Tao Hu

Dalian University of Technology, Lü-ta-shih, Liaoning, China

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Publications (42)113.16 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Human growth hormone (hGH) suffers from a short plasma half-life of ~15 min, necessitating frequent injections to maintain its physiological effect. PEGylation, conjugation of polyethylene glycol (PEG) is an effective strategy to prolong the plasma half-life of hGH. However, PEGylation can significantly decrease the bioactivity of hGH. Thus, a new PEGylation approach is desired to improve the pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of the PEGylated hGH. In the present study, two N-terminally mono-PEGylated hGHs were prepared using aldehyde chemistry. Phenyl amide and ethyl moieties were used as the linkers between PEG and hGH, respectively. The hydrodynamic volume, proteolytic sensitivity and immunogenicity of the PEGylated hGH with phenyl amide linker (hGH-phenyl-PEG) were lower than those of the one with propyl linker (hGH-prop-PEG). In addition, hGH-phenyl-PEG showed a higher in vitro bioactivity and better PK and PD than hGH-prop-PEG. The better PK of hGH-phenyl-PEG was mainly due to its lower proteolytic sensitivity and low immunogenicity. The better PD of hGH-phenyl-PEG was mainly due to its higher in vitro bioactivity. Thus, the phenyl amide linker can improve the overall pharmacological profiles of the PEGylated hGH. Our study is expected to advance the development of long-acting protein biotherapeutics with high therapeutic efficacy.
    Molecular Pharmaceutics 08/2014; · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recombinant human interferon-ω (rhIFN-ω) exhibits a potent antiviral activity. Because of poor pharmacokinetics (PK) of rhIFN-ω, frequent dosing of rhIFN-ω is necessitated to achieve the sustained antiviral efficacy. PEGylation can efficiently improve the PK of rhIFN-ω while substantially decrease its bioactivity. The structure, antiviral activity and PK of the PEGylated rhIFN-ω were measured to establish their relationship with PEGylation sites, polyethylene glycol (PEG) mass and PEG structure. Accordingly, N-terminus and the lysine residues were selected as the PEGylation sites. PEGs with Mw of 20 kDa and 40 kDa were used to investigate the effect of PEG mass. Linear and branched PEGs were used to investigate the effect of PEG structure. PEGylation decreased the antiviral activity of rhIFN-ω and improved its PK. The PEGylation sites determine the bioactivity of the PEGylated rhIFN-ω and the conjugated PEG mass determines the PK. N-terminally PEGylated rhIFN-ω with 40 kDa linear PEG maintains 21.7% of the rhIFN-ω antiviral activity with a half-life of 139.6 h. Thus, N-terminally PEGylated rhIFN-ω with linear 40 kDa PEG is a potential antiviral agent for long-acting treatment of the viral diseases.
    Antiviral research. 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: As a potential hemoglobin (Hb)-based oxygen carrier (HBOC), the PEGylated Hb has received much attention for its non-nephrotoxicity. However, PEGylation can adversely alter the structural and functional properties of Hb. The site of PEGylation is an important factor to determine the structure and function of the PEGylated Hb. Thus, protection of some sensitive residues of Hb from PEGylation is of great significance to develop the PEGylated Hb as HBOC. Here, Cys-93(β) of Hb was conjugated with 20kDa polyethylene glycol (PEG20K) through hydrazone and disulfide bonds. Then, the conjugate was modified with PEG5K succinimidyl carbonate (PEG5K-SC) using acylation chemistry, followed by removal of PEG20K Hb with hydrazone hydrolysis and disulfide reduction. Reversible conjugation of PEG20K at Cys-93(β) can protect Lys-95(β), Val-1(α) and Lys-16(α) of Hb from PEGylation with PEG5K-SC. The autoxidation rate, oxygen affinity, the structural perturbation and tetramer instability of the PEGylated Hb were significantly decreased upon protection with PEG20K. The present study is expected to improve the efficacy of the PEGylated Hb as oxygen therapeutics.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 04/2014; · 4.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Context: PEGylated hemoglobin (Hb) is a promising oxygen therapeutic agent for clinical application. However, it suffered from structural perturbation, functional instability and methemoglobin (metHb) formation. Objective: To improve the structural, functional, physical and anti-oxidation properties of the PEGylated Hb. Materials and methods: PEGylation of Hb with CO binding (HbCO) was conducted using maleimide and acylation chemistry, respectively. Physical and chemical parameters were measured for Hb samples. The circular dichroism spectra, dynamic light scattering and analytical ultracentrifugation were used to investigate the structure and conformation of PEGylated HbCO. Results: CO binding can inhibit the autoxidation of the PEGylated Hb, structurally stabilize its tetramer and improve its thermal and pH stability. Importantly, the circular dichroism spectra showed that CO binding can decrease the structural perturbation of Hb induced by PEGylation. The PEGylated HbCO with CO release showed slightly higher oxygen-delivery capacity than the PEGylated Hb. The PEGylated HbCO did not show metHb formation after 30-day storage at 4°C. Discussion and conclusion: CO binding structurally stabilized the PEGylated Hb, abolished its metHb formation, and significantly increased its physical stability. In particular, it also avoided the perturbation of PEG chains on the heme microenvironment. The functional property of the PEGylated HbCO can be maintained during its long-term storage, which is of great significance for field transfusion.
    Artificial cells, nanomedicine, and biotechnology (Print). 03/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: As a potential hemoglobin (Hb)-based oxygen carrier (HBOC), the PEGylated Hb has received much attention for its non-nephrotoxicity. However, PEGylation can adversely alter the structural and functional properties of Hb. The site of PEGylation is an important factor to determine the structure and function of the PEGylated Hb. Thus, protection of some sensitive residues of Hb from PEGylation is of great significance to develop the PEGylated Hb as HBOC. Here, Cys-93(β) of Hb was conjugated with 20 kDa polyethylene glycol (PEG20K) through hydrazone and disulfide bonds. Then, the conjugate was modified with PEG5K succinimidyl carbonate (PEG5K-SC) using acylation chemistry, followed by removal of PEG20K Hb with hydrazone hydrolysis and disulfide reduction. Reversible conjugation of PEG20K at Cys-93(β) can protect Lys-95(β), Val-1(α) and Lys-16(α) of Hb from PEGylation with PEG5K-SC. The autoxidation rate, oxygen affinity, the structural perturbation and tetramer instability of the PEGylated Hb were significantly decreased upon protection with PEG20K. The present study is expected to improve the efficacy of the PEGylated Hb as oxygen therapeutics.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Proteins & Proteomics 01/2014; · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recombinant human interferon-ω (rhIFN-ω) exhibits a potent antiviral activity. Because of poor pharmacokinetics (PK) of rhIFN-ω, frequent dosing of rhIFN-ω is necessitated to achieve the sustained antiviral efficacy. PEGylation can efficiently improve the PK of rhIFN-ω while substantially decrease its bioactivity. The structure, antiviral activity and PK of the PEGylated rhIFN-ω were measured to establish their relationship with PEGylation sites, polyethylene glycol (PEG) mass and PEG structure. Accordingly, N-terminus and the lysine residues were selected as the PEGylation sites. PEGs with Mw of 20 kDa and 40 kDa were used to investigate the effect of PEG mass. Linear and branched PEGs were used to investigate the effect of PEG structure. PEGylation decreased the antiviral activity of rhIFN-ω and improved its PK. The PEGylation sites determine the bioactivity of the PEGylated rhIFN-ω and the conjugated PEG mass determines the PK. N-terminally PEGylated rhIFN-ω with 40 kDa linear PEG maintains 21.7% of the rhIFN-ω antiviral activity with a half-life of 139.6 h. Thus, N-terminally PEGylated rhIFN-ω with linear 40 kDa PEG is a potential antiviral agent for long-acting treatment of the viral diseases.
    Antiviral Research. 01/2014;
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    Journal of Luminescence 01/2014; 145:208-212. · 2.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PEGylation can effectively improve the therapeutic potential of staphylokinase (SAK), a thrombolysis agent for therapy of myocardial infarction. However, polyethylene glycol (PEG) can sterically shield SAK and drastically decrease its bioactivity. In the present study, N-terminally PEGylated SAKs (5 and 20 kDa PEG), C-terminally PEGylated SAKs with phenyl linker and the ones with amyl linker (5 and 20 kDa PEG) were prepared. The effects of the PEG length, the PEGylation site and linker chemistry on the bioactivity of the heat-treated PEGylated SAK were investigated. Heat treatment at 70 °C for 2 h can improve the bioactivity of the C-terminally PEGylated SAKs, where the one with amyl linker and 20 kDa PEG showed the highest increase extent (27%) in the bioactivity. Thus, our study can advance the development of long-acting pharmaceutical protein with high bioactivity.
    Process Biochemistry. 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a serious Gram-positive pathogen responsible for several life-threatening pneumococcal diseases. Pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide (CPS) is a key virulence determinant of S. pneumoniae and its immunogenicity can be improved by conjugation with a carrier protein. Reductive amination, the most widely used approach for pneumococcal CPS conjugate vaccine (PCV), suffers from low conjugation efficiency and the problem of steric hindrance. Here, copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition was used for development of PCV with long spacer arm (L-PCV). Tetanus toxoid (TT) was used as the carrier protein. The long spacer arm in L-PCV can minimize the problem of steric hindrance between CPS and TT, thereby improving the CPS-specific antibody titers in the mice model. L-PCV can also induce high avidity functional antibody and elicit immunological memory in response to the native CPS.
    Vaccine 10/2013; · 3.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: ZnO nanosheets with triangular morphology have been synthesized on an Au-coated silicon substrate through a facile thermal evaporation process. The morphologies and microstructures of the nanosheets were studied by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and a high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM). These studies show that a nanosheet is commonly composed of two parts: a triangular ZnO sheet and an Au nanoparticle attached on its tip-end. Detailed crystallography analyses conclude that the formation of the highly crystalline nanostructures can be assigned to a combination of a vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) process that is believed to be responsible for its initial nucleation and subsequent crystallization along the growth direction, and a vapor-solid (VS) process that is responsible for its further radial growth. The spatially-resolved cathodoluminescence (CL) spectra exhibit a sharp strong near-band-edge (NBE) emission in the ultraviolet range and a negligible green emission.
    Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology 08/2013; 13(8):5744-9. · 1.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Growth hormone antagonist (GHA), an analog of growth hormone (GH), can inhibit GH action and treat acromegaly. However, GHA suffers from a short plasma half-life of 15-20min that has limited its clinical application. PEGylation, conjugation with polyethylene glycol (PEG), can increase the plasma half-life of GHA. Single PEG attachment (mono-PEGylation) at N-terminus of GHA has the advantages of product homogeneity and minimization of the bioactivity loss. Conjugation of large PEG molecule may increase the plasma half-life but could potentially decrease the bioactivity of GHA, due to the steric shielding effect of PEG. Thus, N-terminal mono-PEGylation of GHA with 20kDa and 40kDa PEG were used to look for a balance of the two competing factors. Sedimentation velocity analysis suggested that 40kDa PEG was more efficient than 20kDa PEG to elongate the molecular shape of the conjugate. As reflected by marginal suppression of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), GHA conjugated with 40kDa PEG was statistically indistinguishable from the saline solution that could not inhibit GH action. In contrast, GHA conjugated with 20kDa PEG can apparently inhibit GH action, as reflected by IGF-I suppression of 30∼43%. Thus, our work demonstrated the effective therapeutic potency of N-terminally mono-PEGylated GHA.
    International Journal of Pharmaceutics 06/2013; · 3.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neisseria meningitidis is a life-threatening pathogen that causes meningitis and other clinical manifestations. As a key virulence determinant, meningococcal capsular polysaccharide (PS) can be used to prevent meningococcal diseases. Conjugation of PS to carrier protein can significantly improve the immunogenicity of PS and induce memory response in infants and young children. However, the conjugate vaccine may suffer from steric shielding of antigenic PS epitopes by carrier protein. Here, a heterobifunctional polyethylene glycol (PEG) was used as a spacer arm to conjugate meningococcal group Y capsular PS with tetanus toxoid (TT). PEG can avoid self-crosslink of PS and increase the PS/TT ratio of the vaccine. Significant structural change in TT and PS was not observed upon conjugation. As compared to the vaccine without PEG, immunization with the vaccine using PEG as the spacer arm led to 3.0-fold increase in the PS-specific IgG titers and a prolonged immune persistence. Paradoxically, PEG, a non-immunogenic hydrophilic polymer has been widely used to couple therapeutic protein for increasing its circulatory time and decreasing its immunogenicity. Presumably, PEG can fully decrease the steric shielding effect of TT on antigenic epitopes of PS and suppress the immunogenicity of TT. In addition, PEG can prolong the immune persistence of the conjugate vaccine and improve its ability to elicit cellular immunity. Thus, PEG can be used as a spacer arm to develop more effective PS conjugate vaccine for prevention of bacterial infection.
    Journal of Controlled Release 03/2013; · 7.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PEGylation can improve the protein efficacy by prolonging serum half-life and reducing proteolytic sensitivity and immunogenicity. However, PEGylation may decrease the bioactivity of a protein by interfering with binding of its substrate or receptors. Here, staphylokinase (SAK), a thrombolysis agent for therapy of myocardial infarction, was mono-PEGylated at the C-terminus of SAK far from its bioactive domain. Phenyl, propyl and amyl moieties were used as linkers between SAK and polyethylene glycol (PEG), respectively. Flexible propyl and amyl linkers lead to loose conformation. In contrast, rigid and hydrophobic phenyl linker induces dense PEG conformation that can extensively shield most domains adjacent to C-terminus (e.g., the antigen epitopes and proteolytic sites) of SAK and inefficiently shield its bioactive domain. As compared with loose PEG conformation, dense PEG conformation is more efficient to maintain the bioactivity, increase the plasma half-life, and decrease the proteolytic sensitivity and immunogenicity of the PEGylated SAK.
    Biomacromolecules 01/2013; · 5.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PEGylation is a successful approach to improve potency of a therapeutic protein. The improved therapeutic potency is mainly due to the steric shielding effect of PEG. However, the underlying mechanism of this effect on the protein is not well understood, especially on the protein interaction with its high molecular weight substrate or receptor. Here, experimental study and molecular dynamics simulation were used to provide molecular insight into the interaction between the PEGylated protein and its receptor. Staphylokinase (Sak), a therapeutic protein for coronary thrombolysis, was used as a model protein. Four PEGylated Saks were prepared by site-specific conjugation of 5 kDa/20 kDa PEG to N-terminus and C-terminus of Sak, respectively. Experimental study suggests that the native conformation of Sak is essentially not altered by PEGylation. In contrast, the bioactivity, the hydrodynamic volume and the molecular symmetric shape of the PEGylated Sak are altered and dependent on the PEG chain length and the PEGylation site. Molecular modeling of the PEGylated Saks suggests that the PEG chain remains highly flexible and can form a distinctive hydrated layer, thereby resulting in the steric shielding effect of PEG. Docking analyses indicate that the binding affinity of Sak to its receptor is dependent on the PEG chain length and the PEGylation site. Computational simulation results explain experimental data well. Our present study clarifies molecular details of PEG chain on protein surface and may be essential to the rational design, fabrication and clinical application of PEGylated proteins.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(7):e68559. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ribonuclease A (RNase A) is a therapeutic enzyme with cytotoxic action against tumor cells. Its clinical application is limited by the short half-life and insufficient stability. Conjugation of albumin can overcome the limitation, whereas dramatically decrease the enzymatic activity of RNase A. Here, three strategies were proposed to prepare the RNase A–bovine serum albumin (BSA) conjugates. R-SMCC-B (a conjugate of four RNase A attached with one BSA) and R-PEG-B (a mono-conjugate) were prepared using Sulfo-SMCC (a short bifunctional linker) and mal-PEG-NHS (a bifunctional PEG), respectively. Mal-PEG-NHS and hexadecylamine (HDA) were used to prepare the mono-conjugate, R-HDA-B, where HDA was adopted to bind BSA. The PEG linker can elongate the proximity between RNase A and BSA. In contrast, four RNase A were closely located on BSA in R-SMCC-B. R-SMCC-B showed the lowest Km and the highest relative enzymatic activity and kcat/Km in the three conjugates. Presumably, the tetravalent interaction of RNase A in R-SMCC-B can increase the binding affinity to its substrate. In addition, the slow release of BSA from R-HDA-B may increase the enzymatic activity of R-HDA-B. Our study is expected to provide strategies to develop protein–albumin conjugate with high therapeutic potential.
    Journal of Biotechnology 12/2012; 162(s 2–3):283–288. · 3.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hemoglobin (Hb)-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs) are potential pharmaceutical agents that can be used in surgery or emergency medicine. PEGylation can modulate the vasoactivity of Hb and is a widely used approach to develop HBOCs. However, PEGylation can significantly enhance the tetramer-dimer dissociation of Hb, which may perturb the structure of Hb and increase its observed adverse effect. Thus, it is necessary to increase the tetramer stability of the PEGylated Hb. Propylbenzmethylation at Val-1(α) of HbA was carried out to stabilize the Hb tetramer. The propylbenzmethylated Hb at Val-1(α) (PrB-Hb) was used as the starting material for site-specific PEGylation at Cys-93(β) of Hb using maleimide PEG. Structural and functional properties, autoxidation rate and thermal stability of the resultant product (PEG-PrB-Hb) were measured. Propylbenzmethylation at Val-1(α) led to 25-fold and 24-fold decreases in the tetramer-dimer dissociation constant of HbA and PEG-Hb, respectively. The increased tetramer stability is due to the enhanced hydrophobicity of the area around Val-1(α) and the increased polar interaction of Hb upon propylbenzmethylation. Thus, the structural and functional properties of PEG-Hb were improved, and its autoxidation rate and thermal denaturation were decreased. Propylbenzmethylation at Val-1(α) showed higher ability than propylation at Val-1(α) to improve the structural and functional properties and decrease the side effect of PEG-Hb. Our study can facilitate the biotechnological development of stable PEGylated Hb as more advanced HBOC. Our study is also expected to improve the stability of the tetrameric or dimeric proteins (e.g., uric oxidase) by propylbenzmethylation at their N-terminus.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 09/2012; 1820(12):2044-51. · 4.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PEGylation can improve the therapeutic potential of ribonuclease A (RNase A), a cancer chemotherapeutic agent. However, the common PEGylation that targets at the ɛ-amino groups of proteins can lead to imprecise control of the stoichiometry of the protein-PEG conjugate (i.e., mono-, di- and multi-PEGylated protein). To prepare a PEGylated therapeutic protein, it is desirable that the protein is mono-PEGylated for industrial production, convenient purification and analytical characterization. Here, N-hydroxysuccinimide esters of S-acetylthioacetic acid (SATA) and 2-iminothiolane (IT) were used to introduce thiol groups on RNase A, followed by maleimide chemistry based PEGylation of the thiolated RNase A. Interestingly, the yield of mono-PEGylated RNase A was higher than 60%, and di- or multi-PEGylated RNase A were absent in the PEGylated product. Presumably, the limited number and low solvent accessibility of the introduced thiol group favored mono-PEGylation of RNase A. As compared to the unmodified RNase A, the mono-PEGylated RNase A showed slightly decreased enzymatic activity, increased anti-proliferative ability and unchanged structural properties. Our study is expected to control the PEGylation process and optimize the industrial pharmaceutical production of PEGylated proteins.
    Process Biochemistry. 09/2012; 47(9):1364–1370.
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    ABSTRACT: Conventional protein PEGylation is carried out in aqueous solution. However, some hydrophobic proteins seem to be stable in organic solution. In this study, a novel approach of PEGylating IFN-β-1b in an organic solution of 2-butanol (2-BuOH) was investigated. Compared with protein PEGylation in aqueous solution, the overall modification yields increased more than 37%, while the yield of mono-PEGylated products could be increased by 36%. Furthermore, the PEGylated IFN-β-1b, which was obtained in organic solution, demonstrated 18% more antiviral potency than those derived from aqueous solution. The PEGylation step could be directly connected to the previous protein separation step for process integration. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and atomic force microscope (AFM) analysis revealed that IFN-β-1b formed aggregates both in water and in 2-BuOH solutions. However, the aggregates were much smaller and more homogeneous in 2-BuOH than those in aqueous solution, thereby providing larger solvent accessible protein surfaces, which resulted in a more productive PEGylation process. In addition, the results of circular dichroism (CD), fluorescence spectra, and peptide mapping suggested that the increased bioactivity came from the difference in PEGylation site distribution due to solution environment that induced conformational discrepancy. The results of this study show that PEGylation of IFN-β-1b in organic solution is a facile and efficient process, which might find applications for other hydrophobic proteins.
    Bioconjugate Chemistry 08/2012; 23(9):1812-20. · 4.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to clone and express the nucleotidylytransferase encoding gene-amiE from the biosynthetic gene cluster of amicetin, a disaccharide nucleoside antibiotic, and to characterize AmiE in vitro. The amiE, encoding a nucleotidylytransferase of 257 amino acid, was PCR amplified and cloned into pET28a, resulting in the plasmid pCSG4001, which was transformed into E. coli BL21(DE3) for expressing N-(His)6-tag AmiE. The recombinant AmiE was purified by affinity chromatography via AKTA Purifier 10 system. The AmiE-catalyzed reactions were performed using TTP (or UTP) and glucose-1-phosphate as substrates. The enzyme assays were analyzed by HPLC; the substrate flexibility of AmiE was probed with three unnatural sugars-1-phosphate, including galactose-1-phosphate, galactosamine-1-phosphate and mannos-1-phosphate. The N-(His)6-tag AmiE was expressed in E. coli in soluble form and was successfully purified via Ni2+ mediated affinity chromatography; in vitro biochemical experiments showed that AmiE could convert glucose-1-phosphate into TDP-glucose (or UDP-glucose) in the presence of TTP (or UTP). However, galactose-1-phosphate, galactosamine-1-phosphate and mannos-1-phosphate were not substrates of AmiE. The amiE was successfully cloned and expressed in E. coli, and the purified AmiE was biochemically confirmed to be a nucleotylyltransferase in amicetin biosynthesis pathway.
    ACTA MICROBIOLOGICA SINICA 02/2012; 52(2):214-20.
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    ABSTRACT: Conjugation of truncated recombinant staphylokinase (trSak) with polyethylene glycol (PEG) is an effective way to overcome its short plasma half-life and enhance its therapeutic potential. However, conventional amine directed PEGylation chemistry inevitably led to modification at its functionally important N terminus, which resulted in a significantly reduced bioactivity of trSak. In this study, a novel solid phase PEGylation process was developed to shield the N-terminal region of the protein from PEGylation. The process was achieved by oriented adsorption of an N-terminally His-tagged trSak (His-trSak) onto an immobilized metal-ion affinity chromatography (IMAC). His-trSak was efficiently separated and retained on IMAC media before reaction with succinimidyl carbonate mPEG (SC-mPEG, 5, 10 or 20kDa). The IMAC derived mono-PEGylated His-trSak showed structural and stability properties similar to the liquid phase derived conjugate. However, isoelectric focusing electrophoresis analysis revealed that mono-PEGylated His-trSaks via solid phase PEGylation were more homogeneous than those from liquid phase PEGylation. Moreover, tryptic peptide mapping analysis suggested that a complete N-terminal blockage of IMAC bound His-trSak from PEGylation with 10kDa- and 20kDa-SC-mPEG. In contrast, only partial protection of the N-terminal region was obtained for 5kDa-SC-mPEG. Bioactivities of 10kDa- and 20kDa-PEG-His-trSak conjugates without N-terminal PEGylation were significantly higher than those of randomly PEGylated products. This further demonstrated the advantage of our new on-column PEGylation strategy.
    Process Biochemistry - PROCESS BIOCHEM. 01/2012;

Publication Stats

157 Citations
113.16 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2012–2014
    • Dalian University of Technology
      • School of Materials Science and Engineering
      Lü-ta-shih, Liaoning, China
  • 2002–2014
    • Chinese Academy of Sciences
      • Institute of Process Engineering
      Peping, Beijing, China
  • 2012–2013
    • Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University
      Min-hou, Fujian, China
  • 2011–2012
    • Southwest University in Chongqing
      Pehpei, Chongqing Shi, China
  • 2002–2012
    • Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology
      • • Institute of Process Engineering
      • • Key Laboratory of Marine Bio-resourses Sustainable Utilization
      Beijing, Beijing Shi, China
  • 2006–2011
    • Albert Einstein College of Medicine
      • Department of Physiology & Biophysics
      New York City, NY, United States