zone. Its central branches extended along the TNR to the principal sensory and motor trigeminal nuclei while its peripheral longitudinal twigs followed the TNR fascicles. The incomplete distal arterial ring embraced the middle portion of the TNR before the level of its entrance into the arachnoid sleeve. The most frequent contact of the TNR was noticed with the SCA (20%), the petrosal or Dandy's vein (24%), and the AICA (12%).
The observed characteristics of the TNR vasculature could be the anatomical basis for decompressive neurovascular surgery.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Megacolon refers to an abnormal dilatation of the colon. This condition occurs in both humans and animals. Although it seems to be more common in cats, megacolon may also occur in dogs. However, data regarding the etiopathogenesis, clinical course and outcome of canine megacolon are scarce. The aim of this study is to present the experience of our team in diagnosis and therapy of canine acquired megacolon, with particular reference to etiopathogenetic aspects. The prospective study included 28 dogs affected with megacolon, aged 5-9 years. The 26 animals underwent a surgical procedure (colonotomy followed by manual extraction of faeces), and were followed up for a period of 28 days. On the basis of anamnestic data, clinical and radiographic findings, 7 dogs (25%) were presented with idiophatic acquired megacolon, while 75% of cases had secundary acquired megacolon of different etiology (including pelvic canal stenosis, lumbar and sacral spinal injuries or back leg fractures, in 46% od cases; keeping the animals in the backyard and irresponsibility of their owners, in 11%; non-adequate nutrition, in 11%; and decreased physical activity and keeping animals in small flats, in 7%). During early postoperative period, the medical treatment and dietary regimen enabled defecation in 65% of cases. The remaining 35% of cases were treated with Cisapride in order to establish spontaneous defecation. All dogs recovered completely during the 28- days follow-up period. According to the results of interviews with dog owners, all animals were in good condition six months after the surgical procedure.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Detailed ultrastructural and immunohistochemical examination of the trigeminal axons surrounded by the peripheral type of the myelin could add new information about the extent of the trigeminal nerve lesion in neuralgia.
The examination comprised, firstly, the 10 trigeminal nerve roots (TNRs) in which the neurovascular contact was found in 20% of the cases, and the 2 additional control TNRs. Secondly, the biopsy specimens were taken from 6 patients with trigeminal neuralgia and 2 patients with trigeminal neuropathy following a partial TNR rhizotomy. The specimens were examined under the electron microscope (EM) and/or using the immunohistochemical (IHC) methods.
In addition to the central zone of demyelination, the EM examination of the TNR also revealed alterations of the peripheral myelin, i.e. deformation, thickening, demyelination and remyelination, as well as changes of the peripheral axons, that is, atrophy or hypertrophy, neurofilaments increase, loss of the myelin and sprouting occasionally. Some Schwann cells were also damaged. The IHC examination usually showed a moderate immune reaction against neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and protein gene product 9.5 (PGP9.5), but sporadically weaker reaction against the S-100 protein, synaptophysin (SY), neurofilament protein (NFP) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). The substance P (SP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) immunoreactivity was weak at some sites, but strong at some other places.
The pathological changes affect not only the central nerve fibers of the TNR, but also some of the peripheral axons, their myelin sheath and Schwann cells. These are signs of the retrograde ultrastructural and biochemical alterations, which could participate in the pathophysiological mechanism underlying the trigeminal neuralgia.
Clinical neurology and neurosurgery 12/2009; 111(10):795-800. · 1.30 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to examine the morphology and the immunohistochemical features of displaced ganglion cells in the trigeminal nerve root (TNR). Forty human TNRs of 20 persons, obtained during routine autopsy in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki, were examined following Klüver-Barrera and azan trichrome histological staining, and immunohistochemical reactions against certain neuronal markers, neuropeptides and neurotransmitters. A total number of 61 displaced neurons were investigated, which were present in 80% of individuals studied. Displaced neurons were found in 55.0% of the TNRs, either in the sensory portion (22.5%), motor portion (22.5%) or both (10.0%). Neuronal diameter varied from 12.5 x 25.0 to 45.0 x 63.7 (mean 27.6 x 41.6) microm, and in area between 245 and 2,065 (mean 927) microm(2). Each neuron was surrounded by 2-17 elongated satellite cells per slice. The immune reaction was positive in all the neurons studied for neuron-specific enolase, protein gene product 9.5, neurofilament protein and synaptophysin, and in some neurons for calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP; 24.4%), cholecystokinin (CCK; 13.3%), somatostatin (SST; 17.8%), substance P (SP; 15.6%), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (4.4%), neuropeptide Y (8.9%), and serotonin (11.1%). The immune reactions were most frequent against the CGRP, SP, CCK and SST. We concluded that displaced neurons in the TNR morphologically and immunohistochemically resembled the sensory neurons in the trigeminal ganglion.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nitric oxide (NO) is known as a regulator of inflammation and immunity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of this signal molecule on the rat immunoglobulin A (IgA) system using Nomega-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME), which inhibits the activity of all isoforms of NO synthase.
The experiments were performed on adult female Wistar rats showing diestrus day 1 that were treated with L-NAME (30 or 50 mg/kg, s.c.). Untreated and saline-injected animals were used as controls. The rats were sacrificed 3 h following L-NAME or saline administration. The concentration of IgA in serum and intestinal extracts was determined by a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The number of IgA-expressing cells per area unit of Peyer's patches and the intestinal lamina propria was evaluated using stereological analysis.
The results showed that L-NAME decreased the level of IgA in serum and elevated its concentration in intestinal extracts. Additionally, the increased number of IgA+ cells was found in the intestinal lamina propria in both experimental groups.
Obtained findings imply that endogenous NO may modulate the IgA system in the rat.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is well established that megacolon in carnivores, including both cats and dogs, is a common finding. Megacolon occurs more often in the cat that the dog. Based on current data idiopathic megacolon is a common cause of constipation in cats (62% of constipated cats are affected by diopathic megacolon). There is no evidence of idiopathic megacolon in dogs and publications about this disease in this species is very scarce. We investigated the enteric nervous system in the dilated portion (DP) of the colon in dogs with idiopathic aquired (n=7) or secondary aquired megacolon (n=21) and compared the results with a normal colon in control dogs (n=3). Colonic sections of surgical specimens were investigated by conventional and immunohistochemical methods, including pan-neuronal markers (NSE, synaptophisin, and neurofilament) and VIP, as well as S-100 protein for detection of ganglionic glial cells. Compared to controls, the two megacolon groups showed no changes of density of enteric neurons in both submucosal and myenteric nervous plexuses in DP of the colon and of enteric glial cells. However, compared to controls and dogs with secondary megacolon, there was a significant decrease in the density of NFP-ir nerve fibers in the longitudinal muscle layer in dogs with idiopathic acquired megacolon. In addition, dogs with idiopathic megacolon display decreased VIP-ir in the myenteric plexus and lamina propria mucosae, and absence of VIP-ir neurons in the submucosal plexus of DP of the colon. Similar alterations, although of lesser severity, may be found in dogs with secondary aquired megacolon. We consider that both idiopathic and secondary aquired megacolon might occur on the basis of a dysplastic changes of VIP-ir enteric neurons.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Growth factors play an important role in orchestrating and enabling the cellular responses required for successful wound healing. In the present study, rat surgical incision was used to investigate insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) expression in skin cells as well as its systemic and cutaneous tissue concentrations during acute phase of wound healing. Thirty two animals were sacrificed at days 2, 3, 5 and 9 after surgery. Eight animals were used as control. Tissue expression of IGF-I in both incisional and periincisional skin areas, as well as in skin of control unwounded animals was determined by immunohistochemistry. Serum and tissue concentrations of IGF-I were measured using RIA. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed enhanced IGF-I immunostaining in the incisional area at day 2 post-wounding. Presence of IGF-I immunoreactivity in the epidermis, as well as in dermal fibroblasts and monocytes within perivascular inflammatory infiltrate suggests its local synthesis. Although serum levels of IGF-I were not altered during wound healing, their tissue contents in the incisional area were significantly increased compared with periincisional area at days 2 and 3 after injury, as well as compared with skin content of unwounded control rats in all examined time points. Obtained results support a paracrine role of IGF-I during the acute phase of wound healing by primary intention in the rat.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The study was undertaken to explore whether there were: i) apart from neural and circulatory, some other sources of catecholamines (CAs) in rat thymus and ii) gender-specific differences in thymic CA levels, and if so to elucidate the role of sex steroids in this phenomenon. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactivity was found in thymocytes and thymic epithelial cells (some of which showed morphological features of nurse cells). The density of CA-synthesizing cells was greater in male than in female rats. Noradrenaline (NA), but not dopamine (DA), was detected in thymocytes. NA and DA levels in thymi, and the NA level in thymocytes, were higher in male rats. To explore the putative role of sex steroids in this dichotomy in the thymi of adult rats gonadectomized (Gx) or sham-Gx at the age of 30 days the density of TH+ cells and CA levels were measured. Gonadectomy abolished sexual dimorphism in the density of thymic TH+ cells (diminishing their density in male rats) and thymic CA levels (the NA levels were reduced in rats of both sexes and also the DA level in male rats). Therefore, it can be assumed that testicular and ovarian hormones control thymic NA and DA levels via different mechanisms. Moreover, in Gx rats, despite the decrease in the overall thymic NA level, an increase in the thymocyte NA level was found indicating that gonadal hormones exert differential effects on the NA level in distinct thymic cellular compartments.
Journal of Neuroimmunology 04/2008; 195(1-2):7-20. · 3.03 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Numerous reports have described gastric mucosal injury in rats treated with high ethanol concentrations. However, to the best of our knowledge, ultrastructural characteristics of G cells and antral gastrin levels have not been previously reported, either in rats that chronically consumed alcohol or in human alcoholics. The goal of this study was to examine the effect of ethanol consumption (8.5 g/kg) over a 4-month period, under controlled nutritional conditions, on antral and plasma levels of gastrin, ultrastructure of G cells, morphometric characteristics of G cells by stereological methods, and analysis of endocrine cells in the gastric mucosa by immunohistochemistry. The chronic alcohol consumption resulted in a nonsignificant decrease in gastrin plasma levels and unchanged antral gastrin concentrations. A slightly damaged glandular portion of the gastric mucosa and dilatation of small blood vessels detected by histological analysis, suggests that ethanol has a toxic effect on the mucosal surface. Chronic alcohol treatment significantly decreased the number of antral G cells per unit area, and increased their cellular, nuclear, and cytoplasmatic profile areas. In addition, the volume density and diameter of G-cell granules, predominantly the pale and lucent types, were increased, indicating inhibition of gastrin release. Ethanol treatment also decreased the number of gastric somatostatin-, serotonin-, and histamine-immunoreactive cells, except the somatostatin cells in the pyloric mucosa, as well as both G: D: enterochromaffin cells (EC) cell ratios in the antrum and D: ECL cell ratios in the fundus. These results indicate that the change of morphometric parameters in G cells may be related to cellular dysfunction. Our findings also suggest that regulation of G-cell secretion was not mediated by locally produced somatostatin in ethanol-consuming rats, but may involve gastric luminal content and/or neurotransmitters of gastric nerve fibers.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To date, three types of dental stem cells have been isolated: Dental Pulp Stem Cells (DPSC), Stem Cells From Human Exfoliated Deciduous Teeth (SHED) and Immature Dental Pulp Stem Cells (IDPC). These dental stem cells are considered as mesenchymal stem cells. They reside within the perivascular niche of dental pulp. They are highly proliferative, clonogenic, multipotent and are similar to mesenchymal Bone Marrow Stem Cells (BMSC). Also, they have high plasticity and can be easy isolated. The expressions of the alkaline phosphatase gene, dentin matrix protein 1 and dentinsialophosphoprotein are verified in these cells. Analyses of gene expression patterns indicated several genes which encode extracellular matrix components, cell adhesion molecules, growth factors and transcription regulators, cell signaling, cell communication or cell metabolism. In both conditions, in vivo and in vitro, these cells have the ability to differentiate into odontoblasts, chondrocytes, osteoblasts, adipocytes, neurons, melanocytes, smooth and skeletal muscles and endothelial cells. In vivo, after implantation, they have shown potential to differentiate into dentin but also into tissues like bone, adipose or neural tissue. In general, DPSCs are considered to have antiinflammatory and immunomodulatory abilities. After being grafted into allogenic tissues these cells are ableto induce immunological tolerance. Immunosuppressive effect is shown through the ability to inhibit proliferation of T lymphocytes. Dental pulp stem cells open new perspectives in therapeutic use not only in dentin regeneration, periodontal tissues and skeletoarticular, tissues of craniofacial region but also in treatment of neurotrauma, autoimmune diseases, myocardial infarction, muscular dystrophy and connective tissue damages.