[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT: dendritic mRNA transport machines. Although Stau2 is thought to be involved in the dendritic targeting of several mRNAs in neurons, the mechanism whereby Stau2 regulates these mRNAs is unknown. To elucidate the functions of Stau2, we screened for novel binding partners by affinity purification of GST-tagged Stau2 from 293F cells. RESULTS: Three RNA helicases, RNA helicase A, Upf1 and Mov10, were identified in Stau2-containing complexes. We focused our studies on Upf1, a key player in nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. Stau2 was found to bind directly to Upf1 in an RNA-independent manner in vitro. Tethering Stau2 to the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of a reporter gene had little effect on its expression in HeLa cells. In contrast, when the same tethering assay was performed in 293F cells, we observed an increase in reporter protein levels. This upregulation of protein expression by Stau2 turned out to be dependent on Upf1. Moreover, we found that in 293F cells, Stau2 upregulates the reporter mRNA level in an Upf1-independent manner. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that the recruitment of Stau2 alone or in combination with Upf1 differentially affects the fate of mRNAs. Moreover, the results suggest that Stau2-mediated fate determination could be executed in a cell type-specific manner.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diaphanous-related formin, mDia, is an actin nucleation/polymerization factor functioning downstream of the small GTPase Rho. Although Rho is critically involved in cytokinesis, it remains elusive how Rho effectors and other regulators of cytoskeletons work together to accomplish this process. Here we focused on mDia2, an mDia isoform involved in cytokinesis of NIH 3T3 cells, and analyzed mechanisms of its localization in cytokinesis. We found that targeting of mDia2 to the cleavage furrow requires not only its binding to RhoA but also its diaphanous-inhibitory domain (DID). We then performed pulldown assays using a fragment containing the latter domain as a bait and identified anillin as a novel mDia2 interaction partner. The anillin-binding is competitive with the diaphanous autoregulatory domain (DAD) of mDia2 in its autoinhibitory interaction. A series of RNA interference and functional rescue experiments has revealed that, in addition to the Rho GTPase-mediated activation, the interaction between mDia2 and anillin is required for the localization and function of mDia2 in cytokinesis.
Molecular biology of the cell 09/2010; 21(18):3193-204. · 5.98 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mammalian homolog of Drosophila diaphanous (mDia) consisting of three isoforms, mDia1, mDia2, and mDia3, is an effector of Rho GTPases that catalyzes actin nucleation and polymerization. Although the mDia actions on actin dynamics in the cytoplasm have been well studied, whether mDia accumulates and functions in the nucleus remains largely unknown. Given the presence of actin and actin-associated proteins in the nucleus, we have examined nuclear localization of mDia isoforms. We expressed each of mDia isoforms as a green fluorescent protein fusion protein and examined their localization. Although all the mDia isoforms were localized predominantly in the cytoplasm under the steady-state conditions, mDia2 and not mDia1 or mDia3 accumulated extensively in the nucleus upon treatment with leptomycin B (LMB), an inhibitor of CRM1-dependent nuclear export. The LMB-induced nuclear accumulation was confirmed for endogenous mDia2 by using an antibody specific to mDia2. Studies using green fluorescent protein fusions of various truncation mDia2 mutants and point mutants of some of these proteins identified a functional nuclear localization signal in the N terminus of mDia2 and at least one functional nuclear export signal in the C terminus. The nuclear localization signal of mDia2 bound to importin-alpha and was imported into the nucleus by importin-alpha/beta complex in an in vitro transport assay. Consistently, depletion of importin-beta with RNA interference suppressed the LMB-induced nuclear localization of endogenous mDia2. These results suggest that mDia2 continuously shuttles between the nucleus and the cytoplasm using specific nuclear transport machinery composing of importin-alpha/beta and CRM1.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 01/2009; 284(9):5753-62. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The nuclear RNA export factor (NXF) family proteins have been implicated in various aspects of post-transcriptional gene expression. This study shows that mouse NXF7 exhibits heterologous localization, i.e. NXF7 associates with translating ribosomes, stress granules (SGs) and processing bodies (P-bodies), the latter two of which are believed to be cytoplasmic sites of storage, degradation and/or sorting of mRNAs. By yeast two-hybrid screening, a series of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) were identified as possible binding partners for NXF7. Among them, hnRNP A3, which is believed to be involved in translational control and/or cytoplasmic localization of certain mRNAs, formed a stable complex with NXF7 in vitro. Although hnRNP A3 was not associated with translating ribosomes, it was co-localized with NXF7 in P-bodies. After exposing to oxidative stress, NXF7 trans-localized to SGs, whereas hnRNP A3 did not. In differentiated neuroblastoma Neuro2a cells, NXF7 was co-localized with hnRNP A3 in cell body and neurites. The amino terminal half of NXF7, which was required for stable complex formation with hnRNP A3, coincided with the region required for localization in both P-bodies and neuronal RNA granules. These findings suggest that NXF7 plays a role in sorting, transport and/or storage of mRNAs through interactions with hnRNP A3.
Nucleic Acids Research 03/2008; 36(2):616-28. · 8.28 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Trafficking of immune cells is controlled by directed migration of relevant cells toward chemotactic signals. Actin cytoskeleton undergoes continuous remodeling and serves as machinery for cell migration. The mDia family of formins and the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP)-Arp2/3 system are two major actin nucleating-polymerizing systems in mammalian cells, with the former producing long straight actin filaments and the latter producing branched actin meshwork. Although much is known about the latter, the physiological functions of mDia proteins are unclear. We generated mice deficient in one mDia isoform, mDia1. Although mDia1(-/-) mice were born and developed without apparent abnormality, mDia1(-/-) T lymphocytes exhibited impaired trafficking to secondary lymphoid organs in vivo and showed reduced chemotaxis, little actin filament formation, and impaired polarity in response to chemotactic stimuli in vitro. Similarly, mDia1(-/-) thymocytes showed reduced chemotaxis and impaired egression from the thymus. These results suggest that mDia1 plays a distinct role in chemotaxis in T lymphocyte trafficking.
Journal of Experimental Medicine 10/2007; 204(9):2031-8. · 13.21 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tap/NXF1, the founding member of the evolutionarily conserved NXF (Nuclear RNA export Factor) family of proteins, is required for the nuclear export of bulk poly(A)+ RNAs. In mice, three additional NXF family genes (NXF2, NXF3, NXF7) have been identified and characterized to date. Cumulative data suggest that NXF family members play roles, not only in nuclear mRNA export, but also in various aspects of post-transcriptional mRNA metabolism. In order to better understand the functional role of NXF2, we searched for its binding partners by yeast two-hybrid screening and identified several cytoplasmic motor proteins, including KIF17. The interaction of NXF2 with KIF17, which was confirmed by GST pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assays, is mediated by the N-terminal domain of NXF2, which is required for the punctate localization patterns in dendrites of primary neurons. We also found that the NXF2-containing dendritic granules, which were co-localized with KIF17, mRNA and Staufen1, a known component of neuronal mRNA granules, moved bidirectionally along dendrites in a microtubule-dependent manner. These results suggest that NXF2, a nucleo-cytoplasmic mRNA transporter, plays additional roles in the cytoplasmic localization of mRNAs through interactions with cytoplasmic motor proteins.
Nucleic Acids Research 01/2007; 35(8):2513-21. · 8.28 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Exportin-5, an evolutionarily conserved nuclear export factor belonging to the importin-beta family of proteins, is known to play a role in the nuclear export of small noncoding RNAs such as precursors of microRNA, viral minihelix RNA and a subset of tRNAs in mammalian cells. In this study, we show that the exportin-5 orthologues from different species such as human, fruit fly and yeast exhibit diverged functions. We found that Msn5p, a yeast exportin-5 orthologue, binds double-stranded RNAs and that it prefers a shorter 22 nt, double-stranded RNA to approximately 80 nt pre-miRNA, even though both of these RNAs share a similar terminal structure. Furthermore, we found that Drosophila exportin-5 binds pre-miRNAs and that amongst the exportin-5 orthologues tested, it shows the highest affinity for tRNAs. The knockdown of Drosophila exportin-5 in cultured cells decreased the amounts of tRNA as well as miRNA, whereas the knock down of human exportin-5 in cultured cells affected only miRNA but not tRNA levels. These results indicate that double-stranded RNA binding ability is an inherited functional characteristic of the exportin-5 orthologues and that Drosophila exportin-5 functions as an exporter of tRNAs as well as pre-miRNAs in the fruit fly that lacks the orthologous gene for exportin-t.
Nucleic Acids Research 02/2006; 34(17):4711-21. · 8.28 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The localization of mRNA in neuronal dendrites plays a role in both locally and temporally regulated protein synthesis, which is required for certain forms of synaptic plasticity. RNA granules constitute a dendritic mRNA transport machinery in neurons, which move along microtubules. RNA granules contain densely packed clusters of ribosomes, but lack some factors that are required for translation, suggesting that they are translationally incompetent. Recently some of the components of RNA granules have been identified, and their functions are in the process of being examined, in attempts to better understand the properties of RNA granules. Mammalian Staufen, a double-stranded RNA binding protein, is a component of RNA granules. Staufen is localized in the somatodendritic domain of neurons, and plays an important role in dendritic mRNA targeting. Recently, one of the mammalian homologs of Staufen, Staufen2 (Stau2), was shown to shuttle between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. This finding suggests the possibility that Stau2 binds RNA in the nucleus and that this ribonucleoprotein particle is transported from the nucleus to RNA granules in the cytoplasm. A closer study of this process might provide a clue to the mechanism by which RNA granules are formed.
Cell Structure and Function 02/2005; 30(2):51-6. · 1.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mammalian Staufen2 (Stau2), a brain-specific double-stranded RNA-binding protein, is involved in the localization of mRNA in neurons. To gain insights into the function of Stau2, the subcellular localization of Stau2 isoforms fused to the green fluorescence protein was examined. Fluorescence microscopic analysis showed that Stau2 functions as a nucleocytoplasmic shuttle protein. The nuclear export of the 62-kDa isoform of Stau2 (Stau2(62)) is mediated by the double-stranded RNA-binding domain 3 (RBD3) because a mutation to RBD3 led to nuclear accumulation. On the other hand, the shorter isoform of Stau2, Stau2(59), is exported from the nucleus by two distinct pathways, one of which is RBD3-mediated and the other of which is CRM1 (exportin 1)-dependent. The nuclear export signal recognized by CRM1 was found to be located in the N-terminal region of Stau2(59). These results suggest that Stau2 may carry a variety of RNAs out of the nucleus, using the two export pathways. The present study addresses the issue of why plural Stau2 isoforms are expressed in neurons.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 12/2004; 279(46):47473-9. · 4.65 Impact Factor