[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To elucidate key factors responsible for high postharvest loss, an analysis of the cold
chain systems in Croatia and Serbia was made. It is estimated that Western Balkan
Countries (WBC) annual postharvest loss of fruits and vegetables is as high as 30-
In Croatia there are about 125000 t of storage capacities. Controlled atmosphere (CA)
storage comprises only 27% and it is mainly used for apple. Annual apple production
in Croatia in 2009 was 93355 t, which means that at least additional 40000 to 50000 t
of CA storage is needed only for apple. Th e second most stored fruit in Croatia is
Total capacity of refrigerated or frozen storage in Serbia was estimated at 500000 to
600000 t. In Serbia exist 29 CA storage facilities with a capacity between 50000 and
60000 t. Serbia has been very successful in production and export of frozen raspberries
and make one-third of the world’s total exports. About 97% of Serbia’s exports go
to the European Union (EU), accounting for 65% of total EU imports of this product.
Beside the lack of adequate storage facilities, the second problem in Croatian and
Serbian postharvest sector is the lack of experienced experts familiar with the situation
on the domestic market. To improve situation and to decrease high postharvest
losses of the fruits and vegetables sector there is an urgent need for establishing long term
network between all segments of this sector together to the more intensive cooperation
between WBC in postharvest research.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An 8-year-old German Merino (Merinolandschaf) ram suffered from abnormal fluid-filled scrotal swelling was presented at the Clinic of Surgery, Orthopaedics and Ophthalmology at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine in Zagreb. The ram had been used for breeding and group-housed with other sheep. The first signs of scrotal swelling had been noticed several months earlier. The swelling had been enlarging gradually, and then stopped about one month prior to referral at the Clinic. Physical examination revealed an abnormally enlarged, asymmetric and moderately painful scrotum. It was the size and shape of a rugby ball, with the left side approximately several times as large as the right. The hernial content included loops of small intestine and atrophied testicle, surrounded by large amount of fluid. Surgical procedure comprising herniotomy, herniorrhaphy and unilateral orchiectomy of the left side of the scrotum was performed under general anaesthesia. A firm mass the size of a palm, filled with blood clots, was found inside the spermatic cord. The left testicle and pathological mass were surgically removed, while the right testicle was preserved at the owner’s request. The wound healed without complications and the ram was returned successfully to reproduction.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aims and objectives of research: The study aimed to research the influence of altitude on dimensions, i.e. the shape of Wild Service tree fruits (Sorbus torminalis (L.) Crantz). We also wanted to test the variability of major biological characteristics of fruits and seed, the elements of seed quality and their relations.
Materials and Methods: In September 2003 we gathered fruits from 24 Wild Service Trees of different ages and positions in the stand structure on three sites (Medvednica, Psunj and Južni Dilj) situated at different altitudes. The altitude of each tree was determined with the GPSmap 60CSxdevice, after which dendrometric measurements were carried out and fruits were collected.We measured fruit length (FL) and width (FW) and calculated their index (FL/FW). The mass of each fruit was weighed on the laboratory scales Sartorius and the number of fruits per kilo was calculated. The seeds were manually extracted from the fruits and the number of filled (sound) seeds per fruit was counted in line with the ISTA rules. In order to break the double seed dormancy we applied the stratification in accordance
with the ISTA rules. For the statistical analysis of the data we used ANOVA, LSD test, correlation analysis and canonical discriminant multivariate analysis with the locality as a grouping variable. All statistical analyses were performed using STATISTICA 8.0 program package.
Results: We obtained a positive and strong correlation between fruit
length and altitude (R=0.67), i.e. between fruit shape index and altitude (R=0.71), which means that the higher the altitude of the population of the Wild Service Tree in the Republic of Croatia, the longer the fruits. At higher altitudes the Wild Service Tree seed shows a larger degree of dormancy and requires somewhat longer period of stratification.
Conclusion: The observed differences between the three studied locations might be attributed to changed climatic and soil conditions.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effect of four combined pruning treatments on yield, fruit weight (season 2003 and 2004), soluble solids content (SSC), total acid (TA), SSC/TA ratio and mineral content of ‘ Elstar’ apples after storage for 16 weeks in air (season 2004) were studied. These treatments include canopy pruning with root pruning and trunk girdling, canopy pruning with root pruning, canopy pruning with trunk girdling, and solely canopy pruning. Root and canopy pruning with or without trunk girdling resulted in higher yield but did not affect fruit weight. Treatments with root pruning caused the lowest biennial bearing. Fruits of the trees, which were treated only with canopy pruning, had the highest N content. Fruits of the canopy and root pruned trees, with or without trunk girdling, had lower contents of the fruit P. Fruits of the trees, which were treated with canopy pruning and trunk girdling, had the highest total Ca content. Fruit water soluble manganese (WS Mg) was significantly different among treatments. Zn content was lower in trunk girdled and root pruned trees. Higher manganese contents had fruits of the trunk girdled trees. Fruits of the trees, which were treated only with canopy pruning, had significantly the highest Cu contents. Results show that root pruning combined with canopy pruning is effective method for reducing biennial bearing in ‘ Elstar’ apple. Besides application in conventional fruit production, it is also applicable for organically produced fruits since it does not include use of growth regulators, or any other chemical compounds. Root pruning combined with canopy pruning can significantly increase tree productivity. Besides, this combined pruning treatment can stabilize yield without a negative effect on fruit quality. This practice can be safely recommended without a risk of negative effect on fruit quality.
Journal of Food Agriculture and Environment 04/2009; 7(2):510-515. · 0.44 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ‘ Lovranska’ sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) is a local cultivar with very good quality that is very promising. The aim of this research was to examine quality parameters of sweet cherry fruit produced in their typical growing area (Lovran). Total soluble solids (TSS), colour (CIE Lab method), weight and the three dimensions of the fruit were measured. Stalk length was also evaluated. The average TSS concentrations varied, depending on location, from 13.5 to 15.2 °Brix. Measurements from the three locations showed that fruit with higher TSS had a lower value of fruit skin luminescence (L). Fruit weight was weakly correlated with colour, but it had a high degree of correlation with fruit size.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Background and Purpose: Regeneration and conversion of pure spruce plantations is a very important task for forest management in Europe. This subject is less marked in Croatia in view of the fact that in Croatia there are only 75,000 ha of pure coniferous plantations, which are raised on unstocked forest land. In Croatia, no investigation has yet been carried out on the development of the stand structure, succession processes of autochthonous species and methods of reforestation and conversion of spruce plantations. This study is one of the first which deals with the aforementioned problems. Materials and Methods: Since 1956 five successive measurements (d b h and tree heights, tree-crown diameters, height of crown base, condition and position of a tree, horizontal crown projections, density and structure of regeneration, comparison of chemical and physical characteristics of soils between the plantation, natural stand and meadow) have been performed in a 161-year-old spruce plantation on a permanent experimental plot (1 ha), in which no silvicultural treatments were carried out during the last 42 years. Results and discussion: The period of the last 42 years, during which there were no management interventions in the stand, is characterized by specific development of the stand structure. The fact is that in the old Norway spruce plantation there was a considerable potential for succession of autochthonous European beech and silver fir at the time of the first measurement in 1956. However, in spite of two thinnings performed at the beginning of the 48-year long period (66 Norway spruce trees cut per ha) and 110 naturally removed spruce trees during the last 42 years (self-thinning), the processes of beech and fir succession were very slow. Conclusions: Results on slowed down development of the stand structure of an old spruce plantation, and on slowed down succession processes related to the absence of management interventions and delayed regeneration, are discussed in accordance with the results of spruce plantation management in Central Europe. Further investigations are necessary of the old spruce stand in two directions; under regime without silvicultural treatment (natural development) and under regime by different silvicultural methods.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The presented paper describes the development of mathematical model suitable for calculating temperature and humidity response and for simulation of dynamic behaviour of refrigerated products in a ship's refrigerated container. Moist air, circulating around refrigerated products within refrigerated container is continuously in direct contact with surface of the goods. Simultaneous heat and mass exchange occurs between refrigerated goods and moist air. During such process mass exchange is considered as evaporation at the product surface exposed to air circulation. Only top surface of the product is therefore drying. This paper is limited to consideration of surface drying moisture, but not the hygroscopic moisture. Developed mathematical model, describing the dynamic changes of temperature and humidity of refrigerated goods caused by multiple influential factors, is based on mass and energy balances. Such model provides simulation of dynamic behaviour of refrigerated product between temperature ranges of above and below 0°C (including 0°C).
Naše more: Journal of marine sciences (email@example.com); Vol.55 No.3-4. 01/2008;
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Satsuma mandarins (Citrus unshiu Marc. ‘ Saigon’ ) fruit were dipped in hot water (HWD) at 48°C and 52°C and stored for 8 weeks at +1°C plus 1 week of shelf life (SL). 48°C HWD had the lowest weight loss, soluble solids concentration and juiciness. Multivariate analysis clearly discriminated 48°C HWD from 52°C HWD and the control, showing weight loss after SL and total weight loss as the traits with greatest influence. Microscopic examination of chilling injured (CI) rind tissue showed the changes in structure of the oil glands which did not have etheric oil contrary to those from healthy tissue and the different degree of tissue injuries, with higher level at 52°C HWD. HWD treatments changed the shape of oil glands, without the evidence of oil leakage or damage of oil gland tissue.
Deutsche Lebensmittel-Rundschau: Zeitschrift für Lebensmittelkunde und Lebensmittelrecht 11/2007; 103(11):522-528. · 0.12 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The authors of the article consider hunting is not as not opposed to the protection of nature. On the contrary, if correctly perceived and properly implemented, it can be a significant factor that contributes to its protection. In the article the authors are not trying to justify hunting comprehensively, but want to point at the inevitability of hunting as a relevant factor in the historical development of mankind, taking into consideration some of the criticism related to it. As already mentioned, the authors claim hunting as one of the major factors of human development, not only at the biological and evolutional levels, but also in its spiritual and cultural field. Nowadays one can say that the hunting is both a practical and a scientific discipline, because the object of its study is based on the biological knowledge of forestry, veterinary medicine, ecology and similar disciplines. It is well known that hunting, no matter what its motives were, has often been an instrument in the devastation of nature. The modern way of life enables man to take whatever the nature offers, without posing a threat upon his existence and the integrity of nature. The authors believe that man would thus not be engaged in any kind of biologically or ethically unaccepted activities. Modern hunting offers the way by which it would not be an instrument of devastation but an important element in the protection of nature.
Journal of Forestry Society of Croatia (firstname.lastname@example.org); Vol.130 No.3-4. 01/2006;
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A study was made of the effect of hot water dips (HWD) at temperatures of 42 , 44, 46 and 48 ºC (HWD 42 ºC, HWD 44 ºC, HWD 46° C and HWD 48 ºC, respectively) for three minutes on development of superficial scald and the concentration of α -farnesene and conjugated trienols (CT), CT259, CT269, CT281, as well as OD200 on Granny Smith apple fruits harvested on three dates and stored 125 days in air at 2 ºC. HWD 48 ºC efficiently decreased surface scald in the second and third harvest. α -farnesene and CT were measured spectrophotometrically and by HPLC. No clear relationship of OD200 and scald development was observed. Correlation of scald index and OD200 at the end of storage was negative for the second harvest date. There was no significant correlation between the scald index and CT259. Scald index was positively correlated with CT269 after 80 days for the second and third harvest and at the end of storage for the second harvest. CT281 was spectrophotometrically detectable only at the end of the storage, for the third harvest date, in control, HWD 42 ºC, and HWD 44 ºC. HWD 42 ºC had significantly higher CT281 compared to HWD 44 ºC and control. HPLC analysis of control samples revealed presence of CT281 in all three harvest dates, and presence of at least two components, as was the case of CT259 and CT269. The ratio of these two components was different for all three CT species. Fruit maturity was an important factor determining the response of fruit to heat and occurrence of superficial scald. The results indicate that a successful treatment using HWD to control superficial scald may be obtained after further research and that there are still some questions on the role of different CT’ s in scald biochemistry that should be addressed in future research.
Scientia Horticulturae 01/2006; 107(2):155-163. · 1.40 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The process of studying electronic circuits in higher education can be divided into the following phases, i.e. theoretical analysis, computer simulation, assembling components and measurements. The above phases represent a part of the manufacturing process. While studying, the student usually passes all these phases alone. In the manufacturing process, there are expert teams which deal with the production. Therefore, an engineer, beside being an expert, is required to be able to join the teamwork and work with other members of the team successfully. In that case he should have adequate interpersonal skills. When the approach mentioned above is dealt with, it is necessary to introduce cooperative learning, i.e. more students will be involved in solving complicated tasks or projects. Such cooperation, monitored by the teacher, will give them not only expert knowledge but other skills required for team work, as well. This approach used for solving problems follows Bologna process trends. This article deals with the team work of electronics students dealing with a device for recording transistor output characteristics and the way in which such an approach may be applied in higher education.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effect of hand vs. chemical fruit thinning with 1-naphthaleneacetamide (NAD) (40 ppm) and 1-naphthyl (N-) methylcarbamate (carbaryl) (1000 ppm) on apple fruit quality after 17 weeks in cold storage at 1°C has been studied. Fruits from hand-thinned trees had lower weight loss (WL), firmness (F) and titratable acidity (TA), but soluble solids concentration (SSC) and SSC/TA were higher (P≤ 0.001). In chemically thinned fruits there was correlation between WL and SSC, WL and TA, SSC and TA, number of seeds per fruit and Hue angle. In hand-thinned fruit SSC/TA was correlated with Hue and WL. In both thinning methods SSC and WL were negatively correlated with Hue angle and positive correlation existed between WL and fruit weight. Further research should be made to find optimal thinning strategies that will have both good thinning effect and positive effect on fruit quality after storage.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The described treatments enable an increase both in the quality and storage life of the satsuma mandarin. Storage of this
citrus fruit does not receive sufficient attention, particularly when it comes to application of the described treatments.
The result is a very short storage life of not more than a couple of weeks, and the inadequate quality of fruit. This causes
price fluctuations and short consumption periods, which is not encouraging for production. There is no doubt that research
needs to be initiated as soon as possible in order to determine the optimum storage conditions and necessary postharvest handling
of the fruits. It would appear that heat treatment is the most promising method because of its easy application and CI control
efficiency. HWD at 48–50 °C could be considered advantageous, whereas the use of higher temperatures could negatively affect
the fruits because of their inadequate adaptation to heat.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Satsuma fruit (C. unshiu) were dipped in hot water for three minutes (HWD) or wilted at room temperature till 3% weight loss before storage at 3 °C for 6, 8 and 10 weeks. In comparison with control, fruit from the HWD at 48 and 50 °C showed significantly lower weight loss after 6 weeks of storage and after 6 weeks + 7d at room temperature. After 8 and 10 weeks, there were no significant differences in the storage weight loss. Weight loss during simulated retail display was significantly lower for fruit treated with hot water dips at 48 and 50 °C after 8 weeks of storage, but after 10 weeks, that was true only for fruit treated with HWD at 48 °C. Wilting decreased the juice content of the fruit after 8 weeks and after 10 weeks the same was true for HWD's at 48 °C. SSC of the fruit treated by HWD at 48 °C decreased after 8 weeks, and all treatments decreased the SSC and TA of the fruit after 10 weeks compared with control. HWD at 48 °C decreased the SSC/TA ratio after 6 weeks and increased it after 8 and 10 weeks. There were no significant difference in percentage of fruit with chilling injury between the control and all treatments after 6 weeks. HWD's at 46, 48 and 50 °C and wilting resulted in lower incidence of CI after 8 weeks. Contrary to the reports in literature, HWD at 52 °C showed no effect on CI after 8 weeks ; however, after 10 weeks the fruit showed an increased CI incidence. Wilting showed no CI after 10 weeks, and fruit treated with HWD at 50 °C did not differ in CI incidence compared with control.