Tin Aung

Singapore National Eye Centre, Tumasik, Singapore

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Publications (421)1871.17 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We performed a genome-wide association study for primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) in 1,007 cases with high-pressure glaucoma (HPG) and 1,009 controls from southern China. We observed genome-wide significant association at multiple SNPs near ABCA1 at 9q31.1 (rs2487032; P = 1.66 × 10(-8)) and suggestive evidence of association in PMM2 at 16p13.2 (rs3785176; P = 3.18 × 10(-6)). We replicated these findings in a set of 525 HPG cases and 912 controls from Singapore and a further set of 1,374 POAG cases and 4,053 controls from China. We observed genome-wide significant association with more than one SNP at the two loci (P = 2.79 × 10(-19) for rs2487032 representing ABCA1 and P = 5.77 × 10(-10) for rs3785176 representing PMM2). Both ABCA1 and PMM2 are expressed in the trabecular meshwork, optic nerve and other ocular tissues. In addition, ABCA1 is highly expressed in the ganglion cell layer of the retina, a finding consistent with it having a role in the development of glaucoma.
    Nature genetics. 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: To compare the intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering efficacy and safety of brinzolamide 1% and brimonidine 0.2% fixed combination (BBFC) with that of brinzolamide 1% or brimonidine 0.2% monotherapy, all dosed 2 times per day (BID).
    Ophthalmology 07/2014; · 5.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of a novel biometric parameter, relative lens vault (LV), with primary angle-closure (PAC) and primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG).
    BMC Ophthalmology 07/2014; 14(1):93. · 1.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Glaucoma is the leading cause of global irreversible blindness. Present estimates of global glaucoma prevalence are not up-to-date and focused mainly on European ancestry populations. We systematically examined the global prevalence of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG), and projected the number of affected people in 2020 and 2040.
    Ophthalmology 06/2014; · 5.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Corneal curvature measures the steepness of the cornea and is an important parameter for clinically diseases such as astigmatism and myopia. Despite the high heritability of corneal curvature, only two associated genes have been discovered to date. We performed a three-stage genome-wide association study meta-analysis in 12,660 Asian individuals. Our Stage 1 was done in multi-ethnic cohorts comprising 7,440 individuals, followed by a Stage 2 replication in 2,473 Chinese and Stage 3 in 2,747 Japanese. The SNP array genotype data were imputed up to the 1000 Genomes Project Phase 1 cosmopolitan panel. The SNP association with the radii of corneal curvature was investigated in the linear regression model with the adjustment of age, gender, and principal components. In addition to the known genes, MTOR (also known as FRAP1) and PDGFRA, we discovered two novel genes associated with corneal curvature: CMPK1 (rs17103186, P=3.3 x 10(-12)) and RBP3 (rs11204213 [Val884Met], P=1.1 x 10(-13)). The missense RBP3 SNP, rs11204213, was also associated with axial length (P=4.2 x 10(-6)) and had larger effects on both corneal curvature and axial length compared to other SNPs. The index SNPs at the four indicated loci explained 1.9% of corneal curvature variance across the Stages 1 and 2 cohorts, while 33.8% of corneal curvature variance was explained by the genome-wide imputation data. We identified two novel genes influencing corneal curvature, which are related to either corneal shape or eye size. This study provides additional insights into genetic architecture of corneal shape.
    Human Molecular Genetics 06/2014; · 7.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Age-related cataract is a leading cause of blindness worldwide, especially in developing countries where access to cataract surgery remains limited. Previous linkage and candidate gene studies suggested genetic influences on age-related nuclear cataract but few genetic markers have been identified thus far. We conducted genome-wide association studies on 4,569 Asians (including 2,369 Malays and 2,200 Indians), and replicated our analysis in 2,481 Chinese from two independent cohorts (1,768 Chinese in Singapore and 803 Chinese in Beijing). We confirmed two genome-wide significant loci for nuclear cataract in the combined meta-analysis of four cohorts (n=7,140). The first locus was at chromosome 3q25.31 in KCNAB1 (rs7615568, fixed-effect Pmeta=2.30 x 10(-8); random-effect Pmeta=1.08 x 10(-8)). The second locus was at chromosome 21 in the proximity of CRYAA (rs11911275, fixed-effect Pmeta=2.77×10(-8); random-effect Pmeta=1.98 x 10(-9)), a major protein component of eye lens. The findings were further supported by up-regulation and down-regulation of KCNAB1 and CRYAA in human lens capsule, respectively, as the severity of nuclear cataract increases. The results offer additional insights into the pathogenesis of nuclear cataract in Asians.
    Human Molecular Genetics 06/2014; · 7.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although age-dependent effects on blood pressure (BP) have been reported, they have not been systematically investigated in large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWASs). We leveraged the infrastructure of three well-established consortia (CHARGE, GBPgen, and ICBP) and a nonstandard approach (age stratification and metaregression) to conduct a genome-wide search of common variants with age-dependent effects on systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP), mean arterial (MAP), and pulse (PP) pressure. In a two-staged design using 99,241 individuals of European ancestry, we identified 20 genome-wide significant (p ≤ 5 × 10(-8)) loci by using joint tests of the SNP main effect and SNP-age interaction. Nine of the significant loci demonstrated nominal evidence of age-dependent effects on BP by tests of the interactions alone. Index SNPs in the EHBP1L1 (DBP and MAP), CASZ1 (SBP and MAP), and GOSR2 (PP) loci exhibited the largest age interactions, with opposite directions of effect in the young versus the old. The changes in the genetic effects over time were small but nonnegligible (up to 1.58 mm Hg over 60 years). The EHBP1L1 locus was discovered through gene-age interactions only in whites but had DBP main effects replicated (p = 8.3 × 10(-4)) in 8,682 Asians from Singapore, indicating potential interethnic heterogeneity. A secondary analysis revealed 22 loci with evidence of age-specific effects (e.g., only in 20 to 29-year-olds). Age can be used to select samples with larger genetic effect sizes and more homogenous phenotypes, which may increase statistical power. Age-dependent effects identified through novel statistical approaches can provide insight into the biology and temporal regulation underlying BP associations.
    The American Journal of Human Genetics 06/2014; · 11.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the ethnic differences in the distribution of intraocular pressure (IOP) and central corneal thickness (CCT) in a multi-ethnic Asian population by self-reported ethnicity and genetic ancestry.
    Ophthalmology 06/2014; · 5.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To examine the reliability of inexperienced observers in plotting optic disc contours on Heidelberg retinal tomography images before and after training.
    Canadian journal of ophthalmology. Journal canadien d'ophtalmologie. 06/2014; 49(3):249-55.
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    ABSTRACT: ecent genetic association studies have identified 55 genetic loci associated with obesity or body mass index (BMI). The vast majority, 51 loci, however, were identified in European-ancestry populations. We conducted a meta-analysis of associations between BMI and approximately 2.5 million genotyped or imputed SNPs among 86 757 individuals of Asian ancestry, followed by in silico and de novo replication among 7488 to 47 352 additional Asian-ancestry individuals. We identified four novel BMI-associated loci near the KCNQ1 (rs2237892, P=9.29×10-13), ALDH2/MYL2 (rs671, P=3.40×10-11; rs12229654, P=4.56×10-9), ITIH4 (rs2535633, P=1.77×10-10), and NT5C2 (rs11191580, P=3.83×10-8) genes. The association of BMI with rs2237892, rs671, and rs12229654 was significantly stronger among men than among women. Of the 51 BMI-associated loci initially identified in European-ancestry populations, we confirmed 8 loci at the genome-wide significance level (P<5.0×10-8) and an additional 14 at P<1.0×10-3 with the same direction of effect as reported previously. Findings from this analysis expand our knowledge of the genetic basis of obesity.
    Human molecular genetics. 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: To determine longitudinal changes in angle configuration in the eyes of primary angle-closure suspects (PACS) treated by laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI) and in untreated fellow eyes.
    Ophthalmology 05/2014; · 5.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose:The recently identified primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) susceptibility gene, Pleckstrin homology domain containing, family A member 7's (PLEKHA7) role in PACG is unknown. PLEKHA7 associates with apical junctional complexes (AJCs) and is thus implicated in paracellular fluid regulation. We aimed to determine PLEKHA7's localization in the eye and its association with AJCs to elucidate its potential role in PACG. Methods:Total RNA from ocular tissues was isolated and analyzed by real-time PCR. Frozen and paraffin embedded human globes were sectioned and used for immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence analysis. Results:Specific PLEKHA7 expression was found in the muscles, vascular endothelium and epithelium of the iris, ciliary body and ciliary processes, trabecular meshwork, and choroid. PLEKHA7 expression in musculature and vascular endothelium was confirmed with smooth muscle marker, SMA, and endothelium marker, PECAM-1, respectively. At the above sites, PLEKHA7 co-localization was seen with adherens junction markers (E-cadherin and β-catenin) and tight junction markers (ZO-1). Conclusions:Specific localization of PLEKHA7 was found within PACG related structures (iris, ciliary body and choroid) and blood aqueous barrier (BAB) structures (posterior iris epithelium, non-pigmented ciliary epithelium, iris and ciliary body microvasculature). The association of PLEKHA7 with AJCs in the eye suggests a potential role for PLEKHA7 in PACG via fluidic regulation. Novel expression of PLEKHA7 was also seen in the ocular smooth muscles and vascular endothelia.
    Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 05/2014; · 3.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess variations in the iridocorneal angle width and iris volume in Chinese subjects using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT). Consecutive subjects, aged 40-80 years, with no previous ophthalmic problems were recruited from a population-based study of Chinese Singaporeans. All subjects underwent 360° SS-OCT (SS-1000 CASIA, Tomey Corporation, Nagoya, Japan) angle imaging and gonioscopy in one randomly selected eye in the dark. For each eye, 16 frames (11.25° apart) were selected for analysis from 128 cross-sectional images, and measurements of the trabecular iris space area 750 μm from the scleral spur (TISA750) and iris volume were made for each image. The measurements from four consecutive frames were further averaged as a sector of 45°. Sector-wise angle width and quadrant-wise iris volume were analyzed. Two hundred and twelve subjects (90 with closed-angles) were examined. The majority of the subjects were female (70.7 %) with mean age 61 (±8.9) years. The TISA750 (mm(2)) of superior [0.101 (0.09)], inferior [0.105 (0.09)], superior-nasal [0.111 (0.09)] and superior-temporal [0.117 (0.09)] sectors were smaller compared with other sectors (P < 0.05). The nasal iris volume (mm(3)) was the smallest compared with other quadrants for the entire cohort [nasal 8.18 (1.2) < inferior 9.13 (1.3) < temporal 9.16 (1.2) < superior 9.33 (1.3), P < 0.001], as well as for open- and closed-angle groups. The irido-corneal angle was narrower in the superior, inferior, superior-nasal and superior-temporal sectors compared with other sectors. Iris volume in the nasal quadrant was the smallest compared with the other quadrants.
    Albrecht von Graæes Archiv für Ophthalmologie 04/2014; · 1.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective/Purpose: To evaluate the changes in ocular parameters, choroid thickness (CT), intra-ocular pressure (IOP) and serum osmolality before and after the water drinking test (WDT), comparing between fellow eyes of acute primary angle closure attacks (FE-APAC) and primary angle closureglaucoma (PACG) eyes. Materials/Patients: A total of 38 eyes from 38 patients including 21 FE-APAC and 17 PACG, were evaluated. Methods: All participants underwent gonioscopy, IOP measurement, A-scan biometry (US-800; Nidek Co Ltd, Tokyo, Japan), spectral domain-optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), anterior segment-optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) and osmolality measurements at baseline, 30 and 60 minutes after consumption of at least 10ml/kg of water. CT was measured from SD-OCT images. Axial length (AL), anterior chamber depth (ACD) and lens thickness (LT) measurements were obtained from the A-scan biometry. AS-OCT parameters measured by customised software include angle opening distance (AOD750), trabecular-iris space area (TISA750), anterior chamber depth, width, area and volume (ACD, ACW, ACA, ACV). An appropriate Bonferroni correction (0.05/3=0.017) was applied to correct for the number of time points evaluated for the within-group analysis. Results and Conclusion: The mean age �standard deviation (SD) of the subjects was 62.8�8.6 years and 21 (55.3%) were females. At baseline, subjects with FEAPAC had significantly shallower ACD (p=0.04), shorter AL (p=0.02), smaller CDR (p<0.001), smaller ACA and ACV (p=0.03). There were no differences in LT and other AS-OCT parameters. Serum osmolality was significantly lower (p<0.001) compared to those with PACG eyes. CT was not significantly different between the two groups (p=0.56). At 30 minutes after the WDT, there was a significant increase in IOP and decrease in serum osmolality in both groups (p<0.001) while significant increase in IOP at 60 minutes was noted only in the PACG group (p<0.001). PACG eyes experienced significantly higher increase in IOP (p=0.04) and greater decrease in serum osmolality compared to FE-APAC (p=0.03). CT increased significantly more in FE-APAC compared to PACG eyes at 30 minutes (10.6�33.1 vs -14.9�27.3; p=0.01), but not at 60 minutes (p=0.13). No significant differences in the AS-OCT parameters were noted either within or between the 2 groups at 30 and 60 minutes (p>0.017 for all). A significant rise in IOP and reduction of serum osmolality was demonstrated after the WDT suggesting that osmotic alterations may explain the elevation in IOP. Significant differences in the CT were noted in the response to the WDT between FE-APAC and PACG.
    World Ophthalmology Congress 2014 Tokyo; 04/2014
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    ABSTRACT: Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C) is used as a measure of glycemic control and also as a diagnostic criterion for diabetes mellitus. To discover novel loci harbouring common variants associated with HbA1C in East Asians, we conducted a meta-analysis of 13 genome wide association studies (N=21,026). We replicated our findings in 3 additional studies comprising 11,576 individuals of East Asian ancestry. 10 variants showed associations that reached genome wide significance in the discovery dataset of which 9 [4 novel variants at TMEM79 (P-value 1.3 × 10(-23)), HBS1L/MYB (8.5 × 10(-15)), MYO9B (9.0 × 10(-12)) and CYBA (1.1 × 10(-8)) as well as 5 variants at loci that had been previously identified (CDKAL1, G6PC2/ABCB11, GCK, ANK1, and FN3K)] showed consistent evidence of association in replication datasets. These variants explained 1.76% of the variance in HbA1C. Several of these variants (TMEM79, HBS1L/MYB, CYBA, MYO9B, ANK1, and FN3K) showed no association with either blood glucose or type 2 diabetes. Amongst individuals with non-diabetic levels of fasting glucose (<7.0 mmol/l) but elevated (>=6.5%) HbA1c, 36.1% had HbA1C<6.5% after adjustment for these 6 variants. . Our East Asian GWAS meta-analysis has identified novel variants associated with HbA1C as well as demonstrating that the effects of known variants are largely transferable across ethnic groups. Variants affecting erythrocyte parameters rather than glucose metabolism may be relevant to the use of HbA1C for diagnosing diabetes in these populations.
    Diabetes 03/2014; · 7.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To further understanding of the genetic basis of type 2 diabetes (T2D) susceptibility, we aggregated published meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies (GWAS), including 26,488 cases and 83,964 controls of European, east Asian, south Asian and Mexican and Mexican American ancestry. We observed a significant excess in the directional consistency of T2D risk alleles across ancestry groups, even at SNPs demonstrating only weak evidence of association. By following up the strongest signals of association from the trans-ethnic meta-analysis in an additional 21,491 cases and 55,647 controls of European ancestry, we identified seven new T2D susceptibility loci. Furthermore, we observed considerable improvements in the fine-mapping resolution of common variant association signals at several T2D susceptibility loci. These observations highlight the benefits of trans-ethnic GWAS for the discovery and characterization of complex trait loci and emphasize an exciting opportunity to extend insight into the genetic architecture and pathogenesis of human diseases across populations of diverse ancestry.
    Nature Genetics 03/2014; 46(3):234-244. · 35.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Anterior chamber depth (ACD) is a key anatomical risk factor for primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG). We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on ACD to discover novel genes for PACG on a total of 5,308 population-based individuals of Asian descent. Genome-wide significant association was observed at a sequence variant within ABCC5 (rs1401999; per-allele effect size = -0.045 mm, P = 8.17×10-9). This locus was associated with an increase in risk of PACG in a separate case-control study of 4,276 PACG cases and 18,801 controls (per-allele OR = 1.13 [95% CI: 1.06-1.22], P = 0.00046). The association was strengthened when a sub-group of controls with open angles were included in the analysis (per-allele OR = 1.30, P = 7.45×10-9; 3,458 cases vs. 3,831 controls). Our findings suggest that the increase in PACG risk could in part be mediated by genetic sequence variants influencing anterior chamber dimensions.
    PLoS Genetics 03/2014; 10(3):e1004089. · 8.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the contribution of nonsynonymous coding variants of known familial and GWAS-linked genes for Parkinson's disease (PD) to PD risk in the East Asian population, we sequenced all the coding exons of 39 PD-related disease genes and evaluated the accumulation of rare nonsynonymous coding variants in 375 early-onset PD cases and 399 controls. We also genotyped 782 nonsynonymous coding variants of these genes in 710 late-onset PD cases and 9,046 population controls. Significant enrichment of LRRK2 variants was observed in both early- and late-onset PD (OR=1.58; 95% CI=1.29-1.93; P=8.05x10(-6)). Moderate enrichment was also observed in FGF20, MCCC1, GBA and ITGA8. Half of the rare variants anticipated to cause loss-of-function of these genes were present in healthy controls. Overall, nonsynonymous coding variants of known familial and GWAS-linked genes appear to make a limited contribution to PD risk, suggesting that clinical sequencing of these genes will provide limited information for risk prediction and molecular diagnosis.
    Human Molecular Genetics 02/2014; · 7.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Purpose: To examine the association of reproductive factors and major eye diseases, including glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration (AMD), diabetic retinopathy and cataract, in Asian women. Methods: The Singapore Malay Eye Study is a population-based cross-sectional epidemiological study which examined 3280 persons (78.7% response) of Malay ethnicity aged 40-80 years; 1704 were female. Information on reproductive factors and use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) was collected using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Glaucoma was defined according to the International Society for Geographical and Epidemiological Ophthalmology criteria. Retinal photographs were graded for AMD following the Wisconsin grading system, and diabetic retinopathy according to the modified Airlie House classification system. Cataract was graded according to the Lens Opacity Classification System III. Results: A total of 1176 women reported having experienced menopause by the time of the study with 1073 (91%) having a natural menopause, 88 (7.5%) a hysterectomy and 9 (0.8%) due to other reasons; HRT was used by 70 (6%) women. Women whose age at menopause was ≤52 years were 3.5 times more likely to have glaucoma (95% confidence interval, CI, 1.23-9.98, p value = 0.02) than those whose age at menopause was ≥53 years. Age of menopause was not associated with AMD (age-adjusted odds ratio, OR, 1.22, 95% CI 0.65-2.31), diabetic retinopathy (age-adjusted OR 1.01, 95% CI 0.66-1.54) or cataract (age-adjusted OR 1.38, 95% CI 0.95-2.00). Use of HRT was not associated with any of these eye diseases. Conclusion: Women who had menopause at a younger age were more likely to have glaucoma. This association needs to be confirmed in other studies.
    Ophthalmic epidemiology 02/2014; · 1.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose:Recently, three genetic susceptibility loci for primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) were identified: COL11A1 rs3753841, PCMTD1-ST18 rs1015213, and PLEKHA7 rs11024102. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether these single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) affect the phenotype of PACG patients. Methods:: A retrospective analysis was performed for 700 Singaporean Chinese PACG patients who had been genotyped. The associations between the three SNPs and clinical features related to severity of glaucoma were studied. For a subgroup of patients who had ≥5 years of follow-up and ≥5 reliable visual field (VF) tests, differences in glaucoma progression, as measured by the proportion of VF progression and blindness, were compared amongst groups with different genotypes. Results:The minor allele frequency at COL11A1 rs3753841, PCMTD1-ST18 rs1015213, and PLEKHA7 rs11024102 were 36%, 2.1% and 41.5%, respectively. There were no significant differences in gender, diagnosis (acute primary angle closure [APAC] versus non-APAC), age at diagnosis, laterality of glaucoma or need for filtration surgery amongst patients with different genotypes (all P>0.05). We also found no significant difference between genotypes and the intraocular pressure at presentation and other clinical characteristics at DNA collection (vertical cup-to-disc ratio, best corrected visual acuity, baseline VF mean deviation or pattern standard deviation). For the subgroup analysis, we did not observe significant associations between VF progression and the proportion of blindness with any of the PACG susceptibility loci. Conclusions:The three genetic susceptibility loci for PACG did not underlie any major phenotypic diversity in terms of disease severity or progression.
    Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 01/2014; · 3.43 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

5k Citations
1,871.17 Total Impact Points


  • 2000–2014
    • Singapore National Eye Centre
      Tumasik, Singapore
  • 2013
    • Duke University Medical Center
      Durham, North Carolina, United States
    • Queensland Institute of Medical Research
      Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
  • 2011–2013
    • Nanyang Technological University
      • School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering
      Tumasik, Singapore
    • Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School Singapore
      Tumasik, Singapore
    • National University Health System
    • Johns Hopkins University
      • Wilmer Eye Institute
      Baltimore, MD, United States
    • Genome Institute of Singapore
      Tumasik, Singapore
    • Universidade Federal do Paraná
      • Centro de Visão
      Curitiba, Estado do Parana, Brazil
    • West Virginia University
      • Department of Community Medicine
      Morgantown, WV, United States
    • Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary
      • Department of Ophthalmology
      Boston, MA, United States
  • 2006–2013
    • Singapore Eye Research Institute
      Tumasik, Singapore
    • Johns Hopkins Medicine
      • Wilmer Eye Institute
      Baltimore, MD, United States
  • 2012
    • University of Sydney
      • Centre for Vision Research
      Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
    • Sun Yat-Sen University
      • State Key Laboratory of Oncology
      Guangzhou, Guangdong Sheng, China
  • 2011–2012
    • Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2010–2011
    • Institute for Infocomm Research
      Tumasik, Singapore
    • Singapore Health Services
      Tumasik, Singapore
    • Government of the People's Republic of China
      Peping, Beijing, China
  • 2009–2011
    • University of Melbourne
      • Department of Ophthalmology
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    • University of Rome Tor Vergata
      Roma, Latium, Italy
  • 2008–2011
    • University of Medicine 1, Yangon
      Yangon, Yangon, Myanmar
    • Miyazaki University
      • Department of Ophtalmology
      Миядзаки, Miyazaki, Japan
    • University of Adelaide
      • South Australian Institute of Ophthalmology
      Adelaide, South Australia, Australia
    • Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  • 2002–2011
    • University College London
      • Institute of Ophthalmology
      London, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 1999–2011
    • National University of Singapore
      • • Department of Statistics and Applied Probability
      • • Singapore Eye Research Institute
      • • Department of Ophthalmology
      • • Centre for Molecular Epidemiology
      Singapore, Singapore
  • 2003–2009
    • Moorfields Eye Hospital NHS Foundation Trust
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 1996–2009
    • Tan Tock Seng Hospital
      • Department of Ophthalmology
      Tumasik, Singapore
  • 2007–2008
    • South Australian Institute of Ophthalmology
      Tarndarnya, South Australia, Australia
    • University of Maryland, Baltimore
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2004
    • National University (California)
      San Diego, California, United States