[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Marginal zone mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) B-cell lymphoma is the most common extranodal non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The t(11;18)(q21;q21) translocation occurs frequently in MALT lymphomas and creates a chimeric NF-kappaB-activating protein containing the baculoviral IAP repeat (BIR) domains of c-IAP2 (inhibitor of apoptosis protein 2) fused with portions of the MALT1 protein. The BIR1 domain of c-IAP2 interacts directly with TRAF2 (TNFalpha-receptor-associated factor-2), but its role in NF-kappaB activation is still unclear. Here, we investigated the role of TRAF2 in c-IAP2/MALT1-induced NF-kappaB activation. We show the BIR1 domain of c-IAP2 is essential for NF-kappaB activation, whereas BIR2 and BIR3 domains are not. Studies of c-IAP2/MALT1 BIR1 mutant (E47A/R48A) that fails to activate NF-kappaB showed loss of TRAF2 binding, but retention of TRAF6 binding, suggesting that interaction of c-IAP2/MALT1 with TRAF6 is insufficient for NF-kappaB induction. In addition, a dominant-negative TRAF2 mutant or downregulation of TRAF2 achieved by small interfering RNA inhibited NF-kappaB activation by c-IAP2/MALT1 showing that TRAF2 is indispensable. Comparisons of the bioactivity of intact c-IAP2/MALT1 oncoprotein and BIR1 E47A/R48A c-IAP2/MALT1 mutant that cannot bind TRAF2 in a lymphoid cell line provided evidence that TRAF2 interaction is critical for c-IAP2/MALT1-mediated increases in the NF-kappaB activity, increased expression of endogenous NF-kappaB target genes (c-FLIP, TRAF1), and resistance to apoptosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Integrity of the blood vessel wall is essential for vascular homeostasis and organ function. A dynamic balance between endothelial cell survival and apoptosis contributes to this integrity during vascular development and pathological angiogenesis. The genetic and molecular mechanisms regulating these processes in vivo are still largely unknown. Here, we show that Birc2 (also known as cIap1) is essential for maintaining endothelial cell survival and blood vessel homeostasis during vascular development. Using a forward-genetic approach, we identified a zebrafish null mutant for birc2, which shows severe hemorrhage and vascular regression due to endothelial cell integrity defects and apoptosis. Using genetic and molecular approaches, we show that Birc2 positively regulates the formation of the TNF receptor complex I in endothelial cells, thereby promoting NF-kappaB activation and maintaining vessel integrity and stabilization. In the absence of Birc2, a caspase-8-dependent apoptotic program takes place that leads to vessel regression. Our findings identify Birc2 and TNF signaling components as critical regulators of vascular integrity and endothelial cell survival, thereby providing an additional target pathway for the control of angiogenesis and blood vessel homeostasis during embryogenesis, regeneration and tumorigenesis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) regulate apoptosis primarily by inhibiting caspase-family proteases. However, many IAPs also possess E3 ligase (ubiquitin-protein isopeptide ligase) activities implicated in both caspase-dependent and -independent functions of these proteins. Here, we compared the structural features of cIAP1 responsible for its interactions with two known target proteins, TRAF2 and SMAC. The N-terminal (BIR1) and C-terminal (BIR3) BIR domains of cIAP1 were determined to be necessary and sufficient for binding TRAF2 and SMAC, respectively. Mutational analysis of the BIR1 and BIR3 domains identified critical residues required for TRAF2 and SMAC binding. Using these mutants, cIAP1-mediated ubiquitination of TRAF2 and SMAC in vitro was determined to be correspondingly dependent on intact binding sites on BIR1 and BIR3. Because TRAF2 regulates NF-kappaB activation, the effects of cIAP1 on TRAF2-mediated induction of NF-kappaB transcriptional activity were studied using reporter gene assays. Expression of a fragment of cIAP1 encompassing the three BIR domains (but not full-length cIAP1) greatly enhanced TRAF2-induced increases in NF-kappaB activity, providing a convenient assay for monitoring BIR-dependent effects of cIAP1 on TRAF2 in cells. BIR1 mutants of the BIR1-3 fragment of cIAP1 that failed to bind TRAF2 lost the ability to modulate NF-kappaB activity, demonstrating a requirement for BIR1-mediated interactions with TRAF2. Altogether, these findings demonstrate the modularity and diversification of BIR domains, showing that a single cIAP can direct its E3 ligase activity toward different substrates and can alter the cellular functions of different protein targets in accordance with differences in the specificity of individual BIR domains.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 02/2006; 281(2):1080-90. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We explored the location and function of the human cIAP1 protein, a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) family. Unlike family member X-linked IAP (XIAP), which was predominantly cytoplasmic, the cIAP1 protein localized almost exclusively to nuclei in cells, as determined by immunofluorescence microscopy and subcellular fractionation methods. Interestingly, apoptotic stimuli induced nuclear export of cIAP1, which was blocked by a chemical caspase inhibitor. In dividing cells, cIAP1 was released into the cytosol early in mitosis, then reaccumulated in nuclei in late anaphase and in telophase, with the exception of a pool of cIAP1 that associated with the midbody. Survivin, another IAP family member, and cIAP1 were both localized on midbody microtubules at telophase, and also interacted with each other during mitosis. Cells stably overexpressing cIAP1 accumulated in G(2)-M phase and grew slower than control-transfected cells. These cIAP1-overexpressing cells also exhibited cytokinesis defects over 10 times more often than control cells and displayed a mitotic checkpoint abnormality with production of polyploid cells when exposed to microtubule-targeting drugs nocodazole and paclitaxel (Taxol). Our findings demonstrate a role for overexpressed cIAP1 in genetic instability, possibly by interfering with mitotic functions of Survivin. These findings may have important implications for cancers in which cIAP1 overexpression occurs.
Cancer Research 02/2005; 65(1):210-8. · 8.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: XIAP is member of the IAP family of anti-apoptotic proteins and is known for its ability to bind and suppress caspase family cell death proteases. A phenylurea series of chemical inhibitors of XIAP was recently generated by our laboratories (Schimmer, A. D., Welsh, K., Pinilla, C., Bonneau, M., Wang, Z., Pedersen, I. M., Scott, F. L., Glinsky, G. V., Scudiero, D. A., Sausville, E., Salvesen, G., Nefzi, A., Ostresh, J. M., Houghten, R. A., and Reed, J. C. (2004) Cancer Cell 5, 25-35). We examined the mechanisms of action of these chemical compounds using biochemical, molecular biological, and genetic methods. Active phenylurea-based compounds dissociated effector protease caspase-3 but not initiator protease caspase-9 from XIAP in vitro and restored caspase-3 but not caspase-9 enzymatic activity. When applied to tumor cell lines in culture, active phenylurea-based compounds induced apoptosis in a rapid, concentration-dependent manner, associated with activation of cellular caspases. Apoptosis induced by active phenylurea-based compounds was blocked by chemical inhibitors of caspases, with inhibitors of downstream effector caspases displaying more effective suppression than inhibitors of upstream initiator caspases. Phenylurea-based XIAP antagonists induced apoptosis (defined by annexin V staining) prior to mitochondrial membrane depolarization, in contrast to cytotoxic anticancer drugs. Consistent with these findings, apoptosis induced by phenylurea-based compounds was not altered by genetic alterations in the expression of Bcl-2 family proteins that control mitochondria-dependent cell death pathways, including over-expression of anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 or Bcl-X(L) and genetic ablation of pro-apoptotic proteins Bax and Bak. Conversely, conditional over-expression of an active fragment of XIAP or genetic ablation of XIAP expression altered the apoptosis dose-response of the compounds. Altogether, these findings indicate that phenylurea-based XIAP antagonists block interaction of downstream effector caspases with XIAP, thus inducing apoptosis of tumor cell lines through a caspase-dependent, Bcl-2/Bax-independent mechanism.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 12/2004; 279(46):48168-76. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Regulators of apoptosis are thought to work in concert, but the molecular interactions of this process are not understood. Here, we show that in response to cell death stimulation, survivin, a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) gene family, associates with another IAP protein, XIAP, via conserved baculovirus IAP repeats. Formation of a survivin-XIAP complex promotes increased XIAP stability against ubiquitination/proteasomal destruction and synergistic inhibition of apoptosis, which is abolished in XIAP(-/-) cells. Therefore, orchestration of an IAP-IAP complex regulates apoptosis.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 09/2004; 279(33):34087-90. · 4.65 Impact Factor