Tin Aung

Singapore Eye Research Institute, Tumasik, Singapore

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Publications (441)1938.21 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To compare the change in iris-trabecular contact (ITC) area using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) in eyes with primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) and cataract that underwent phacoemulsification (PE) with intraocular lens implantation alone compared with PE with goniosynechialysis (GSL). One eye of 22 patients with PACG with peripheral anterior synechiae (PAS) detected by indentation gonioscopy was randomised into two groups (PE alone (n=11) and PE+GSL (n=11)). The anterior chamber angles were evaluated by SS-OCT under dark conditions before and 12 months after surgery using the three-dimensional angle analysis scan protocol that simultaneously obtains 128 cross-sectional radial scans across the anterior chamber at equal intervals (every 1.4°). The ITC area, defined as the area of extent of the circumferential contact of peripheral iris to the angle wall, was computed automatically by SS-OCT after an observer marked the scleral spurs of all 128 scans of each eye. The majority of the 22 subjects were women (77.3%) and the mean±SD age was 67.3±5.8 years. The ITC area was significantly reduced in the PE+GSL group compared with the PE alone group (10.2 mm(2) vs 4.6 mm(2), β=0.54, p=0.03) after adjusting for age, gender, intraocular pressure, extent of PAS and pupil diameter before surgery. Smaller iris volume at baseline was associated with greater ITC area reduction by PE+GSL (β=-0.728, p=0.03). Eyes that undergo PE+GSL surgery have a greater reduction in circumferential ITC area than eyes that undergo PE alone. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
    The British journal of ophthalmology. 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: Lens extraction for primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) is a subject of increased interest recently, with advocates promoting its benefits of anatomical opening of the angle, intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction and improved vision. The present review seeks to evaluate recent available evidence to provide clarity on this potential intervention within the armamentarium of approaches for PACG. The emergence of recent case-control studies, cohort studies and randomized controlled trials has provided a stronger evidence base to equip ophthalmic surgeons with the necessary information to utilize lens extraction in the management of PACG, and to consider whether this should be combined with trabeculectomy or goniosynechialysis. Imaging modalities such as anterior segment optical coherence tomography have yielded new insights into the mechanical features of the lens in angle closure, with the lens thickness and lens vault now quantifiable. A trend is emerging regarding the improvement in IOP control, reduced complication rates and reduced need for IOP-lowering medications in patients who undergo lens extraction for PACG. These issues are discussed, along with aspects of preoperative assessment and surgical techniques. Good outcomes in terms of long-term IOP control have been found following lens extraction for PACG. Lens extraction should be considered in patients with PACG, especially with hyperopia, or a thick and anteriorly vaulted lens.
    Current opinion in ophthalmology. 01/2015;
  • Journal of Biomedical Optics 01/2015; 20(1):16014. · 2.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Recently the common SIX6 missense variant, rs33912345, was found to be highly associated with glaucoma. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between this SIX6 variant with peripapillary retinal fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measured by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in a population setting. Methods: Study subjects were enrolled from the Singapore Chinese Eye Study (SCES), a population-based survey of Singaporean Chinese aged 40 years or older. Subjects underwent a comprehensive ocular examination. SD-OCT was used to measure RNFL thicknesses. Genotyping of SIX6 rs33912345 (Asn141His) was performed using HumanExome BeadChip (llumina Inc., CA). Results: 2,129 eyes from 1,243 SCES subjects (mean age: 55.0±7.4 years) with rs33912345 genotype data and SD-OCT images were included for the analysis. Of these, 26 eyes of 21 subjects had glaucoma. The frequency of rs33912345 risk variant C (His141) was 80% in the study subjects. Each rs33912345 C allele was associated with a decrease of 1.44 μm in RNFL thickness, after adjusting for age, gender, genetic principal components, and axial length (P=0.001). These associations remained similar in 2,096 non-glaucoma eyes where each C allele was associated with a decrease of 1.39 μm in RNFL thickness (P=0.001). The strongest association was observed in the superior RNFL sector (a decrease of 2.83 μm per risk allele, P<0.001) followed by the inferior RNFL sector (a decrease of 2.24 μm per risk allele, P=0.003); while the association did not reach significance in the nasal and temporal sectors. Conclusions: Non-glaucomatous individuals with the SIX6 missense variant have reduced RNFL thickness in regions known to be particularly affected in those with glaucoma. This may be the primary mechanism for increased risk of POAG in individuals who carry the SIX6 His141 risk variant. Copyright © 2014 by Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology.
    Investigative Ophthalmology &amp Visual Science 12/2014; · 3.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT) should be explored as a therapeutic option in eyes with angle closure. To assess the intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering efficacy of SLT in eyes with primary angle closure (PAC) and PAC glaucoma (PACG). Randomized clinical trial at tertiary eye care institutions of 100 patients diagnosed as having PAC or PAC glaucoma in which the angles had opened at least 180° (visible posterior trabecular meshwork on gonioscopy) after laser iridotomy. Recruitment and baseline were completed from June 2009 to April 2012 and 6-month follow-up was completed from December 2009 to November 2012. Eligible patients with a baseline IOP greater than 21 mm Hg were randomized to either SLT or prostaglandin analog (PGA; travoprost, 0.004%). The SLT was repeated if the IOP reduction was less than 20.0% from baseline at the 1- or 3-month follow-up visit. The primary outcome measure was the change in IOP from baseline to the final follow-up visit (at 6 months). The frequency of additional postoperative treatments and complications were secondary outcomes. Fifty patients (96 eyes) were randomized to SLT and 50 patients (99 eyes) to PGA medical therapy. At 6 months, 49 patients in the SLT group and 47 in the PGA group completed follow-up. Analysis was based on intent to treat. At 6 months, IOP decreased by 4.0 mm Hg (95% CI, 3.2-4.8) in the SLT group (P < .001) and by 4.2 mm Hg (95% CI, 3.5-4.9) in the PGA group (P < .001). There were no differences between the SLT and PGA groups in the absolute mean reduction of IOP (4.0 vs 4.2 mm Hg, respectively; P = .78) or in the percentage of reduction in IOP (16.9% vs 18.5%, respectively; P = .52). Complete success (IOP ≤21 mm Hg without medications) was achieved in 60.0% eyes of the SLT group, compared with 84.0% of eyes in the PGA group (P = .008). No patients required glaucoma surgery. Additional medications were required in 22.0% of patients in the SLT group compared with 8.0% in the PGA group (P = .05). One patient in the SLT group (2.0%) had a transient posttreatment IOP spike greater than 5 mm Hg. The mean endothelial cell count showed a significant decrease from baseline in the SLT arm (4.8% decrease; P = .001). No other events such as persistent uveitis or increase in peripheral anterior synechiae were noted in eyes that underwent SLT. Two patients in the PGA group exited owing to drug-related complications (1 patient with uveitis and 1 with allergic conjunctivitis). Eyes with PAC or PACG respond to SLT in the short term, but the overall long-term therapeutic effectiveness needs further evaluation. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01004900.
    Jama Ophthalmology 11/2014; · 3.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human height is associated with risk of multiple diseases and is profoundly determined by an individual's genetic makeup and shows a high degree of ethnic heterogeneity. Large-scale genome-wide association (GWA) analyses of adult height in Europeans have identified nearly 180 genetic loci. A recent study showed high replicability of results from Europeans-based GWA studies in Asians; however, population-specific loci may exist due to distinct linkage disequilibrium patterns. We carried out a GWA meta-analysis in 93,926 individuals from East Asia. We identified 98 loci, including 17 novel and 81 previously reported loci, associated with height at P<5¡Á10(-8), together explaining 8.89% of phenotypic variance. Among the newly identified variants, ten are commonly distributed (MAF>5%) in Europeans, with comparable frequencies with in Asians; and seven SNPs are with low frequency (MAF<5%) in Europeans. In addition, our data suggest that novel biological pathway, such as the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family is involved in regulation of height. The findings from this study considerably expand our knowledge of the genetic architecture of human height in Asians. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
    Human Molecular Genetics 11/2014; · 6.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Enteric fever affects more than 25 million people annually and results from systemic infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi or Paratyphi pathovars A, B or C(1). We conducted a genome-wide association study of 432 individuals with blood culture-confirmed enteric fever and 2,011 controls from Vietnam. We observed strong association at rs7765379 (odds ratio (OR) for the minor allele = 0.18, P = 4.5 × 10(-10)), a marker mapping to the HLA class II region, in proximity to HLA-DQB1 and HLA-DRB1. We replicated this association in 595 enteric fever cases and 386 controls from Nepal and also in a second independent collection of 151 cases and 668 controls from Vietnam. Imputation-based fine-mapping across the extended MHC region showed that the classical HLA-DRB1*04:05 allele (OR = 0.14, P = 2.60 × 10(-11)) could entirely explain the association at rs7765379, thus implicating HLA-DRB1 as a major contributor to resistance against enteric fever, presumably through antigen presentation.
    Nature genetics. 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: To identify genetic variants associated with refractive astigmatism in the general population, meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies were performed for: White Europeans aged at least 25 years (20 cohorts, N = 31,968); Asian subjects aged at least 25 years (7 cohorts, N = 9,295); White Europeans aged <25 years (4 cohorts, N = 5,640); and all independent individuals from the above three samples combined with a sample of Chinese subjects aged <25 years (N = 45,931). Participants were classified as cases with refractive astigmatism if the average cylinder power in their two eyes was at least 1.00 diopter and as controls otherwise. Genome-wide association analysis was carried out for each cohort separately using logistic regression. Meta-analysis was conducted using a fixed effects model. In the older European group the most strongly associated marker was downstream of the neurexin-1 (NRXN1) gene (rs1401327, P = 3.92E-8). No other region reached genome-wide significance, and association signals were lower for the younger European group and Asian group. In the meta-analysis of all cohorts, no marker reached genome-wide significance: The most strongly associated regions were, NRXN1 (rs1401327, P = 2.93E-07), TOX (rs7823467, P = 3.47E-07) and LINC00340 (rs12212674, P = 1.49E-06). For 34 markers identified in prior GWAS for spherical equivalent refractive error, the beta coefficients for genotype versus spherical equivalent, and genotype versus refractive astigmatism, were highly correlated (r = -0.59, P = 2.10E-04). This work revealed no consistent or strong genetic signals for refractive astigmatism; however, the TOX gene region previously identified in GWAS for spherical equivalent refractive error was the second most strongly associated region. Analysis of additional markers provided evidence supporting widespread genetic co-susceptibility for spherical and astigmatic refractive errors.
    Hum Genet. 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: To examine the impact of glaucoma and visual acuity (VA) and visual field (VF) losses on psychosocial functioning (PF). Cross-sectional study. We compared PF between 192 participants with bilateral glaucoma with VA or VF losses and 40 controls from a tertiary eye hospital clinic in Singapore. Glaucoma was defined using the Hodapp-Anderson-Parish criteria. Four psychosocial outcomes of the Glaucoma Quality of Life 36 questionnaire were psychometrically assessed using Rasch analysis. Multivariate regression was performed to determine the independent impact of glaucoma and VA and VF losses on PF. The impact of VA and VF on PF were evaluated by restricted cubic spline analysis. Anxiety, self-image, psychological well-being, and confidence in health care. The mean age of participants was 66.2±11.0 years, and 63% were male. In the better eye, VA and mean deviation were Snellen 20/25 and -8.89±6.52 dB, respectively. In multivariate models, glaucoma patients had 63.0% greater anxiety (95% confidence interval [CI], -66.0% to -61.2%; P < 0.001), 71.0% lower self-image (95% CI, -74.1% to -68.5%; P < 0.001), 38.3% less psychological well-being (95% CI, -37.4% to -39.0%; P < 0.001), and 32.4% reduced confidence in health care than patients without glaucoma. The worst VA and VF categories had the most reduced PF (range, 26.0%-81.5%; P < 0.001 for all associations) compared with controls. With worsening VA, there was a linear increase in anxiety (P = 0.009) and decrease in self-image (P = 0.005). With worsening VF from 0 to -12.1 dB (P = 0.003), anxiety increased before plateauing. Self-image decreased as VF worsened from 0 to -10 dB (P < 0.001), and confidence in health care decreased when VF worsened from 0 to -9.3 dB (P = 0.008). However, self-image and confidence in health care actually improved at greater levels of VF loss beyond these thresholds. Glaucoma negatively affects PF. Early stage glaucoma with mild VF loss adversely affects anxiety, self-image, and confidence in health care. As VA worsens in advanced glaucoma, anxiety further increases and self-image deteriorates. Ophthalmologists and glaucoma patients need to be aware that both VA and VF losses at different stages of glaucoma negatively impact PF. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Ophthalmology 11/2014; · 6.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose:To examine the associations between iris surface features with anterior chamber angle width in Asian eyes. Methods:In this prospective cross-sectional study, we recruited 600 subjects from a large population-based study, the Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases (SEED) study. We obtained standardized digital slit-lamp iris photographs and graded the iris crypts (by number and size), furrows (by number and circumferential extent), and color (higher grade denoting darker iris). Vertical and horizontal cross-sections of anterior chamber were imaged using anterior segment optical coherence tomography. Angle opening distance (AOD), angle recess area (ARA), and trabecular-iris space area (TISA) were measured using customized software. Associations of the angle width with the iris surface features in the subject's right eyes were assessed using linear regression analysis. Results:464 eyes of the 464 subjects (mean age: 57.5±8.6 years) had complete and gradable data for crypts and color, and 423 eyes had gradable data for furrows. After adjustment for age, gender, ethnicity, pupil size, and corneal arcus, higher crypt grade was independently associated with wider AOD750 (β [change in angle width per grade higher] = 0.018, P=0.023), ARA750 (β=0.022, P=0.049) and TISA750 (β=0.011, P=0.019), and darker iris was associated narrower ARA750 (β=-0.025, P=0.044) and TISA750 (β=-0.013, P=0.011). Conclusions:Iris surface features, assessed and measured from slit lamp photographs, correlated well with anterior chamber angle width; irises with more crypts and lighter color were associated with wider angle. These findings may provide another imaging modality to assess angle closure risk based on iris surface features.
    Investigative Ophthalmology &amp Visual Science 10/2014; · 3.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose:To evaluate a novel software capable of automatically grading angle closure on EyeCamTM (Clarity Medical Systems, Pleasanton, CA) angle images in comparison to manual grading of images, with gonioscopy as the reference standard. Methods:In this hospital-based, prospective study, subjects underwent gonioscopy by a single observer, and EyeCam imaging by a different operator. The anterior chamber angle in a quadrant was classified as closed if the posterior trabecular meshwork could not be seen. An eye was classified as having angle closure if there were 2 or more quadrants of closure. Automated grading of the angle images was performed using customized software. Agreement between the methods was ascertained by kappa statistic and comparison of area under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC). Results:One hundred and forty subjects (140 eyes) were included, the majority of whom were Chinese (102/140, 72.9%) and females (72/140, 51.5%). Angle closure was detected in 61 eyes (43.6%) with gonioscopy in comparison to 59 eyes (42.1%, p=0.73) using manual grading and 67 eyes (47.9%, p=0.24) with automated grading of EyeCam images. The agreement for angle closure diagnosis between gonioscopy and both manual (k=0.88; 95% Confidence Interval (CI), 0.81-0.96) and automated grading of EyeCam images was good (k=0.74; 95% CI, 0.63-0.85). The AUC for detecting eyes with gonioscopic angle closure was comparable for manual and automated grading (AUC 0.974 vs 0.954, p = 0.31) of EyeCam image. Conclusions:Customized software for automated grading of EyeCam angle images was found to have good agreement with gonioscopy. Human observation of the EyeCam images may still be needed to avoid gross misclassification, especially in eyes with extensive angle closure.
    Investigative Ophthalmology &amp Visual Science 10/2014; · 3.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To test the association between the CTG18.1 trinucleotide repeat expansion of TCF4 gene and Fuchs' endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD) in a Chinese population. Methods: The CTG18.1 trinucleotide repeat polymorphism was genotyped using short tandem repeat (STR) and triplet repeat primed polymerase chain reaction (TP-PCR) assays in 57 Chinese subjects with FECD and 121 controls. Statistical association of the expanded CTG18.1 allele and 18 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across TCF4 with FECD was evaluated. To investigate the linkage disequilibrium structure of the TCF4 region, haplotype analysis was performed on our study subjects and compared to genotyping data of 97 Han Chinese and 85 Caucasians in the 1000 Genomes Project. Results: The expanded CTG18.1 allele was associated with FECD (P = 4.7 X 10-14) with the odds ratio of each copy of the expanded allele estimated to be 66.5 (95% confidence interval: 12.6-350.1). Five TCF4 SNPs showed association with FECD at a nominal level (P < 5.0 X 10-2); however, conditional on the expanded CTG18.1 polymorphism, none of the SNPs showed association with FECD. The only haplotype associated with the disease was the one with the expansion at the CTG18.1 locus. Conclusions: Trans-ethnic replication of the association between the CTG18.1 repeat expansion in the TCF4 gene and FECD suggests it a common, causal variant shared in Eurasian populations conferring significant risk for the development of FECD. Our data suggests that the expanded CTG18.1 allele is the main, if not sole, causal variant at this gene locus in Chinese.
    Investigative Ophthalmology &amp Visual Science 10/2014; · 3.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose To compare anterior segment parameters in Chinese and Japanese subjects using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (ASOCT) and to determine if the associations between these parameters and angle closure vary between the two ethnic groups.Methods We conducted a case-control study among 117 Japanese and 102 Chinese patients with primary angle closure (PAC) or primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG); and 117 Japanese and 176 Chinese controls. All participants underwent A-scan biometry and ASOCT imaging (Visante, Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, Ca). ASOCT-derived biometric parameters were compared between groups. Multivariate analysis was performed to determine predictors of angle opening distance at 750µm from the scleral spur (AOD750).Results Japanese were older (p<0.001) and consisted of more females (p<0.001). Age and gender adjusted analysis of covariance showed that Japanese eyes with angle closure had a significantly shallower anterior chamber depth (p=0.015), shorter axial length (p<0.001), greater lens thickness (p<0.001), lens vault (LV) (p=0.001) and iris curvature (I-Curv) (p<0.001), and a smaller anterior chamber area (p=0.044) and volume (p=0.028); but no significant difference was noted for anterior chamber width (ACW). In Japanese, the predictors of AOD750 were LV (p=0.004), ACW (p=0.049) and ICurv (p=0.017); in Chinese, only the LV (p<0.001) was a determinant factor.Conclusion Japanese eyes with angle closure were smaller, with thicker lenses. LV is an important factor for angle closure in both races. These results suggest differing mechanisms of angle closure pathogenesis between the two ethnic groups.
    Acta ophthalmologica 09/2014; 92(s253). · 2.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We performed a genome-wide association study for primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) in 1,007 cases with high-pressure glaucoma (HPG) and 1,009 controls from southern China. We observed genome-wide significant association at multiple SNPs near ABCA1 at 9q31.1 (rs2487032; P = 1.66 × 10(-8)) and suggestive evidence of association in PMM2 at 16p13.2 (rs3785176; P = 3.18 × 10(-6)). We replicated these findings in a set of 525 HPG cases and 912 controls from Singapore and a further set of 1,374 POAG cases and 4,053 controls from China. We observed genome-wide significant association with more than one SNP at the two loci (P = 2.79 × 10(-19) for rs2487032 representing ABCA1 and P = 5.77 × 10(-10) for rs3785176 representing PMM2). Both ABCA1 and PMM2 are expressed in the trabecular meshwork, optic nerve and other ocular tissues. In addition, ABCA1 is highly expressed in the ganglion cell layer of the retina, a finding consistent with it having a role in the development of glaucoma.
    Nature Genetics 08/2014; · 29.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is an important risk factor in developing glaucoma, and variability in IOP might herald glaucomatous development or progression. We report the results of a genome-wide association study meta-analysis of 18 population cohorts from the International Glaucoma Genetics Consortium (IGGC), comprising 35,296 multi-ancestry participants for IOP. We confirm genetic association of known loci for IOP and primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and identify four new IOP-associated loci located on chromosome 3q25.31 within the FNDC3B gene (P = 4.19 × 10(-8) for rs6445055), two on chromosome 9 (P = 2.80 × 10(-11) for rs2472493 near ABCA1 and P = 6.39 × 10(-11) for rs8176693 within ABO) and one on chromosome 11p11.2 (best P = 1.04 × 10(-11) for rs747782). Separate meta-analyses of 4 independent POAG cohorts, totaling 4,284 cases and 95,560 controls, showed that 3 of these loci for IOP were also associated with POAG.
    Nature Genetics 08/2014; · 29.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Optic cup localization/segmentation has attracted much attention from medical imaging researchers, since it is the primary image component clinically used for identifying glaucoma, which is a leading cause of blindness. In this work, we present an optic cup localization framework based on local patch reconstruction, motivated by the great success achieved by reconstruction approaches in many computer vision applications recently. Two types of local patches, i.e. grids and superpixels are used to show the variety, generalization ability and robustness of the proposed framework. Tested on the ORIGA clinical dataset, which comprises of 325 fundus images from a population-based study, both implementations under the proposed frameworks achieved higher accuracy than the state-of-the-art techniques.
    08/2014; 2014:5418-21.
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    ABSTRACT: To compare the intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering efficacy and safety of brinzolamide 1% and brimonidine 0.2% fixed combination (BBFC) with that of brinzolamide 1% or brimonidine 0.2% monotherapy, all dosed 2 times per day (BID).
    Ophthalmology 07/2014; · 6.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of a novel biometric parameter, relative lens vault (LV), with primary angle-closure (PAC) and primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG).
    BMC Ophthalmology 07/2014; 14(1):93. · 1.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To describe the corneal and anterior segment determinants of posterior corneal arc length (PCAL) and posterior corneal curvature (PCC).
    PLoS ONE 07/2014; 9(7):e101483. · 3.53 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

6k Citations
1,938.21 Total Impact Points


  • 2006–2014
    • Singapore Eye Research Institute
      Tumasik, Singapore
    • Johns Hopkins Medicine
      • Wilmer Eye Institute
      Baltimore, MD, United States
  • 2002–2014
    • Singapore National Eye Centre
      Tumasik, Singapore
  • 2013
    • Duke University Medical Center
      Durham, North Carolina, United States
    • Queensland Institute of Medical Research
      Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
    • Erasmus MC
      Rotterdam, South Holland, Netherlands
  • 2011–2013
    • Nanyang Technological University
      • School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering
      Tumasik, Singapore
    • Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School Singapore
      Tumasik, Singapore
    • Genome Institute of Singapore
      Tumasik, Singapore
    • Universidade Federal do Paraná
      • Centro de Visão
      Curitiba, Estado do Parana, Brazil
    • National University Health System
    • Johns Hopkins University
      • Wilmer Eye Institute
      Baltimore, MD, United States
    • Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary
      • Department of Ophthalmology
      Boston, MA, United States
    • West Virginia University
      • Department of Community Medicine
      Morgantown, WV, United States
  • 2012
    • Sun Yat-Sen University
      • State Key Laboratory of Oncology
      Guangzhou, Guangdong Sheng, China
    • University of Sydney
      • Centre for Vision Research
      Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
  • 2011–2012
    • Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2010–2011
    • Institute for Infocomm Research
      Tumasik, Singapore
    • Singapore Health Services
      Tumasik, Singapore
    • Government of the People's Republic of China
      Peping, Beijing, China
  • 2009–2011
    • University of Melbourne
      • Department of Ophthalmology
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    • University of Rome Tor Vergata
      Roma, Latium, Italy
  • 2008–2011
    • University of Medicine 1, Yangon
      Yangon, Yangon, Myanmar
    • University of Adelaide
      • South Australian Institute of Ophthalmology
      Adelaide, South Australia, Australia
    • Miyazaki University
      • Department of Ophtalmology
      Миядзаки, Miyazaki, Japan
    • Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  • 2002–2011
    • University College London
      • Institute of Ophthalmology
      London, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 1999–2011
    • National University of Singapore
      • • Department of Statistics and Applied Probability
      • • Singapore Eye Research Institute
      • • Department of Ophthalmology
      • • Centre for Molecular Epidemiology
      Singapore, Singapore
  • 2003–2009
    • Moorfields Eye Hospital NHS Foundation Trust
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 1996–2009
    • Tan Tock Seng Hospital
      • Department of Ophthalmology
      Tumasik, Singapore
  • 2007–2008
    • South Australian Institute of Ophthalmology
      Tarndarnya, South Australia, Australia
    • University of Maryland, Baltimore
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States