[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We examined the role of osteoprotegerin (OPG) on tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-induced apoptosis in rheumatoid fibroblast-like synovial cells (FLS). OPG protein concentrations in synovial fluid from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) correlated with those of interleukin (IL)-1beta or IL-6. A similar correlation was present between IL-1beta and IL-6 concentrations. Rheumatoid FLS in vitro expressed both death domain-containing receptors [death receptor 4 (DR4) and DR5] and decoy receptors [decoy receptor 1 (DcR1) and DcR2]. DR4 expression on FLS was weak compared with the expression of DR5, DcR1 and DcR2. Recombinant TRAIL (rTRAIL) rapidly induced apoptosis of FLS. DR5 as well as DR4 were functional with regard to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis induction in FLS; however, DR5 appeared be more efficient than DR4. In addition to soluble DR5 (sDR5) and sDR4, OPG administration significantly inhibited TRAIL-induced apoptogenic activity. OPG was identified in the culture supernatants of FLS, and its concentration increased significantly by the addition of IL-1beta in a time-dependent manner. Neither IL-6 nor tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha increased the production of OPG from FLS. TRAIL-induced apoptogenic activity towards FLS was reduced when rTRAIL was added without exchanging the culture media, and this was particularly noticeable in the IL-1beta-stimulated FLS culture; however, the sensitivity of FLS to TRAIL-induced apoptosis itself was not changed by IL-1beta. Interestingly, neutralization of endogenous OPG by adding anti-OPG monoclonal antibody (MoAb) to FLS culture restored TRAIL-mediated apoptosis. Our data demonstrate that OPG is an endogenous decoy receptor for TRAIL-induced apoptosis of FLS. In addition, IL-1beta seems to promote the growth of rheumatoid synovial tissues through stimulation of OPG production, which interferes with TRAIL death signals in a competitive manner.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our recent work showed that fibroblast-like synovial cells (FLS) could differentiate into adipocyte-like cells in vitro in response to stimulation with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma) ligand. The aim of the present study was to determine the role of cytokines in the regulation of FLS differentiation to adipocyte-like cells.
FLS isolated from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA) and from normal synovial tissues were incubated with the synthetic PPAR gamma ligand troglitazone to induce adipocyte-like differentiation of the cells.
Production of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 and matrix metalloproteinase-3 was reduced in adipocyte-like cells compared with FLS. DNA binding activity of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappa B) was clearly inhibited in adipocyte-like cells. Cultivation of FLS with interferon gamma (IFN-gamma), tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) or IL-1 beta inhibited the expression of PPAR gamma as well as CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) nuclear activity, and thus suppressed adipocyte-like cell differentiation in vitro.
Our results indicate the importance of PPAR gamma and C/EBP in adipocyte-like cell differentiation of FLS and that the process is influenced by inflammatory cytokines, and suggest that the proinflammatory character of FLS in patients with RA is diminished during adipocyte-like cell differentiation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Activation-induced natural killer (NK) cell death is very rapid compared to activation-induced T or B cell death. Here we show that NK cell activation is accompanied by the leakage of granzymeB from intracellular granules into the cytoplasm. Evidence for granzyme B leakage includes the formation of granzyme B/serine proteinase inhibitor 9 (PI-9) complexes that are detected by immunoprecipitation as well as colocalization of granzyme B and PI-9 detected by immunocytochemistry. The pro-apoptotic molecule Bid, a specific substrate for granzyme B, was cleaved within 2 min following CD2-induced NK cell activation, suggesting that granzyme B triggers apoptosis by directing Bid to mitochondrial membranes. The granzyme B/PI-9 protein ratio was found to mirror the percentage of CD2-induced NK cell death, suggesting that an excess of leaked granzyme B over its inhibitor is a major determinant of cell death. We suggest that granzyme B leakage-induced cell death is an important determinant of activation-induced NK cell death and that this process may be important for the fate of NK cells which encounter malignant or virus-infected cells.
European Journal of Immunology 01/2004; 33(12):3284-92. · 4.97 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) is a ligand dependent transcriptional factor known to be a regulator of adipogenesis. Recent studies have also shown that stimulation of PPARgamma inhibits the transcriptional activities of other nuclear factors and down-regulates proinflammatory cytokine synthesis in T cells and monocytes. We examined, in the present study, the functional significance of PPARgamma expressed in fibroblast-like synovial cells (FLS) isolated from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Incubation of FLS with a synthetic PPARgamma ligand, troglitazone, inhibited endogenous production of TNF-alpha, IL-6 and IL-8, as well as matrix metalloprotease-3 (MMP-3), without inducing apoptosis of the cells. The gelatinase activity of FLS culture media was also inhibited by troglitazone. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) showed a significant reduction in the DNA binding activity of NF-kappaB in troglitazone-treated FLS in response to TNF-alpha or IL-1beta. Moreover, long-term cultivation of FLS with troglitazone resulted in morphological changes with marked lipid accumulation in these cells. Our results show a negative regulatory function for PPARgamma on cytokine and MMP production together with inhibition of cytokine-mediated inflammatory responses in rheumatoid synovial cells. Our results also suggest that FLS could differentiate into adipocyte-like cells in the presence of proper stimulatory signals including PPARgamma.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We examined the mechanisms of apoptosis in a human salivary gland (HSG) cell line induced by tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha and interferon (IFN) gamma. DNA fragmentation and the activation of caspase-3 were determined in HSG cells cultured with TNF-alpha or IFN-gamma. Mitochondrial dysfunction also appeared to be involved in the process because a disruption of mitochondrial transmembrane potential with the activation of caspase-9 was demonstrated in TNF-alpha- and IFN-gamma-stimulated HSG cells. Activation of caspase-8 was thought to be essential in TNF-alpha--induced apoptosis of HSG cells; however, the activation of caspase-8 was not involved in IFN-gamma-induced apoptosis of HSG cells. In contrast, Bcl-2 appeared to be an indispensable regulatory molecule in IFN-gamma-induced, but not in TNF-alpha-induced, apoptosis of HSG cells because its expression was inhibited in IFN-gamma-stimulated, but not in TNF-alpha-stimulated, cells. The inhibitory effect of IFN-gamma in Bcl-2 expression was enhanced by coadministration of TNF-alpha and, interestingly, apoptosis of HSG cells, as assessed by DNA fragmentation and the activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3, and disruption of mitochondrial transmembrane potential was also synergistically augmented by TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma. Our results suggest that cytokines expressed in the salivary glands of patients with Sjögren syndrome play an important role in regulating apoptosis of acinar-ductal epithelial cells through distinct and synergistic mechanisms, thereby modulating salivary gland function in patients with Sjögren syndrome.
Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine 02/2002; 139(1):13-9. · 2.62 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have recently reported the accumulation of oligoclonal activated T cells in the spontaneously developed autoimmune pancreatitis in aly/aly mouse. In this study, we examined the effects of FK506 in this mouse model in preventing autoimmune pancreatitis and investigated its action on calcium signalling apoptosis of alymphoplasia (aly) lymphocytes in vitro. Mice were treated with FK506 from 8 to 25 weeks of age. At the age of 15 weeks, minimal mononuclear cell infiltration was observed in the pancreas in both the FK506 treated group and the control group. Furthermore, a marked cell infiltration associated with destruction of acini and partial fatty changes were observed in 25-week-old control mice. In contrast, FK506 treated mice showed almost no tissue destruction or mononuclear cell infiltration at the age of 25 weeks. Furthermore, at 15 weeks of age, most mononuclear cells in FK506-treated mice were TUNEL positive, whereas only a few were positive in control mice. This augmentation of T cell apoptosis by FK506 was confirmed using naive splenocytes activated by PMA and ionomycin in vitro. Finally, a suppressive effect of FK506 on Bcl-2 production but not on Bax production was confirmed by Western blotting. This unique effect of FK506 on the augmentation of T cell apoptosis is probably one of the mechanisms explaining its beneficial effect on aly autoimmune pancreatitis.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We examined in this study whether the newly developed disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) 2-acetylthiomethyl-4-(4-methylphenyl)-4-oxobutanoic acid (KE-298) augments activation-induced T cell death. Peripheral blood (PB) T cells, isolated from healthy donors, were activated by incubation with interleukin-2 (IL-2) followed by further culture with 12-0-tetradecanoyl phorbol 13-acetate (PMA) and ionomycin in the presence or absence of KE-298. The apoptosis of activated T cells was examined by flow cytometric determination of hypodiploid DNA. Fas expression and caspase-3 activity in activated T cells were also examined by flow cytometry, and expression of Fas ligand (FasL), Bcl-2-related proteins, and X chromosome-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) was determined by Western blot analysis. Apoptosis was not obvious in resting T cells and was not augmented by KE-298. In contrast, apoptosis was clearly detected in activated T cells (activation-induced T cell death) with the increment of caspase-3 activity, and incubation of these cells with KE-298 further enhanced apoptosis. Treatment of activated T cells with KE-298 increased Bax expression but decreased XIAP expression without affecting the expression of Fas/FasL. Thus caspase-3 activity in activated T cells appeared to be increased by KE-298. Our results suggest that the newly developed DMARD, KE-298, selectively augmented activation-induced T cell death. This finding may contribute to the therapeutic efficacy of KE-298 in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and provide new insight into the pharmacologic action of DMARDs.
Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine 08/2001; 138(1):11-7. · 2.62 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I)-associated myelopathy (HAM) is characterized by chronic inflammation of the spinal cord. The exact mechanisms that enhance the development of chronic myelopathy remain to be determined. One such mechanism could be an altered response of peripheral blood CD4(+) T lymphocytes to apoptotic stimuli. We examined the sensitivity of these cells to apoptosis in HAM patients and control. Apoptosis was induced by etoposide, which induces mitochondria-dependent apoptosis through the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria. The percentage of apoptotic cells that expressed hypodiploid DNA among etoposide-treated CD4(+) T lymphocytes was significantly lower in HAM patients than in the control. Western blot analysis of cell lysates derived from CD4(+) T lymphocytes demonstrated that the expression level of Bcl-xL protein was significantly higher in HAM patients than in the control. Our results indicate that peripheral blood CD4(+) T lymphocytes of HAM patients are resistant to apoptosis triggered through mitochondrial death pathway through upregulation of expression of anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl-xL. This phenomenon might contribute to the prolongation and perpetuation of the chronic inflammatory process in the spinal cord of HAM patients.
Journal of Neuroimmunology 08/2001; 117(1-2):143-8. · 3.03 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We examined in the present study the possible involvement of Fas and its ligand (FasL) in the process of Graves' disease. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that few normal thyrocytes expressed Fas but many thyrocytes in Graves' disease expressed this molecule. The percentage of FasL-positive thyrocytes in Graves' thyroids was, however, less than in normal thyroids. Several apoptotic thyrocytes and infiltrating mononuclear cells (MNCs) were detected scattered throughout Graves' thyroid tissues and abundant proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-positive thyrocytes were present. Apoptotic cells, as well as PCNA-positive cells, were scarcely detectable in normal thyroid glands, however. In vitro treatment of thyrocytes by IL-1beta a cytokine found to be expressed in Graves' thyroid glands, increased Fas but reduced FasL expression. IL-1beta-stimulated thyrocytes became sensitive to apoptosis by anti-Fas IgM monoclonal antibody (mAb). Activated T cells, which strongly expressed FasL, showed cytotoxic activity toward IL-1beta-stimulated thyrocytes but not toward unstimulated thyrocytes. This cytotoxic activity involved the Fas/FasL pathway. Importantly, unstimulated thyrocytes could kill activated, but not resting, T cells. IL-1beta-stimulated thyrocytes, with down-regulated FasL expression, could not efficiently kill activated T cells. The cytotoxic activity of unstimulated thyrocytes toward activated T cells was inhibited by anti-FasL mAb. Interestingly, unstimulated thyrocytes induced apoptosis in IL-1beta-stimulated thyrocytes but not in unstimulated thyrocytes. These interactions were also blocked by anti-FasL mAb. Our results suggest that the apoptotic cell death of both thyrocytes and infiltrating MNCs found in Graves' thyroid glands is regulated by IL-1beta through Fas/FasL interactions.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective
Patients with systemic autoimmune diseases have been reported to have reduced numbers of peripheral blood natural killer (NK) cells compared with healthy subjects. The ability of selected cytokines to trigger NK cell death prompted us to compare the levels of peripheral blood cytokines with the numbers of NK cells in patients with various systemic autoimmune diseases.Methods
We used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays to measure the concentration of selected cytokines (interleukin-18 [IL-18], IL-15, IL-12, IL-2, interferon-γ [IFNγ], and tumor necrosis factor α [TNFα]) in sera from 58 patients with systemic autoimmune diseases and 33 healthy controls. The absolute number of T cells and NK cells in the peripheral blood was measured in parallel using flow cytometry. The ability of selected cytokines to induce NK cell death was then measured using 3,3′-dihexyloxacarbocyanine iodide dye, propidium iodide staining, and caspase 3 activity.ResultsLevels of IL-18, IL-15, IFNγ, and TNFα were elevated in sera from patients with systemic autoimmune diseases compared with normal controls. The percentage of NK cells and natural killer T cells were significantly decreased in the peripheral blood of patients with systemic autoimmune diseases compared with normal controls. Serum concentrations of IL-18, IL-15, and TNFα were inversely related to the number of NK cells in both patients and healthy controls. The combination of IL-18 and IL-15 or IL-18 and IL-12 induced NK cell death in vitro. The combination of IL-18 and IL-15 or IL-18 and IL-12 enhanced IFNγ and TNFα production by NK cells in vitro. Cytokine-induced NK cell death is caspase-dependent and is partially blocked by neutralizing antibodies against TNFα.Conclusion
High levels of IL-18 and IL-15 are associated with the decreased number of NK cells that is observed in patients with systemic autoimmune diseases.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients with systemic autoimmune diseases have been reported to have reduced numbers of peripheral blood natural killer (NK) cells compared with healthy subjects. The ability of selected cytokines to trigger NK cell death prompted us to compare the levels of peripheral blood cytokines with the numbers of NK cells in patients with various systemic autoimmune diseases.
We used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays to measure the concentration of selected cytokines (interleukin-18 [IL-18], IL-15, IL-12, IL-2, interferon-gamma [IFNgamma], and tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNFalpha]) in sera from 58 patients with systemic autoimmune diseases and 33 healthy controls. The absolute number of T cells and NK cells in the peripheral blood was measured in parallel using flow cytometry. The ability of selected cytokines to induce NK cell death was then measured using 3,3'-dihexyloxacarbocyanine iodide dye, propidium iodide staining, and caspase 3 activity.
Levels of IL-18, IL-15, IFNgamma, and TNFalpha were elevated in sera from patients with systemic autoimmune diseases compared with normal controls. The percentage of NK cells and natural killer T cells were significantly decreased in the peripheral blood of patients with systemic autoimmune diseases compared with normal controls. Serum concentrations of IL-18, IL-15, and TNFalpha were inversely related to the number of NK cells in both patients and healthy controls. The combination of IL-18 and IL-15 or IL-18 and IL-12 induced NK cell death in vitro. The combination of IL-18 and IL-15 or IL-18 and IL-12 enhanced IFNgamma and TNFalpha production by NK cells in vitro. Cytokine-induced NK cell death is caspase-dependent and is partially blocked by neutralizing antibodies against TNFalpha.
High levels of IL-18 and IL-15 are associated with the decreased number of NK cells that is observed in patients with systemic autoimmune diseases.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES
To examine whether inhibition of NF-κB induces apoptosis of human synovial cells stimulated by tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα), interleukin 1β (IL1β), and anti-Fas monoclonal antibody (mAb).METHODS
The expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), NF-κB, and the presence of apoptotic synovial cells were determined in synovial tissues. Apoptosis of cultured synovial cells was induced by inhibition of NF-κB nuclear translocation by Z-Leu-Leu-Leu-aldehyde (LLL-CHO). The activation of caspase-3 and expression of XIAP and cIAP2 in synovial cells in LLL-CHO induced apoptosis was also examined.RESULTSAbundant PCNA+ synovial cells were found in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synovial tissue, though a few apoptotic synovial cells were also detected in the RA synovial tissues. Nuclear NF-κB was expressed in RA synovial cells. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed that treatment of cells with TNFα or IL1β significantly stimulated nuclear NF-κB activity. A small number of apoptotic synovial cells expressing intracellular active caspase-3 were found after treatment of cells with LLL-CHO. Although treatment of RA synovial cells with TNFα or IL1β alone did not induce apoptosis, apoptosis induced by LLL-CHO and caspase-3 activation were clearly enhanced in TNFα or IL1β stimulated synovial cells compared with unstimulated synovial cells. Furthermore, induction of apoptosis of synovial cells with caspase-3 activation by anti-Fas mAb was clearly increased by LLL-CHO. The expression of cIAP2 and XIAP in synovial cells may not directly influence the sensitivity of synovial cells to apoptosis induced by LLL-CHO.CONCLUSION
The results suggest that NF-κB inhibition may be a potentially important therapeutic approach for RA by correcting the imbalance between apoptosis and proliferation of synovial cells in RA synovial tissue.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases 01/2001; 60(7):678-684. · 9.11 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Humoral factors produced by activated T cells are thought to be important in the development of bone loss in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We investigated the inhibitory effect of etidronate disodium (EHDP) on apoptosis of human osteoblasts induced by supernatants from in vitro activated T cell cultures. Human osteoblastic cell line MG63 cells and human primary osteoblast-like cells were used in the present study as human osteoblasts. T cells were incubated with interleukin-2 and further activated with 1 2-o-tetradecanoyl-phorbol 13-acetate and ionomycin, either in the presence or absence of EHDP. After we carried out the cultivation, we examined the cytotoxicity of cultured T cell supernatants toward MG63 cells and human primary osteoblast-like cells. Supernatants from activated but not resting T cell cultures efficiently induced apoptosis of MG63 cells and primary osteoblast-like cells. Supernatants from activated T cell cultures, incubated with EHDP, exhibited significantly less cytotoxicity than did supernatants incubated in the absence of EHDP. In contrast, the cytotoxicity of activated T cell culture supernatants was not affected by direct treatment of human osteoblasts with EHDP. The concentration of soluble Fas ligand in activated T cell culture supernatants was actually increased by EHDP. However, EHDP did not influence soluble Fas and tumor necrosis factor-alpha concentrations in the supernatant. Furthermore, treatment of human osteoblasts with EHDP did not alter their expression of Bcl-2/Bcl-xL or their sensitivity to anti-Fas immunoglobulin M-induced apoptosis. Our results suggest that EHDP inhibits the production of soluble factor that induces apoptosis of human osteoblasts and thus exhibits a protective action toward human osteoblast apoptosis induced by activated T cell culture supernatants. Although the exact EHDP-regulated molecule that induces apoptosis of human osteoblasts is unknown at present, our study may explain part of the therapeutic action of bisphosphonates in RA complicated by bone loss.
Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine 12/2000; 136(5):344-54. · 2.62 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cyclooxygenase (COX) plays a pivotal role in the inflammatory process of inflammatory arthropathies. Inflammatory cytokines induce COX-2 expression in osteoblasts of inflamed joints, followed by osteoclast activation. The inhibition of COX-2 expression could help prevent prostaglandin E2 secretion, followed by osteoclast activation for bone destruction and resorption. We examined whether the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) inhibited COX-2 expression induced in the human osteoblastic cell line MG63 by interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta). According to Western blot and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test results, NAC inhibited IL-1beta-induced COX-2 expression in protein and messenger RNA. We also demonstrated immunohistochemically that NAC inhibited NFkappaB nuclear translocation. These results suggested that NAC inhibited both COX-2 expression and NFkappaB nuclear translocation in MG63, which in turn indicated that NAC could inhibit the inflammatory process involved in bone resorption by regulating COX-2 expression at the level of transcription.
Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine 12/2000; 136(5):390-4. · 2.62 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Production of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) influences bone resorption. We investigated the role of bisphosphonates, potent inhibitors of bone resorption, on the production of MMP-2 from human osteoblasts. Bisphosphonates alone did not influence the amount of MMP-2 produced by human osteoblasts. However, in the presence of physiological concentrations of plasmin, bisphosphonates reduced the amount of MMP-2 in osteoblasts-conditioned media. Furthermore, bisphosphonates treatment induced degradation of MMP-2 in the presence of plasmin. Our results indicated that bisphosphonate, a divalent cation chelator, negatively regulated the longevity of MMP-2 in soluble phase plasmin-containing environment. These findings suggest that bisphosphonates inhibit bone resorption by abrogating MMP-2 protection induced by plasmin-mediated degradation.
The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine 11/2000; 192(2):111-8. · 1.37 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Apoptotic cell death in acinar and ductal epithelial cells is thought to play an important role in the development of salivary gland dysfunction in patients with Sjogren's syndrome (SS). We examined the expression of anti-apoptotic molecules in salivary glands from patients with SS. The labial salivary glands from six human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV)-I-seronegative and eleven HTLV-I-seropositive SS patients were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. In vitro experiments were performed with a human salivary gland cell line (HSG cells). Immunohistologic analyses revealed that Bcl-2 and Bcl-x were preferentially expressed in salivary infiltrating mononuclear cells more than acinar and ductal epithelial cells. In contrast, strong X chromosome-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) expression was evident in both acinar and ductal epithelial cells. The pattern of expression of these anti-apoptotic molecules was similar in both HTLV-I-seropositive and HTLV-I -seronegative SS patients. Western blot analysis confirmed expression of XIAP in cultured HSG cells. The expression of XIAP in HSG cells was increased by IL-1beta, TGF-beta1, or IL-10. However, XIAP expression was down-regulated by TNF-alpha, which induced apoptotic cell death of HSG cells with an increase in caspase-3 activity. These effects of TNF-alpha in HSG cells were antagonized by IL-1beta, TGF-beta1, or IL-10. Our results suggest that XIAP is important in regulating apoptotic cell death of acinar and ductal epithelial cells in patients with SS.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A variety of humoral factors modulate the osteoclastogenesis. Receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL) expressed on osteoblast/stromal lineage cells plays a pivotal role to transduce an essential differentiation signal to osteoclast lineage cells through binding to its receptor, RANK, expressed on the latter cell population; however, the difficulty to detect RANKL protein expression hampers us in investigating the regulation of RANKL expression by humoral factors. To determine protein expression of RANKL, we have established a new method, named as a ligand-receptor precipitation (LRP) Western blot analysis, which can specifically concentrate the target protein by the use of specific binding characteristic between RANKL and RANK/osteoprotegrin (OPG). RANKL protein expression in the postnuclear supernatant was not detected by common Western blotting, but LRP Western blot analysis clearly showed that RANKL is produced as a membrane-bound protein on murine osteoblasts/stromal cells, and cleaved into a soluble form by metalloprotease. Cytokines stimulating the osteoclastogenesis, such as IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-11, IL-17, and TNF-alpha, increased the expression of RANKL with decrease of OPG expression in osteoblasts/stromal cells. In contrast, cytokines inhibiting the osteoclastogenesis, such as IL-13, INF-gamma, and TGF-beta1 suppressed the expression of RANKL and/or augmented OPG expression. Functional difference between membrane-bound and soluble RANKL was demonstrated, which showed that membrane-bound RANKL works more efficiently than soluble RANKL in the osteoclastogenesis developed from murine bone marrow cell culture. The present study indicates the usefulness of LRP Western blot analysis, which shows that the modulation of osteoclastogenesis by humoral factors is achieved, in part, by regulation of the expression of RANKL and OPG in osteoblast/stromal lineage cells.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 10/2000; 275(3):768-75. · 2.41 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vitamin K2 is used for the treatment of osteoporosis, but the precise mode of action is still not clear. We investigated the effects of vitamin K2 on apoptosis of human osteoblasts. Human osteoblastic cell line MG63 cells and human primary osteoblast-like cells obtained from bone fragments in corrective surgery were used as human osteoblasts. Cells were cultured with or without various concentrations of vitamin K2 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). We then determined the proliferative response, expression of Fas and Bcl-2-related proteins, and Fas-mediated apoptosis of these cells induced by anti-Fas immunoglobulin M (IgM). In addition, the effect of vitamin K2 in osteoblast apoptosis induced by Z-Leu-Leu-Leu-aldehyde (LLL-CHO), etoposide, or staurosporine was also examined. Human osteoblasts did not show spontaneous apoptosis in culture, even in the presence of vitamin K2 or TNF-alpha. Furthermore, proliferation of the cells was not influenced by vitamin K2 or TNF-alpha. Fas was functionally expressed on human osteoblasts, and the treatment with TNF-alpha significantly enhanced both Fas expression and Fas-mediated apoptosis of osteoblasts. The addition of vitamin K2 to the culture resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of functional Fas expression on osteoblasts, in the presence or absence of TNF-alpha. Treatment of human osteoblasts with vitamin K2 clearly suppressed Bax expression of the cells, although the expression of Bcl-2 was not influenced by vitamin K2. Fas ligand (FasL) cDNA transformants were cytotoxic against osteoblasts, and the cytotoxicity was increased when osteoblasts were treated with TNF-alpha. The addition of vitamin K2 to osteoblasts significantly decreased the cytotoxic effects of FasL cDNA transformants. Furthermore, apoptosis of human osteoblasts induced by LLL-CHO, etoposide, or staurosporine was also clearly suppressed in vitamin K2-treated osteoblasts. Our results suggest that vitamin K2 inhibits apoptotic cell death of osteoblasts and maintains the number of osteoblasts. These actions may explain the therapeutic efficacy of vitamin K2 in osteoporosis.
Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine 10/2000; 136(3):181-93. · 2.62 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mechanism controlling the disappearance of osteoclasts from bone surfaces after bone resorption in vivo is largely unknown. This is because there is no suitable experimental system to trace the final fate of osteoclasts. Here, we used an experimental model of tooth movement in rats to show that preexisting osteoclasts disappeared from the bone surface through apoptosis during a force-induced rapid shift from bone resorption to formation. On the distal alveolar bone surface of the maxillary molar in growing rats, many mature osteoclasts were present. When light tensional force was applied to the bone surface through an orthodontic appliance, these preexisting osteoclasts gradually disappeared. One day after the application of force, about 24% of the osteoclasts exhibited apoptotic morphology and the proportion of apoptotic cells was increased to 41% by day 2, then decreased afterward. These changes were undetectable on the control distal alveolar bone surface, which is free from tensional force. As shown by in situ hybridization, a marked increase in transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) messenger RNA (mRNA) was observed in the stretched cells on the tensioned distal bone surface, simultaneously with the loss of osteoclasts. Both of these factors are known to have a negative effect on osteoclast recruitment and survival. As early as 2 days after force application, some of these stretched cells were identified as cuboidal osteoblasts showing intense signals for both factors. Our data suggest there may be a sequential link in tensional force applied on the bone lining cells, up-regulation of TGF-β1/OPG, and disappearance of osteoclasts.
Journal of bone and mineral research: the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research 09/2000; 15(10):1924 - 1934. · 6.04 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Treatment with NO-releaser NOC18 significantly promoted apoptosis in murine osteoclast-like cells, with a transient increase in caspase-3-like protease activity. In contrast, the apoptosis was protected against by caspase inhibitors, most efficiently with the broadly acting caspase specific inhibitor z-Asp-CH2-DCB, indicating involvement of multiple caspases in progression of the apoptosis. Among osteoclast survival factors examined, calcitonin completely protected against morphologically defined-apoptosis and the increase of caspase-3-like protease activity. The effect of calcitonin was mimicked by treatment of cells with (Bu)2cAMP and forskolin, and abolished by protein kinase-A inhibitor H-89. Independently from the PKA activation, colony stimulating factor-1, interleukin-1beta and the receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand also protected against the apoptosis but were less effective than calcitonin. All survival factors investigated inhibited conversion of procaspases-3 and -9 to their mature forms in the cells. Thus, downstream antiapoptotic signaling activity from each factor overlapped in inhibition of caspases. However, how this was attained seemed to be different from each other. Typically, only colony stimulating factor-1 up-regulated expression of endogenous caspase inhibitor protein, X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP), in the osteoclast-like cells.