V G Johnson

University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD, United States

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Publications (10)32.85 Total impact

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    I H Mather, L J Jack, P J Madara, V G Johnson
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    ABSTRACT: The distribution of the glycoprotein, mucin 1 (MUC1), was determined in lactating guinea-pig mammary tissue at the resolution of the electron microscope. MUC1 was detected on the apical plasma membrane of secretory epithelial cells, the surface of secreted milk-fat globules, the limiting membranes of secretory vesicles containing casein micelles and in small vesicles and tubules in the apical cytoplasm. Some of the small MUC1-containing vesicles were associated with the surfaces of secretory vesicles and fat droplets in the cytoplasm. MUC1 was detected in much lower amounts on basal and lateral plasma membranes. By quantitative immunocytochemistry, the ratio of MUC1 on apical membranes and milk-fat globules to that on secretory vesicle membranes was estimated to be 9.2:1 (density of colloidal gold particles/microm membrane length). The ratio of MUC1 on apical membranes compared with basal/lateral membranes was approximately 99:1. The data are consistent with a mechanism for milk-fat secretion in which lipid globules acquire an envelope of membrane from the apical surface and possibly from small vesicles containing MUC1 in the cytoplasm. During established lactation, secretory vesicle membrane does not appear to contribute substantially to the milk-fat globule membrane, or to give rise in toto to the apical plasma membrane.
    Cell and Tissue Research 05/2001; 304(1):91-101. · 3.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A large acidic glycoprotein, PAS-I, was purified from the fat-globule membrane of guinea-pig milk. Threonine and serine accounted for over 30 mol% of the amino acids, and galactose, N-acetylgalactosamine, N-acetylglucosamine, mannose and sialic acid were the principal sugars detected. On a molar basis, sialic acid accounted for over 60% of the total sugar. Removal of sialic acid by treatment with neuraminidase revealed the presence of binding sites for peanut (Arachis hypogaea) agglutinin, a lectin specific for the sugar sequence beta-D-Gal-(beta 1----3)-D-GalNac (the T antigen). The distribution of PAS-I-related epitopes, defined by five monoclonal antibodies, was determined in the mammary gland and in other guinea-pig tissues. PAS-I was maximally expressed on the apical surfaces of secretory cells in lactating mammary tissue and was either absent, or present in much lower amounts, in the glands of virgin or pregnant animals. PAS-I epitopes were not detected in liver, heart, spleen, pancreas, ovary, uterus, lung or intestine, either by immunofluorescence microscopy or by immunoblotting techniques. Several of the PAS-I-specific antibodies bound to mucins of high Mr in human fat-globule membrane, and similarities and differences between PAS-I and the human mucins are discussed. PAS-I and epitopes of this glycoprotein will be useful as indicators of differentiation in mammary cells and of markers of the apical surface of these cells during lactation.
    Biochemical Journal 05/1988; 251(2):507-14. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The milk-fat-globule membrane (MFGM) was isolated from guinea-pig milk and the membrane-associated proteins and glycoproteins characterized by electrophoretic techniques. Major components of the membrane included PAS-I, a sialoglycoprotein of Mr greater than or equal to 200000, the redox enzyme xanthine oxidase and the glycoprotein, butyrophilin. Membrane preparations also contained two other glycoproteins, GP-80 and GP-55, of Mr 80000 and 55000, respectively. Comparison of guinea-pig xanthine oxidase and butyrophilin with proteins from bovine MFGM by peptide mapping procedures, showed that the two proteins in both species were similar, but not identical. GP-55 may also be related to glycoproteins of Mr 45000 and 48000 in the bovine membrane. The integral and peripheral components of guinea-pig MFGM were identified by treating membrane preparations with sodium carbonate solutions at high pH and by partitioning the membrane proteins in solutions of Triton X-114. By these criteria xanthine oxidase and GP-55 appeared to be peripheral components and GP-80 an integral protein of the membrane. PAS-I and butyrophilin displayed hydrophilic properties in Triton X-114 solutions, but could not be removed from membrane preparations with sodium carbonate. Possible reasons for these ambiguous data are discussed. The observed similarity between several of the proteins of guinea-pig and bovine MFGM implies that these proteins may have specific functions related to milk secretion in mammary tissue, e.g. in the budding of milk-fat globules or the exocytosis of milk protein and lactose at the apical surface.
    European Journal of Biochemistry 10/1985; 151(2):237-44. · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The milk-fat-globule membrane (MFGM) was isolated from guinea-pig milk and the membrane-associated proteins and glycoproteins characterized by electrophoretic techniques. Major components of the membrane included PAS-I, a sialoglycoprotein of Mr≥ 200000, the redox enzyme xanthine oxidase and the glycoprotein, butyrophilin. Membrane preparations also contained two other glycoproteins, GP-80 and GP-55, of Mr 80000 and 55000, respectively.Comparison of guinea-pig xanthine oxidase and butyrophilin with proteins from bovine MFGM by peptide mapping procedures, showed that the two proteins in both species were similar, but not identical. GP-55 may also be related to glycoproteins of Mr 45000 and 48000 in the bovine membrane.The integral and peripheral components of guinea-pig MFGM were identified by treating membrane preparations with sodium carbonate solutions at high pH and by partitioning the membrane proteins in solutions of Triton X-114. By these criteria xanthine oxidase and GP-55 appeared to be peripheral components and GP-80 an integral protein of the membrane. PAS-I and butyrophilin displayed hydrophilic properties in Triton X-114 solutions, but could not be removed from membrane preparations with sodium carbonate. Possible reasons for these ambiguous data are discussed.The observed similarity between several of the proteins of guinea-pig and bovine MFGM implies that these proteins may have specific functions related to milk secretion in mammary tissue, e.g. in the budding of milk-fat globules or the exocytosis of milk protein and lactose at the apical surface.
    European Journal of Biochemistry. 08/1985; 151(2):237 - 244.
  • V G Johnson, I H Mather
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    ABSTRACT: Monoclonal antibodies to the three major glycoproteins of guinea-pig milk-fat-globule membrane were isolated. The specificity of these antibodies was determined by solid-phase immunoassays and by immunoblotting and autoradiographic techniques after one- and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The antibodies bound to PAS-I, a sialoglycoprotein of Mr greater than or equal to 200 000 and the glycoproteins butyrophilin and GP-55, of Mr 63 000 and 55 000, respectively. Immunolocalization studies showed that all three proteins were highly concentrated in the apical pole of secretory-epithelial cells in mammary tissue during lactation. PAS-I, butyrophilin or GP-55, were not detected in either the basal cytoplasm of mammary epithelial cells or in myoepithelial cells, capillary endothelial cells or other cells found in the mammary gland. These proteins were either present in small amounts or were absent from mammary tissue taken in late pregnancy. The monoclonal antibodies characterized in this study will therefore be useful as probes for studies of the biogenesis of apical membrane proteins in mammary epithelial cells during lactation.
    Experimental Cell Research 06/1985; 158(1):144-58. · 3.56 Impact Factor
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    D E Greenwalt, V G Johnson, I H Mather
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    ABSTRACT: We recently described the tissue distribution of PAS IV (periodic acid/Schiff-positive Band IV), a hydrophobic glycoprotein isolated from bovine milk-fat-globule membrane [Greenwalt & Mather (1985) J. Cell Biol. 100, 397-408]. By using immunofluorescence techniques, PAS IV was detected in mammary epithelial cells, the bronchiolar epithelium of lung, and the capillary endothelium of several tissues, including heart, salivary gland, pancreas, spleen and intestine. In the present paper we describe the specificity of the antibodies used for these studies. Two monoclonal antibodies, E-1 and E-3, were shown by solid-phase immunoassay and immunoaffinity chromatography to be specific for PAS IV (of Mr 76000) in milk-fat-globule membrane and recognize a glycoprotein of slightly higher Mr (85000) in heart. Affinity-purified rabbit antibodies to PAS IV were also shown to recognize components of Mr 76000 and 85000 in fat-globule membrane and heart respectively, by using immunoblotting procedures after sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. Additionally, an immunoreactive protein in lung of Mr 85000 was detected. Despite these differences in molecular size, the fat-globule membrane and heart forms of PAS IV were shown to be very similar by peptide-mapping techniques. The possible significance of the expression of similar forms of PAS IV in both epithelial and capillary endothelial cells is briefly discussed.
    Biochemical Journal 05/1985; 228(1):233-40. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: With monoclonal antibody D-274, raised against guinea pig milk fat globule membrane, the distribution of mucinlike glycoproteins of Mrs greater than or equal to 400,000 was determined in benign fibrocystic disease and infiltrating duct carcinoma of the human breast. These glycoproteins, called collectively PAS-I, were detected in 19 out of 20 cases of benign fibrocystic disease and in at least 26 out of 47 cases of infiltrating duct carcinoma. PAS-I was concentrated on luminal surfaces of ducts and alveoli in morphologically differentiated regions of the tumors. In areas where the glandular nature of the tissue was less evident in infiltrating duct carcinoma, the PAS-I determinant recognized by antibody D-274 was present on irregular luminal surfaces and in the cytoplasm. There was a negative correlation between the short-term recurrence (less than 2 years) of infiltrating duct carcinoma and the detection of strong positive staining with antibody D-274. The results are discussed with reference to recent studies on PAS-I in human breast tissue using monoclonal antibodies raised against human milk fat globule membrane.
    American Journal Of Pathology 04/1985; 118(3):351-9. · 4.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Guinea-pig mammary tissue was perfused in vitro, radiolabelled with [35S]methionine and intracellular protein precursors of the milk-fat-globule membrane (FGM) recovered by immunoabsorption techniques. Labelled xanthine oxidase was solely detected in post-microsomal supernatants and butyrophilin in carbonate-washed membranes. A major glycoprotein (Gp 55), was initially present in a membrane-bound form, but after longer perfusion times a fraction of this protein was recovered in the post-microsomal supernatant. These results are discussed with reference to formation of the apically-derived FGM.
    Experimental Cell Research 04/1984; 151(1):277-82. · 3.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nine hybridomas secreting monoclonal antibody to proteins of bovine milk-fat-globule membrane were isolated. All nine cell lines continued to secrete monoclonal antibody after serial transfer in culture and after passage as solid tumours in Balb/cJ mice. Four of the cell lines secreted monoclonal antibody specific for xanthine oxidase, one of the major proteins of milk-fat-globule membrane.
    Biochemical Journal 07/1980; 188(3):925-8. · 4.65 Impact Factor
  • C S Nace, V G Johnson, I H Mather