Teruhiko Wakayama

University of Yamanashi, Kōhu, Yamanashi, Japan

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Publications (192)1229.41 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Transchromosomic (Tc) technology using human chromosome fragments (hCFs), or human artificial chromosomes (HACs), has been used for generating mice containing Mb-sized segments of the human genome. The most significant problem with freely segregating chromosomes with human centromeres has been mosaicism, possibly due to the instability of hCFs or HACs in mice. We report a system for the stable maintenance of Mb-sized human chromosomal fragments following translocation to mouse chromosome 10 (mChr.10). The approach utilizes microcell-mediated chromosome transfer and a combination of site-specific loxP insertion, telomere-directed chromosome truncation, and precise reciprocal translocation for the generation of Tc mice. Human chromosome 21 (hChr.21) was modified with a loxP site and truncated in homologous recombination-proficient chicken DT40 cells. Following transfer to mouse embryonic stem cells harboring a loxP site at the distal region of mChr.10, a ~4 Mb segment of hChr.21 was translocated to the distal region of mChr.10 by transient expression of Cre recombinase. The residual hChr.21/mChr.10ter fragment was reduced by antibiotic negative selection. Tc mice harboring the translocated ~4 Mb fragment were generated by chimera formation and germ line transmission. The hChr.21-derived Mb fragment was maintained stably in tissues in vivo and expression profiles of genes on hChr.21 were consistent with those seen in humans. Thus, Tc technology that enables translocation of human chromosomal regions onto host mouse chromosomes will be useful for studying in vivo functions of the human genome, and generating humanized model mice.
    Transgenic Research 02/2014; · 2.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Here we report a unique cellular reprogramming phenomenon, called stimulus-triggered acquisition of pluripotency (STAP), which requires neither nuclear transfer nor the introduction of transcription factors. In STAP, strong external stimuli such as a transient low-pH stressor reprogrammed mammalian somatic cells, resulting in the generation of pluripotent cells. Through real-time imaging of STAP cells derived from purified lymphocytes, as well as gene rearrangement analysis, we found that committed somatic cells give rise to STAP cells by reprogramming rather than selection. STAP cells showed a substantial decrease in DNA methylation in the regulatory regions of pluripotency marker genes. Blastocyst injection showed that STAP cells efficiently contribute to chimaeric embryos and to offspring via germline transmission. We also demonstrate the derivation of robustly expandable pluripotent cell lines from STAP cells. Thus, our findings indicate that epigenetic fate determination of mammalian cells can be markedly converted in a context-dependent manner by strong environmental cues.
    Nature 01/2014; 505(7485):641-7. · 38.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We recently discovered an unexpected phenomenon of somatic cell reprogramming into pluripotent cells by exposure to sublethal stimuli, which we call stimulus-triggered acquisition of pluripotency (STAP). This reprogramming does not require nuclear transfer or genetic manipulation. Here we report that reprogrammed STAP cells, unlike embryonic stem (ES) cells, can contribute to both embryonic and placental tissues, as seen in a blastocyst injection assay. Mouse STAP cells lose the ability to contribute to the placenta as well as trophoblast marker expression on converting into ES-like stem cells by treatment with adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF). In contrast, when cultured with Fgf4, STAP cells give rise to proliferative stem cells with enhanced trophoblastic characteristics. Notably, unlike conventional trophoblast stem cells, the Fgf4-induced stem cells from STAP cells contribute to both embryonic and placental tissues in vivo and transform into ES-like cells when cultured with LIF-containing medium. Taken together, the developmental potential of STAP cells, shown by chimaera formation and in vitro cell conversion, indicates that they represent a unique state of pluripotency.
    Nature 01/2014; 505(7485):676-80. · 38.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We recently developed the hollow fibro vitrification (HFV) method, which is a novel, high-performance embryo cryopreservation method (Matsunari et al., 2012). In this study, we aimed to verify the applicability of the HFV method for cryopreserving various types of embryos; BDF1 mouse embryos at the 2-cell stage, porcine parthenogenetic morulae derived from in vitro-matured oocytes, bovine morulae produced by in vitro maturation/fertilization (LIAJ Animal Biotechnology Center, Tokyo, Japan), and in vivo-derived blastocysts of common marmosets were vitrified, and their survival was assessed by culture or transfer. The embryos were vitrified using 20mM HEPES-buffered TCM-199 containing 20% calf serum as a base medium. Cellulose acetate hollow fibres (25mm) containing 1 to 20 embryos were placed in an equilibration solution containing 7.5% ethylene glycol (EG) and 7.5% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) for 5 to 7min, followed by incubation for 1min in vitrification solution containing 15% EG, 15% DMSO, and 0.5M sucrose. The embryos were then vitrified by immersion in LN. The embryos were devitrified by immersing the hollow fibre in a 1M sucrose solution at 38.5°C, which was followed by stepwise dilution of the cryoprotectants and washing. For a subset of the vitrified mouse embryos, rewarming in a non-ultra-rapid manner by melting a hollow fibre in air at room temperature for 5s was tested. Embryo transfer was performed to assess the viability of the vitrified mouse embryos. For porcine embryos, vitrification in LN vapor (-150°C) was tested. Development of the vitrified mouse embryos to blastocysts was equal to that of the non-vitrified embryos [105/110 (95.5%) v. 109/110 (99.1%)]. Post-transfer development to fetuses was also equal between the vitrified and non-vitrified embryos [pregnancy rates: 4/4 v. 2/2; developmental rates: 55/80 (68.8%) v. 35/40 (87.5%)]. Non-ultra-rapid rewarming did not decrease the survival of the vitrified mouse embryos [blastocysts: 94/100 (94.0%); pregnancy: 4/4; fetuses: 55/80 (68.8%)]. Blastocyst formation was equivalent for vitrification of porcine embryos in LN vapor [27/34 (79.4%)], direct immersion into LN [28/35 (80.0%)], and the non-vitrified control [31/32 (96.9%)]. Vitrification of 191 bovine morulae resulted in 153 (80.1%) blastocysts. In preliminary experiments, survival of marmoset blastocysts was 100% (n=6). These data demonstrate that the HFV method is (1) effective for embryos of various species and production methods; (2) effective even for porcine in vitro-derived morulae, which are highly cryosensitive; and (3) amenable to modifications such as non-ultra-rapid warming and cooling in LN vapor, increasing the potential applicability of the HFV method. For instance, vitrification in LN vapor may allow embryo cryopreservation with high hygienic standards.
    Reproduction Fertility and Development 12/2013; 26(1):138-9. · 2.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sox2 is a transcription factor required for the maintenance of pluripotency. It also plays an essential role in different types of multipotent stem cells, raising the possibility that Sox2 governs the common stemness phenotype. Here we show that Sox2 is a critical downstream target of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling, which mediates self-renewal of trophoblast stem cells (TSCs). Sustained expression of Sox2 together with Esrrb or Tfap2c can replace FGF dependency. By comparing genome-wide binding sites of Sox2 in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and TSCs combined with inducible knockout systems, we found that, despite the common role in safeguarding the stem cell state, Sox2 regulates distinct sets of genes with unique functions in these two different yet developmentally related types of stem cells. Our findings provide insights into the functional versatility of transcription factors during embryogenesis, during which they can be recursively utilized in a variable manner within discrete network structures.
    Molecular cell 10/2013; · 14.61 Impact Factor
  • Teruhiko Wakayama
    Cellular reprogramming. 08/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Postovulatory mammalian oocyte developmental potential decreases with aging in vivo and in vitro. Aging oocytes typically show cellular fragmentation and chromosome scattering with an abnormally shaped spindle over time. Previously, it was shown that histone acetylation in the mouse oocyte increased during aging and that treatment with trichostatin A (TSA), an inhibitor for class I and II histone deacetylases (HDACs), enhanced the acetylation, that is, aging. In this study, we examined the effect of nicotinamide (NAM), an inhibitor for class III HDACs, on in vitro aging of mouse oocytes as well as TSA. We found that treatment with NAM significantly inhibited cellular fragmentation, spindle elongation and astral microtubules up to 48 h of culture. Although presence of TSA partially inhibited cellular fragmentation and spindle elongation up to 36 h of culture, treatment with TSA induced chromosome scattering at 24 h of culture and more severe cellular fragmentation at 48 h of culture. Further, we found that α-tubulin, a nonhistone protein, increased acetylation during aging, suggesting that not only histone but nonhistone protein acetylation may also increase with oocyte aging. Thus, these data indicate that protein acetylation is abnormally regulated in aging oocytes, which are associated with a variety of aging phenotypes, and that class I/II and class III HDACs may play distinct roles in aging oocytes.
    Journal of Reproduction and Development 03/2013; · 1.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies of serial cloning in animals showed a decrease in efficiency over repeated iterations and a failure in all species after a few generations. This limitation led to the suggestion that repeated recloning might be inherently impossible because of the accumulation of lethal genetic or epigenetic abnormalities. However, we have now succeeded in carrying out repeated recloning in the mouse through a somatic cell nuclear transfer method that includes a histone deacetylase inhibitor. The cloning efficiency did not decrease over 25 generations, and, to date, we have obtained more than 500 viable offspring from a single original donor mouse. The reprogramming efficiency also did not increase over repeated rounds of nuclear transfer, and we did not see the accumulation of reprogramming errors or clone-specific abnormalities. Therefore, our results show that repeated iterative recloning is possible and suggest that, with adequately efficient techniques, it may be possible to reclone animals indefinitely.
    Cell stem cell 03/2013; 12(3):293-7. · 23.56 Impact Factor
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    Atsuo Ogura, Kimiko Inoue, Teruhiko Wakayama
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    ABSTRACT: Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) cloning is the sole reproductive engineering technology that endows the somatic cell genome with totipotency. Since the first report on the birth of a cloned sheep from adult somatic cells in 1997, many technical improvements in SCNT have been made by using different epigenetic approaches, including enhancement of the levels of histone acetylation in the chromatin of the reconstructed embryos. Although it will take a considerable time before we fully understand the nature of genomic programming and totipotency, we may expect that somatic cell cloning technology will soon become broadly applicable to practical purposes, including medicine, pharmaceutical manufacturing and agriculture. Here we review recent progress in somatic cell cloning, with a special emphasis on epigenetic studies using the laboratory mouse as a model.
    Philosophical Transactions of The Royal Society B Biological Sciences 01/2013; 368(1609):20110329. · 6.23 Impact Factor
  • Eiji Mizutani, Atsuo Ogura, Teruhiko Wakayama
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    ABSTRACT: The nuclear transfer (NT) technique in the mouse has enabled us to generate cloned mice and to establish NT embryonic stem (ntES) cells. Direct nuclear injection into mouse oocytes with a piezo impact drive unit can aid in the bypass of several steps of the original cell fusion procedure. It is important to note that only the NT approach can reveal dynamic and global modifications in the epigenome without using genetic modification as well as generating live animals from single cells. Thus, these techniques could also be applied to the preservation of genetic material from any mouse strain instead of preserving embryos or gametes. Moreover, with this technique, we can use not only living cells but also the nuclei of dead cells from frozen mouse carcasses for NT. This chapter describes our most recent protocols of NT into the mouse oocyte for cloning mice and for the establishment of ntES cells from cloned embryos.
    Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) 01/2013; 957:285-300. · 1.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Somatic cell nuclear transfer to an enucleated oocyte is used for reprogramming somatic cells with the aim of achieving totipotency, but most cloned embryos die in the uterus after transfer. While modifying epigenetic states of cloned embryos can improve their development, the production rate of cloned embryos can also be enhanced by changing other factors. It has already been shown that abnormal chromosome segregation (ACS) is a major cause of the developmental failure of cloned embryos and that Latrunculin A (LatA), an actin polymerization inhibitor, improves F-actin formation and birth rate of cloned embryos. Since F-actin is important for chromosome congression in embryos, here we examined the relation between ACS and F-actin in cloned embryos. Using LatA treatment, the occurrence of ACS decreased significantly whereas cloned embryo-specific epigenetic abnormalities such as dimethylation of histone H3 at lysine 9 (H3K9me2) could not be corrected. In contrast, when H3K9me2 was normalized using the G9a histone methyltransferase inhibitor BIX-01294, the Magea2 gene-essential for normal development but never before expressed in cloned embryos-was expressed. However, this did not increase the cloning success rate. Thus, non-epigenetic factors also play an important role in determining the efficiency of mouse cloning.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(10):e78380. · 3.73 Impact Factor
  • Satoshi Kishigami, Ah Reum Lee, Teruhiko Wakayama
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    ABSTRACT: In mammals, a diploid genome following fertilization of haploid cells, an egg, and a spermatozoon is unique and irreproducible. This implies that the generated unique diploid genome is doomed with the individual's inevitable demise. Since it was first reported in 1997 that Dolly the sheep had been cloned, many mammalian species have been cloned successfully using somatic-cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). The success of SCNT in mammals enables us not only to reproduce offspring without germ cells, that is, to "passage" a unique diploid genome, but also to address valuable biological questions on development, nuclear reprogramming, and epigenetic memory. Successful cloning can also support epigenetic reprogramming where the aging clock is reset or reversed. Recent work using iPS cell technology has explored the practicality and led to the recapitulation of premature aging with iPSCs from progeroid laminopathies. As a result, reprogramming tools are also expected to contribute to studying biological age. However, the efficiency of animal cloning is still low in most cases and the mechanism of reprogramming in cloned embryos is still largely unclear. Here, based on recent advances, we describe an improved, more efficient mouse cloning protocol using histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis) and latrunculin A, which increases the success rates of producing cloned mice or establishing ES cells fivefold. This improved method of cloning will provide a strong tool to address many issues including biological aging more easily and with lower cost.
    Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) 01/2013; 1048:109-26. · 1.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human chromosome fragments (hCFs) and human artificial chromosomes (HACs) can be transferred into mouse ES cells to produce trans-chromosomic (Tc) mice. Although hCFs and HACs containing large genomic DNAs can be autonomously maintained in Tc mice, their retention rate is variable in mouse ES cell lines and Tc mouse tissues, possibly because of centromere differences between the species. To improve the retention rate of artificial chromosomes in mouse cells, we constructed novel mouse artificial chromosome (MAC) vectors by truncating a natural mouse chromosome at a site adjacent to the centromeric region. We obtained cell clones containing the MAC vectors that were stably maintained in mouse ES cells and various tissues in Tc mice. The MACs possess acceptor sites into which a desired gene or genes can be inserted. Thus, Tc mice harboring the MAC vectors may be valuable tools for functional analyses of desired genes, producing humanized model mice, and synthetic biology.
    ACS Synthetic Biology 10/2012; · 3.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The transfer of nuclei of fully differentiated cells into enucleated oocytes is a well-recognized method for the generation of embryonic stem (ES) cells. Here, we demonstrate that nuclear transferred ES (NT-ES) cells can be established with high efficiency using innate-like B lymphocytes as donor cells. We established two mouse lines carrying rearranged Ig heavy and light chains using NT-ES cells containing nuclei from peritoneal cavity B1 cells. Analysis of B1 clone lines revealed that the B1-cell generation critically depends on the interaction between antigen (possibly self-antigen) and surface Ig, while the B1-cell maintenance requires the peritoneal environment. The B1-cell expansion takes place in spleen, and is held in check by competitor B2 cells. The results indicate that the NT-ES method could replace the transgenic or knock-in mouse approaches currently used to study the biology of cells that undergo somatic rearrangements of their antigen receptor genes.
    International Immunology 10/2012; · 3.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The most common forms of neurocristopathy in the autonomic nervous system are Hirschsprung disease (HSCR), resulting in congenital loss of enteric ganglia, and neuroblastoma (NB), childhood tumors originating from the sympathetic ganglia and adrenal medulla. The risk for these diseases dramatically increases in patients with congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS) harboring a nonpolyalanine repeat expansion mutation of the Paired-like homeobox 2b (PHOX2B) gene, but the molecular mechanism of pathogenesis remains unknown. We found that introducing nonpolyalanine repeat expansion mutation of the PHOX2B into the mouse Phox2b locus recapitulates the clinical features of the CCHS associated with HSCR and NB. In mutant embryos, enteric and sympathetic ganglion progenitors showed sustained sex-determining region Y (SRY) box10 (Sox10) expression, with impaired proliferation and biased differentiation toward the glial lineage. Nonpolyalanine repeat expansion mutation of PHOX2B reduced transactivation of wild-type PHOX2B on its known target, dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH), in a dominant-negative fashion. Moreover, the introduced mutation converted the transcriptional effect of PHOX2B on a Sox10 enhancer from repression to transactivation. Collectively, these data reveal that nonpolyalanine repeat expansion mutation of PHOX2B is both a dominant-negative and gain-of-function mutation. Our results also demonstrate that Sox10 regulation by PHOX2B is pivotal for the development and pathogenesis of the autonomic ganglia.
    The Journal of clinical investigation 08/2012; 122(9):3145-58. · 15.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although animal cloning is becoming more practicable, there are many abnormalities in cloned embryos, and the success rate of producing live animals by cloning has been low. Here, we focused on the procedure for preventing pseudo-second polar body extrusion from somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT)-derived oocytes. Typically, reconstructed oocytes are treated with cytochalasin B (CB), but here latrunculin A (LatA) was used instead of CB to prevent pseudo-second polar body extrusion by inhibiting actin polymerization. CB caps F-actin, LatA binds G-actin, and both drugs prevent their polymerization. When the localization of F-actin was examined using phalloidin staining, it was abnormally scattered in the cytoplasm of CB-treated 1-cell embryos, but this was not detected in LatA-treated or in vitro fertilization-derived control embryos. The spindle was larger in CB-treated oocytes than in LatA-treated or untreated control oocytes. LatA treatment also doubled the rate of full-term development after embryo transfer. These results suggest that cloning efficiency in mice can be improved by optimizing each step of the SCNT procedure. Moreover, by using LatA, we could simplify the procedure with a higher birth rate of cloned mice compared with our original method.
    Biology of Reproduction 04/2012; 86(6):180. · 4.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To clarify the causes of the poor success rate of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), we addressed the impact of abnormalities observed at early cleavage stages of development on further full-term development using 'less-damage' imaging technology. To visualize the cellular and nuclear division processes, SCNT embryos were injected with a mixture of mRNAs encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein coupled with α-tubulin (EGFP-α-tubulin) and monomeric red fluorescent protein 1 coupled with histone H2B (H2B-mRFP1) and monitored until the morula/blastocyst stage three-dimensionally. First, the rate of development of SCNT embryos and its effect on the full-term developmental ability were analyzed. The speed of development was retarded and varied in SCNT embryos. Despite the rate of development, SCNT morulae having more than eight cells at 70h after activation could develop to term. Next, chromosomal segregation was investigated in SCNT embryos during early embryogenesis. To our surprise, more than 90% of SCNT embryos showed abnormal chromosomal segregation (ACS) before they developed to morula stage. Importantly, ACS per se did not affect the rate of development, morphology or cellular differentiation in preimplantation development. However, ACS occurring before the 8-cell stage severely inhibited postimplantation development. Thus, the morphology and/or rate of development are not significant predictive markers for the full-term development of SCNT embryos. Moreover, the low efficiency of animal cloning may be caused primarily by genetic abnormalities such as ACS, in addition to the epigenetic errors described previously.
    Developmental Biology 04/2012; 364(1):56-65. · 3.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cloning mammals by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has become an established procedure, but the success rate remains low and gene expression abnormalities are also observed. In addition, SCNT pups exhibited an abnormal gene expression profile with a high degree of heterogeneity among individuals. Recently, we reported that somatic clones treated with trichostatin A (TSA) exhibited a significantly improved success rate, probably due to its effects on chromatin remodeling and histone modification in early embryos. Here we show that the TSA treatment also improves the long-term consistency of genome-wide gene expression regulation: the total number of genes commonly exhibiting up- or downregulation in the TSA clone pups decreased to half of the conventional SCNT pups, and the variation among individuals observed in the SCNT pups was also reduced to the level of the pups produced by the intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) method. Interestingly, the total gene expression profile of the TSA clones came to resemble that of the ICSI pups.
    Cellular reprogramming. 02/2012; 14(1):45-55.
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    ABSTRACT: To culture preimplantation embryos in vitro, water-jacketed CO(2) incubators are used widely for maintaining an optimal culture environment in terms of gas phase, temperature and humidity. We investigated the possibility of mouse embryo culture in a plastic bag kept at 37°C. Zygotes derived from in vitro fertilization or collected from naturally mated B6D2F1 female mice were put in a drop of medium on a plastic culture dish and then placed in a commercially available plastic bag. When these were placed in an oven under air at 37°C for 96 h, the rate of blastocyst development and the cell numbers of embryos decreased. However, when the concentration of O(2) was reduced to 5% using a deoxidizing agent and a small oxygen meter, most zygotes developed into blastocysts. These blastocysts were judged normal according to their cell number, Oct3/4 and Cdx2 gene expression levels, the apoptosis rate and the potential for full-term development after embryo transfer to pseudopregnant recipients. Furthermore, using this system, normal offspring were obtained simply by keeping the bag on a warming plate. This culture method was applied successfully to both hybrid and inbred strains. In addition, because the developing embryos could be observed through the transparent wall of the bag, it was possible to capture time-lapse images of live embryos until the blastocyst stage without needing an expensive microscope-based incubation chamber. These results suggest that mouse zygotes are more resilient to their environment than generally believed. This method might prove useful in economical culture systems or for the international shipment of embryos.
    PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(10):e47512. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Technologies for vitally labeling cells with fluorescent dyes have advanced remarkably. However, to excite fluorescent dyes currently requires powerful illumination, which can cause phototoxic damage to the cells and increases the cost of microscopy. We have developed a filter system to excite fluorescent dyes using a conventional transmission microscope equipped with a halogen lamp. This method allows us to observe previously invisible cell organelles, such as the metaphase spindle of oocytes, without causing phototoxicity. Cells remain healthy even after intensive manipulation under fluorescence observation, such as during bovine, porcine and mouse somatic cell cloning using nuclear transfer. This method does not require expensive epifluorescence equipment and so could help to reduce the science gap between developed and developing countries.
    PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(2):e31638. · 3.73 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

7k Citations
1,229.41 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2014
    • University of Yamanashi
      • Department of Life and Environmental Sciences
      Kōhu, Yamanashi, Japan
  • 2004–2013
    • RIKEN
      • • Center for Developmental Biology (CDB)
      • • Laboratory for Cellular Reprogramming
      Wako, Saitama-ken, Japan
    • Honolulu University
      Honolulu, Hawaii, United States
  • 2006–2012
    • Tokyo Medical and Dental University
      • Department of Epigenetics
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
    • Kobe University
      Kōbe, Hyōgo, Japan
  • 2009–2010
    • Konkuk University
      • • Department of Animal Science and Technology
      • • Department of Animal Biotechnology
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 1994–2010
    • The University of Tokyo
      • Faculty and Graduate School of Agriculture and Life Sceince
      Tokyo, Tokyo-to, Japan
  • 2008
    • Kinki University
      Ōsaka, Ōsaka, Japan
  • 2007
    • Johns Hopkins University
      • Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences
      Baltimore, MD, United States
    • University of Connecticut
      • Department of Animal Science
      Storrs, CT, United States
  • 1998–2004
    • University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa
      • • Institute for Biogenesis Research
      • • Department of Medicine
      Honolulu, Hawaii, United States
  • 2003
    • Advanced Cell Technology
      Marlboro Meadows, Maryland, United States
  • 2000–2001
    • The Rockefeller University
      New York City, New York, United States
    • National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 1997–2001
    • Med-Assist School of Hawaii
      • Department of Anatomy and Reproductive Biology
      Honolulu, Hawaii, United States
    • National Institute of Health Sciences, Japan
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 1997–1998
    • Murdoch University
      • School of Veterinary and Life Sciences
      Perth, Western Australia, Australia
  • 1995–1996
    • National Institute of Animal Health
      Ibaragi, Ōsaka, Japan