Takayoshi Ohkubo

Teikyo University, Edo, Tōkyō, Japan

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Publications (484)2703.75 Total impact

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  • T Iwahori · H Ueshima · S Torii · Y Saito · A Fujiyoshi · T Ohkubo · K Miura
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    ABSTRACT: This study was done to clarify the optimal number and type of casual urine specimens required to estimate urinary sodium/potassium (Na/K) ratio in individuals with high blood pressure. A total of 74 individuals with high blood pressure, 43 treated and 31 untreated, were recruited from the Japanese general population. Urinary sodium, potassium and Na/K ratio were measured in both casual urine samples and 7-day 24-h urine samples and then analyzed by correlation and Bland-Altman analyses. Mean Na/K ratio from random casual urine samples on four or more days strongly correlated with the Na/K ratio of 7-day 24-h urine (r=0.80-0.87), which was similar to the correlation between 1 and 2-day 24-h urine and 7-day 24-h urine (r=0.75-0.89). The agreement quality for Na/K ratio of seven random casual urine for estimating the Na/K ratio of 7-day 24-h urine was good (bias: -0.26, limits of agreements: -1.53-1.01), and it was similar to that of 2-day 24-h urine for estimating 7-day 24-h values (bias: 0.07, limits of agreement: -1.03 to 1.18). Stratified analyses comparing individuals using antihypertensive medication and individuals not using antihypertensive medication showed similar results. Correlations of the means of casual urine sodium or potassium concentrations with 7-day 24-h sodium or potassium excretions were relatively weaker than those for Na/K ratio. The mean Na/K ratio of 4-7 random casual urine specimens on different days provides a good substitute for 1-2-day 24-h urinary Na/K ratio for individuals with high blood pressure.Journal of Human Hypertension advance online publication, 27 August 2015; doi:10.1038/jhh.2015.84.
    Journal of human hypertension 08/2015; DOI:10.1038/jhh.2015.84 · 2.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Parity has previously been reported to affect the difference in blood pressure (BP) measured in the office and at home, also known as the white-coat effect, during pregnancy. The objective of this study was to identify possible factors that cause the white-coat effect during pregnancy, focusing on parity. In total, 530 pregnant women (31.3±4.7 years old) who delivered at a maternal clinic were eligible for the study. The association between parity and the white-coat effect (clinic BP compared with home BP) was investigated for each trimester of pregnancy by multivariate analysis of covariance adjusted for age, body mass index, family history of hypertension and smoking habits. The magnitudes of the white-coat effect for systolic BP in the first, second and third trimesters were 4.1±9.8, 3.4±7.1 and 1.8±6.0 mm Hg, respectively and those for diastolic BP were 3.8±7.4, 1.6±5.8 and 2.4±4.9 mm Hg, respectively. Parity was significantly and negatively associated with the white-coat effect for systolic BP in the first trimester of pregnancy (nulliparous women: 5.07±0.61 mm Hg and multiparous women: 2.78±0.74 mm Hg, P=0.02) as well as for diastolic BP in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. Age, body mass index, family history of hypertension and smoking were not significantly associated with the white-coat effect in any trimester of pregnancy. Parity may have an influence on the white-coat effect in pregnancy; however, the observed effect, on average 1-2 mm Hg, was small.Hypertension Research advance online publication, 27 August 2015; doi:10.1038/hr.2015.97.
    Hypertension Research 08/2015; DOI:10.1038/hr.2015.97 · 2.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This appendix provides two supplementary figures and ten supplementary tables.
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    ABSTRACT: Background The Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013) aims to bring together all available epidemiological data using a coherent measurement framework, standardised estimation methods, and transparent data sources to enable comparisons of health loss over time and across causes, age–sex groups, and countries. The GBD can be used to generate summary measures such as disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) and healthy life expectancy (HALE) that make possible comparative assessments of broad epidemiological patterns across countries and time. These summary measures can also be used to quantify the component of variation in epidemiology that is related to sociodemographic development. Methods We used the published GBD 2013 data for age-specific mortality, years of life lost due to premature mortality (YLLs), and years lived with disability (YLDs) to calculate DALYs and HALE for 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010, and 2013 for 188 countries. We calculated HALE using the Sullivan method; 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs) represent uncertainty in age-specific death rates and YLDs per person for each country, age, sex, and year. We estimated DALYs for 306 causes for each country as the sum of YLLs and YLDs; 95% UIs represent uncertainty in YLL and YLD rates. We quantified patterns of the epidemiological transition with a composite indicator of sociodemographic status, which we constructed from income per person, average years of schooling after age 15 years, and the total fertility rate and mean age of the population. We applied hierarchical regression to DALY rates by cause across countries to decompose variance related to the sociodemographic status variable, country, and time. Findings Worldwide, from 1990 to 2013, life expectancy at birth rose by 6·2 years (95% UI 5·6–6·6), from 65·3 years (65·0–65·6) in 1990 to 71·5 years (71·0–71·9) in 2013, HALE at birth rose by 5·4 years (4·9–5·8), from 56·9 years (54·5–59·1) to 62·3 years (59·7–64·8), total DALYs fell by 3·6% (0·3–7·4), and age-standardised DALY rates per 100 000 people fell by 26·7% (24·6–29·1). For communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional disorders, global DALY numbers, crude rates, and age-standardised rates have all declined between 1990 and 2013, whereas for non–communicable diseases, global DALYs have been increasing, DALY rates have remained nearly constant, and age-standardised DALY rates declined during the same period. From 2005 to 2013, the number of DALYs increased for most specific non-communicable diseases, including cardiovascular diseases and neoplasms, in addition to dengue, food-borne trematodes, and leishmaniasis; DALYs decreased for nearly all other causes. By 2013, the five leading causes of DALYs were ischaemic heart disease, lower respiratory infections, cerebrovascular disease, low back and neck pain, and road injuries. Sociodemographic status explained more than 50% of the variance between countries and over time for diarrhoea, lower respiratory infections, and other common infectious diseases; maternal disorders; neonatal disorders; nutritional deficiencies; other communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional diseases; musculoskeletal disorders; and other non-communicable diseases. However, sociodemographic status explained less than 10% of the variance in DALY rates for cardiovascular diseases; chronic respiratory diseases; cirrhosis; diabetes, urogenital, blood, and endocrine diseases; unintentional injuries; and self-harm and interpersonal violence. Predictably, increased sociodemographic status was associated with a shift in burden from YLLs to YLDs, driven by declines in YLLs and increases in YLDs from musculoskeletal disorders, neurological disorders, and mental and substance use disorders. In most country-specific estimates, the increase in life expectancy was greater than that in HALE. Leading causes of DALYs are highly variable across countries. Interpretation Global health is improving. Population growth and ageing have driven up numbers of DALYs, but crude rates have remained relatively constant, showing that progress in health does not mean fewer demands on health systems. The notion of an epidemiological transition—in which increasing sociodemographic status brings structured change in disease burden—is useful, but there is tremendous variation in burden of disease that is not associated with sociodemographic status. This further underscores the need for country-specific assessments of DALYs and HALE to appropriately inform health policy decisions and attendant actions.
    The Lancet 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(15)61340-X · 45.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pulse wave velocity (PWV) is a simple and valid clinical method for assessing arterial stiffness. Coronary artery calcification (CAC) is an intermediate stage in the process leading to overt cardiovascular disease (CVD) and an established determinant of coro nary artery disease. This study aimed to examine the association between PWV and CAC in a population-based sample of Japanese men. This is a cross-sectional study of 986 randomly selected men aged 40-79 years from Shiga, Japan. CVD-free participants were examined from 2006 to 2008. Brachial-ankle PWV (baPWV) was measured using an automatic waveform analyzer. CAC was assessed using computed tomography. Agatston scores ≥ 10 were defined as the presence of CAC. Prevalence of CAC progressively increased with rising levels of baPWV: 20.6%, 41.7%, 56.3%, and 66.7% across baPWV quartiles <1378, 1378-1563, 1564-1849, and >1849 cm/s (P< 0.001 for trend). Associations remained significant after adjusting for age and other factors, including body mass index, systolic blood pressure, pulse rate, total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, hemoglobin A1c, drinking, smoking and exercise status, and the use of medication to treat hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes (P=0.042 for trend). The optimal cutoff level of baPWV to detect CAC was 1612 cm/s using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Arterial stiffness as defined by an elevated baPWV is associated with an increased prevalence of CAC in a general population-based setting among Japanese men.
    Journal of atherosclerosis and thrombosis 08/2015; DOI:10.5551/jat.30247 · 2.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To generate outcome-driven thresholds for home blood pressure (BP) in the elderly, we analyzed 375 octogenarians (60.3% women; 83.0 years [mean]) enrolled in the International Database on home BP in relation to cardiovascular outcome. Over 5.5 years (median), 155 participants died, 76 from cardiovascular causes, whereas 104, 55, 36, and 51 experienced a cardiovascular, cardiac, coronary, or cerebrovascular event, respectively. In 202 untreated participants, home diastolic in the lowest fifth of the distribution (≤65.1 mm Hg) compared with the multivariable-adjusted average risk was associated with increased risk of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity (hazard ratios [HRs], ≥1.96; P≤0.022), whereas the HR for cardiovascular mortality in the top fifth (≥82.0 mm Hg) was 0.37 (P=0.034). Among 173 participants treated for hypertension, the HR for total mortality in the lowest fifth of systolic home BP (<126.9 mm Hg) was 2.09 (P=0.020). In further analyses of home BP as continuous variable (per 1-SD increment), higher diastolic BP predicted lower cardiovascular mortality and morbidity and cardiac and coronary risk (HR≤0.65; P≤0.039) in untreated participants. In those treated, cardiovascular morbidity was curvilinearly associated with systolic home BP with nadir at 148.6 mm Hg and with a 1.45 HR (P=0.046) for a 1-SD decrease below this threshold. In conclusion, in untreated octogenarians, systolic home BP ≥152.4 and diastolic BP ≤65.1 mm Hg entails increased cardiovascular risk, whereas diastolic home BP ≥82 mm Hg minimizes risk. In those treated, systolic home BP <126.9 mm Hg was associated with increased total mortality with lowest risk at 148.6 mm Hg.
    Hypertension 07/2015; 66(4). DOI:10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.115.05800 · 6.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The prevalence of overweight (body mass index (BMI)=25.0-29.9 kg m(-)(2)) and obesity (⩾30.0 kg m(-)(2)) has been increasing over the last several decades in Japan. We examined trends of the impact of overweight and obesity on hypertension (systolic/diastolic blood pressure ⩾140/90 mm Hg or antihypertensive drugs use) using four national surveys in Japan, from which the participants were randomly sampled from the entire population. Study participants aged 30-79 years were selected for each survey (10 370 in 1980, 8005 in 1990, 5327 in 2000 and 2547 in 2010). The results showed that the impact of overweight and obesity on hypertension had increased significantly (P=0.040 and 0.006 in men and women, respectively). From 1980 to 2010, the multivariable-adjusted odds ratios for hypertension, comparing overweight and obesity with normal weight (BMI =18.5-24.9 kg m(-)(2)), went from 1.94 (95% confidence intervals: 1.64, 2.28) to 2.82 (2.07, 3.83) in men, and from 2.37 (2.05, 2.73) to 3.48 (2.57, 4.72) in women. Most of the association was observed in overweight participants, as only 3% of the Japanese were obese. In addition to the relationship between excessive BMI and other adverse health conditions, the rise in the association with hypertension increases the urgency in addressing weight control. We need to address the overweight and obesity epidemic.Hypertension Research advance online publication, 16 July 2015; doi:10.1038/hr.2015.81.
    Hypertension Research 07/2015; DOI:10.1038/hr.2015.81 · 2.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We previously demonstrated validation of the Comprehensive International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Core Set for Diabetes Mellitus (ICF-CS for DM) in patients with diabetic nephropathy (DMN). The objective of the present study was to identify differences in experience of physical and psychosocial problems between DMN patients with and without hemodialysis (HD), and diabetes patients without nephropathy using the ICF-CS for DM. A total of 302 diabetes outpatients (men, 68 %; mean age, 62 years) were interviewed using four components of the ICF-CS for DM including "Body functions", "Body structures", "Activities and participation", and "Environmental factors". The mean number of categories in which difficulty was experienced in the four components was significantly greater in DMN patients with HD followed by DMN patients without HD, and diabetes patients without nephropathy (23.9 vs. 18.0 vs. 13.1, respectively). Multivariate logistic regression models revealed that, compared with diabetes patients without nephropathy, diabetes patients with nephropathy were more likely to have difficulty with physical problems and social activities and participation. Among DMN patients, dialysis patients were found to have larger numbers of problems, and face difficulty with employment status after adjusting for sex, age, type, and duration of diabetes. The results of this study using the ICF-CS for DM identified the areas for improvement among physical and psychosocial problems in DMN patients with and without HD in contrast to diabetes patients without nephropathy.
    Clinical and Experimental Nephrology 07/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10157-015-1143-x · 2.02 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Hypertension 07/2015; 33(7):1492-3. DOI:10.1097/HJH.0000000000000608 · 4.72 Impact Factor
  • Atherosclerosis 07/2015; 241(1):e130. DOI:10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2015.04.450 · 3.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Up-to-date evidence about levels and trends in disease and injury incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability (YLDs) is an essential input into global, regional, and national health policies. In the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013), we estimated these quantities for acute and chronic diseases and injuries for 188 countries between 1990 and 2013. Methods Estimates were calculated for disease and injury incidence, prevalence, and YLDs using GBD 2010 methods with some important refinements. Results for incidence of acute disorders and prevalence of chronic disorders are new additions to the analysis. Key improvements include expansion to the cause and sequelae list, updated systematic reviews, use of detailed injury codes, improvements to the Bayesian meta-regression method (DisMod-MR), and use of severity splits for various causes. An index of data representativeness, showing data availability, was calculated for each cause and impairment during three periods globally and at the country level for 2013. In total, 35 620 distinct sources of data were used and documented to calculated estimates for 301 diseases and injuries and 2337 sequelae. The comorbidity simulation provides estimates for the number of sequelae, concurrently, by individuals by country, year, age, and sex. Disability weights were updated with the addition of new population-based survey data from four countries. Findings Disease and injury were highly prevalent; only a small fraction of individuals had no sequelae. Comorbidity rose substantially with age and in absolute terms from 1990 to 2013. Incidence of acute sequelae were predominantly infectious diseases and short-term injuries, with over 2 billion cases of upper respiratory infections and diarrhoeal disease episodes in 2013, with the notable exception of tooth pain due to permanent caries with more than 200 million incident cases in 2013. Conversely, leading chronic sequelae were largely attributable to non-communicable diseases, with prevalence estimates for asymptomatic permanent caries and tension-type headache of 2·4 billion and 1·6 billion, respectively. The distribution of the number of sequelae in populations varied widely across regions, with an expected relation between age and disease prevalence. YLDs for both sexes increased from 537·6 million in 1990 to 764·8 million in 2013 due to population growth and ageing, whereas the age-standardised rate decreased little from 114·87 per 1000 people to 110·31 per 1000 people between 1990 and 2013. Leading causes of YLDs included low back pain and major depressive disorder among the top ten causes of YLDs in every country. YLD rates per person, by major cause groups, indicated the main drivers of increases were due to musculoskeletal, mental, and substance use disorders, neurological disorders, and chronic respiratory diseases; however HIV/AIDS was a notable driver of increasing YLDs in sub-Saharan Africa. Also, the proportion of disability-adjusted life years due to YLDs increased globally from 21·1% in 1990 to 31·2% in 2013. Interpretation Ageing of the world's population is leading to a substantial increase in the numbers of individuals with sequelae of diseases and injuries. Rates of YLDs are declining much more slowly than mortality rates. The non-fatal dimensions of disease and injury will require more and more attention from health systems. The transition to non-fatal outcomes as the dominant source of burden of disease is occurring rapidly outside of sub-Saharan Africa. Our results can guide future health initiatives through examination of epidemiological trends and a better understanding of variation across countries.
    The Lancet 06/2015; 386(9995):743–800. DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(15)60692-4 · 45.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Figure appendix: Change in YLD rate from 1990 to 2013 for 188 countries and 21 regions (changes have been decomposed into 31 major cause groups and countries are ordered by the YLD rate in 1990).
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    ABSTRACT: This appendix provides further methodological detail, supplemental figures, and more detailed results for incidence, prevalence, and years of life lived with disability. The appendix is organised in broad sections following the structure of the main paper.
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    ABSTRACT: We aimed to evaluate the hypotensive effect and the time to attain the maximal antihypertensive effect (stabilization time) of 8 mg candesartan/6.25 mg hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) combination therapy (combination regimen) and therapy with an increased candesartan dose (12 mg; maximum dose regimen) using home blood pressure (BP) measurements. A prospective, multicenter, open-label, randomized, comparative trial was conducted. Essential hypertensive patients who failed to achieve adequate BP control (systolic BP (SBP) ⩽135 mm Hg) on 8 mg candesartan alone were randomized to two groups: the combination regimen (n=103) and the maximum dose regimen (n=103). Home morning SBP reduction at 8 weeks after randomization was 11.4±1.3 mm Hg in the combination regimen and 7.8±1.2 mm Hg in the maximum dose regimen. The combination regimen provided additional reduction of 4.0 mm Hg (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.8-7.2 mm Hg, P=0.01) in home morning SBP over the maximum dose regimen at 8 weeks after randomization. The maximal antihypertensive effect and stabilization time for home SBP were 9.4 mm Hg and 37.1 days (P<0.0001), respectively, with the combination regimen. The maximum dose regimen decreased home SBP with a very gentle slope, and estimated maximal effect and estimated stabilization time were not significant (P>0.2). The rate of achieving target BP (home morning SBP <135 mm Hg) was significantly higher with the combination regimen than with the maximum dose regimen (52.4 vs. 30.1%, P=0.002). In conclusion, changing from 8 mg candesartan to combination therapy was more effective in reducing home SBP and achieving goal BP more rapidly than increasing the candesartan dose.Hypertension Research advance online publication, 4 June 2015; doi:10.1038/hr.2015.64.
    Hypertension Research 06/2015; DOI:10.1038/hr.2015.64 · 2.66 Impact Factor
  • Article: PP.29.06
    Journal of Hypertension 06/2015; 33:e391. DOI:10.1097/01.hjh.0000468598.46564.85 · 4.72 Impact Factor
  • Article: PP.31.20
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the multi-year seasonal variation in home blood pressure (HBP) among hypertensive patients who were taking antihypertensive medication by applying model-based mathematical approach. Design and method: Hypertension Objective Treatment Based on Measurement by Electrical Devices of Blood Pressure (HOMED-BP) study was a randomized controlled trial to establish the long-term benefit in clinical practice based on self-measured HBP. In the present analysis, hypertensive patients with 52 or more points of weekly-averaged HBP after 1 year from randomization were chosen from the HOMED-BP database. Morning and the evening HBP were separately evaluated. Weekly-averaged systolic and diastolic HBPs were fitted into the following cosine function using nonlinear mixed effect model: HBP = HBP Variation + Other Effects + Intercept HBP Variation = (BPvar/2)*cos {(2[pi]/Tfreq*(W - Tmax)} where BPvar is the maximum-minimum difference in HBP in one cycle of the cosine curve (mmHg), Tfreq is the time requiring one cycle of HBP variation (week), and Tmax is the time when HBP reached for the maximum point at the first time (week) as constants. W denotes the time (week) and W 1-52 means Jan 1st to Dec 31st in the year when each patient was randomized. Other effects included the 2 terms proportional to the defined daily doses (DDD) and the elapsed time from randomization in the HOMED-BP study. Intercept was a constant showing the reference point of HBP variation. Results: From 3518 patients randomized in the HOMED-BP study, 1647 and 1284 eligible patients were selected for the morning and the evening HBP analysis, respectively, and the all cosine function models converged (p < 0.0001). The systolic/diastolic maximum-minimum differences, BPvar, in the morning HBP were 6.6/2.9 mmHg, and those in the evening were 5.5/2.7 mmHg. The time when HBP reached for the maximum point, Tmax, were within 2.6-3.4 weeks. Conclusions: The cosine-curve models appropriately demonstrated the seasonal variation in HBP with 1-year cycle. The highest HBP can be observed in mid-to-late January. Copyright
    Journal of Hypertension 06/2015; 33:e416-e417. DOI:10.1097/01.hjh.0000468685.64804.8d · 4.72 Impact Factor
  • Article: PP.15.32
    Journal of Hypertension 06/2015; 33:e269. DOI:10.1097/01.hjh.0000468179.40798.ef · 4.72 Impact Factor
  • Article: 7A.01
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    ABSTRACT: The association between obesity and all-cause mortality is controversial and may differ according to subjects' characteristics. Blood pressure variability (BPV) may be increased in obese individuals and thus impair prognosis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the relationship between obesity and mortality is influenced by short-term ambulatory BPV. The analysis was performed in 8724 participants (54% men) aged 51 ± 15 years enrolled in 8 prospective studies in Australia, Italy, Japan, and U.S.A. The predictive power of obesity (BMI >=30 kg/m2) for mortality was evaluated from multivariable Cox models in the subjects stratified by high or low nocturnal BPV (above or below the median). Obese participants (N = 1286) had higher age-and-sex adjusted systolic and diastolic BPV than the non-obese participants (p = 0.002/<0.001). Obese subjects with high systolic or diastolic BPV had higher nocturnal heart rate (p = 0.01/<0.001) than obese subjects with low BPV and were more frequently diabetic (p<0.001) and heavy alcohol drinkers (p < 0.001). During a median follow-up of 6.4 years there were 361 deaths, 4.7% in the obese and 4.0% in the non-obese individuals (P = NS). However, the risk of mortality among the obese subjects greatly differed according to BPV level. In Cox models including age, sex, mean ambulatory BP, smoking, alcohol use, diabetes, cholesterol, creatinine, and nocturnal heart rate, the obese group with high systolic BPV had a doubled risk of mortality compared to the non-obese group (HR,2.0, 95%CI,1.4-2.9, p < 0.001), whereas the risk was not increased in the obese group with low BPV (P = 0.81). Similar results were found for diastolic BPV, with a HR of 1.7 (1.2-2.5, p = 0.002) in the high BPV group and no association at all with mortality (p = 0.87) in the low BPV group. Inclusion of night-time BP dipping in the regressions did not change the strength of the associations. These data show that high nocturnal BPV greatly increases the risk of mortality related to obesity. High BPV is accompanied by increased heart rate and may reflect the influence of transient BP elevations related to sleep apnea and/or baroreflex dysfunction.
    Journal of Hypertension 06/2015; 33 Suppl 1 - ESH 2015 Abstract Book:e89. DOI:10.1097/01.hjh.0000467588.04230.c3 · 4.72 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

11k Citations
2,703.75 Total Impact Points


  • 2013–2015
    • Teikyo University
      • • Department of Hygiene and Public Health
      • • Department of Medicine
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
    • Teikyo University Hospital
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 2006–2015
    • Shiga University of Medical Science
      • Department of Health Science
      Ōtu, Shiga Prefecture, Japan
  • 2014
    • University of Queensland
      • School of Population Health
      Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
    • University of Shizuoka
      • Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Genetics
      Sizuoka, Shizuoka, Japan
  • 2000–2014
    • Tohoku University
      • • Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences
      • • Department of Medical Genetics
    • Osaka University
      Suika, Ōsaka, Japan
  • 2012
    • Shiga University
    • Brighton and Sussex Medical School
      Brighton, England, United Kingdom
  • 2010
    • National Institute of Health and Nutrition
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 2008–2010
    • Tohoku Pharmaceutical University
      Sendai-shi, Miyagi, Japan
  • 2009
    • Universidad de Montevideo
      Ciudad de Montevideo, Montevideo, Uruguay
    • Copenhagen University Hospital Hvidovre
      Hvidovre, Capital Region, Denmark
  • 2007
    • Yonsei University
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2005
    • University Hospital Medical Information Network
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 2002
    • Osaka City University
      • Graduate School of Medicine
      Ōsaka, Ōsaka, Japan