[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: After a more successful treatment of pediatric cancer, the number of childhood cancer survivors is progressively increasing. Consequently, awareness of psychological late sequelae is important.
The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was used as a screening tool for emotional distress in a single center cohort of 652 childhood cancer survivors (median age 23 y [range, 15 to 46 y], median follow-up time 15 y [range, 5 to 42 y]). Results were compared with a control group of 440 Dutch subjects. A higher HADS score linearly reflect a higher level of emotional distress, and a score ≥15 is indicative of clinically significant emotional distress.
Mean HADS score of the childhood cancer survivors was not different from the control group (P=0.38). Survivors exposed to global central nervous system (CNS) irradiation had a significantly higher HADS score than the control group (8.3±6.6; P=0.05) as well as other survivors (P=0.01). Forty-three survivors (7%) had a HADS score ≥15. Survivors with a HADS score ≥15 were variously spread over the diagnostic-related and treatment-related subgroups. Linear regression analysis showed that high educational achievement (β=-1.28; P<0.01) and age at the time of the study (β=0.08; P=0.03) were both significantly associated with the HADS score.
Emotional distress does not occur more often in childhood cancer survivors than in the normal population. No disease-related or treatment-related variable was independently associated with emotional distress.
Journal of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology 10/2013; 35(7):525-9. · 0.97 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Randomized studies support the closure of midline incisions with a suture length to wound length ratio (SL:WL) of more than 4, accomplished with small tissue bites and short stitch intervals to decrease the risk of incisional hernia and wound infection. We investigated practical aspects of this technique possibly hampering the introduction of this technique. Patient data, operative variables and SL:WL ratio were collected at two hospitals: Sundsvall Hospital (SH) and Erasmus University Medical Center (EMC). A structured implementation of the technique had been performed at SH but not at EMC. Personnel were interviewed by questionnaire. At each hospital, 18 closures were analyzed. Closure time was significantly longer (p = 0.023) at SH (median 18 minutes, range: 9-59) than at EMC (median 13 minutes, range: 5-23). An SL:WL ratio of more than 4 was achieved in 8 of 18 cases at EMC and in all 18 cases at SH. We conclude that calculation of an SL:WL ratio is easily performed. Suturing with the small bite-short stitch interval technique of SH required 5 minutes extra, outweighing the morbidity of incisional hernia. Without a structured implementation to suture with an SL:WL ratio of more than 4, a lower ratio is often achieved.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the implementation of the International Confederation of Midwives/ International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (ICM/ FIGO) guideline on active third stage management in vaginal deliveries in daily clinical practice.
Observational, cross-sectional study.
One tertiary and one teaching hospital in the Netherlands. Population Women undergoing vaginal deliveries.
A case record form was completed after every vaginal delivery. Primary outcome was adequate guideline adherence, defined as initial administration of 10 IU oxytocin, performance of controlled cord traction and uterine massage. Adequate guideline adherence was a priori estimated to be 10%. With a sample size of 600, i.e. 300 women per hospital, the standard error of the resulting percentage would be less than 2% for each hospital.
Six-hundred-twenty-six women were included. Guideline adherence was adequately performed in 48% of vaginal deliveries. Oxytocin was administered after birth in 98% of deliveries and in 80% the correct dose was used. Controlled cord traction was performed in 63% and uterine massage in 93%; however, the latter was performed as advised (at least eight times) in only 8%. The amount of blood loss was not associated with the use of either 5 or 10 IU oxytocin (p = 0.818). Controlled cord traction and uterine massage were more frequently performed when blood loss exceeded 500 mL (p < 0.001).
Active third stage management according to the ICM/FIGO guideline is adequately performed in only 48% of all vaginal deliveries. Results of this study call for training programs to enhance adherence to the ICM/ FIGO guideline. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Acta Obstetricia Et Gynecologica Scandinavica 08/2013; · 1.85 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Newborns in need of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support are at high risk of developing acute kidney injury (AKI). AKI may occur as part of multiple organ failure and can be aggravated by exposure to components of the extracorporeal circuit. AKI necessitates adjustment of dosage of renally eliminated drugs and avoidance of nephrotoxic drugs. We aimed to systematically define the incidence and clinical course of AKI in critically ill neonates receiving ECMO support.
This study reviewed prospectively collected clinical data (including age, diagnosis, ECMO course, and serum creatinine [SCr]) of all ECMO-treated neonates within our institution spanning a fourteen-year period. AKI was defined using the Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss of renal function, and End-stage renal disease (RIFLE) classification. SCr data were reviewed per ECMO day and compared to age-specific SCr reference values. Accordingly, patients were assigned to RIFLE categories (Risk, Injury, or Failure as 150%, 200% or 300% of median SCr reference values). Data are presented as median and interquartile range (IQR) or number and percentage (%).
242 patients were included of whom 179 survived (74%). Median age at start ECMO was 39 hours [IQR 26 - 63]; median ECMO duration was 5.8 days [IQR 3.9 - 9.4]. 153 patients (64%) had evidence of AKI, with 72 (30%) qualifying as Risk, 55 (23%) as Injury and 26 (11%) as Failure. At the end of the study period only 71 patients (46%) out of all 153 AKI patients improved at least one RIFLE category. Using regression analysis it was found that nitric oxide ventilation (p=0.04) and younger age at start ECMO (p=0.004) were significant predictors of AKI. Survival until intensive care unit discharge was significantly lower for patients in the Failure category (35%) as compared to the Non-AKI (78%), Risk (82%) and Injury category (76%), with all p<0.001, while there were no significant differences between the three latter RIFLE categories.
Two thirds of neonates on ECMO suffered from AKI, with a significantly increased mortality risk for patients in the Failure category. As AKI during childhood may predispose for chronic kidney disease in adulthood, long-term monitoring of kidney function after ECMO is warranted.
Critical care (London, England) 07/2013; 17(4):R151. · 4.72 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Routine histopathological examination of gallbladder specimens is mainly performed to identify unexpected gallbladder carcinoma (GBC). This systematic review assesses the prevalence and characteristics of GBC in cholecystectomy specimens.
PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library were searched for all articles reporting on the finding of GBC in cholecystectomy specimens.
Of the 30 articles included, 20 were from Europe and the United States, and 10 were of Asian origin. In the Western studies, 276 cases of GBC were found in 61,542 specimens (median prevalence 0.4 %, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.3-0.6). Of these, 65 % were expected pre- or intraoperatively. In the Asian studies, 344 cases of GBC were found in 37,365 specimens (median prevalence 1.2 %, 95 % CI 0.8-1.7). Of these, 45 % were expected pre- or intraoperatively. In a subgroup analysis, identification of previously unexpected GBC affected treatment in only a minority of patients. In total, 72 % of the patients received no further treatment and 32 patients (22 %) received secondary surgery, of whom 15 patients survived at least 1 year.
The histopathological finding of GBC after cholecystectomy appears to be a rare event. The prevalence of unexpected GBC was higher in Asian studies than in Western studies. The pre- and intraoperative sensitivity for this carcinoma is low. Moreover, the diagnosis of GBC at the time of histopathology is usually inconsequential. The results of this systematic review do not support routine histopathology of cholecystectomy specimens in clinical practice.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction
Children with persistent asthma may have diminished lung function in early adulthood. In our previous study (‘CATO’) we showed preservation of lung function in asthmatic children, during 2 years of treatment that was guided by airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). The aim of the present prospective follow up study was to investigate whether the positive effect of the AHR strategy on lung function had persisted beyond the duration of the intervention study, after several years of usual care by paediatrician and general practitioner.
With a mean interval of 4.4 y after the last visit, 137 subjects (67% of the original CATO population) participated in this follow-up study. Evaluation consisted of spirometry (n = 137), a methacholine challenge test (n = 83), data on inhaled steroid treatment and asthma exacerbations (n = 137), and an asthma symptom diary during 6 weeks (n = 90).
At follow-up, lung function, % symptom-free days and exacerbation rates of both treatment strategy groups was similar. The mean dose of inhaled corticosteroids had diminished from 550 μg/day at the end of CATO to 235 μg/day at follow-up. The decrease in AHR measured at the end of CATO was maintained at follow-up for both treatment strategy groups.
The beneficial effect on lung function of 2 years treatment guided by AHR was lost after 3–7 years of usual care. This suggests that an AHR-guided treatment strategy may need to be sustained in order to preserve lung function.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Subcutaneous allergen immunotherapy (SCIT) and sublingual allergen immunotherapy (SLIT) are safe and effective treatments of allergic rhinitis, but high levels of compliance and persistence are crucial to achieving the desired clinical effects. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to assess levels and predictors of compliance and persistence among grass pollen, tree pollen, and house dust mite immunotherapy users in real life and to estimate the costs of premature discontinuation. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of a community pharmacy database from The Netherlands containing data from 6486 patients starting immunotherapy for 1 or more of the allergens of interest between 1994 and 2009. Two thousand seven hundred ninety-six patients received SCIT, and 3690 received SLIT. Time to treatment discontinuation was analyzed and included Cox proportional hazard models with time-dependent covariates, where appropriate. RESULTS: Overall, only 18% of users reached the minimally required duration of treatment of 3 years (SCIT, 23%; SLIT, 7%). Median durations for SCIT and SLIT users were 1.7 and 0.6 years, respectively (P < .001). Other independent predictors of premature discontinuation were prescriber, with patients of general practitioners demonstrating longer persistence than those of allergologists and other medical specialists; single-allergen immunotherapy, lower socioeconomic status; and younger age. Of the persistent patients, 56% were never late in picking up their medication from the pharmacy. Direct medication costs per nonpersistent patient discontinuing in the third year of treatment were €3800, an amount that was largely misspent. CONCLUSION: Real-life persistence is better in SCIT users than in SLIT users, although it is low overall. There is an urgent need for further identification of potential barriers and measures that will enhance persistence and compliance.
The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology 05/2013; · 9.17 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study was to assess the diagnostic value of anorectal MRI in the care of patients with chronic anal and perianal pain but without findings of abnormalities in the clinical workup. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Patients referred from a tertiary department of colorectal surgery to the MRI unit with clinically occult chronic anal and perianal pain were included. MRI of the anorectum was performed with an endoanal or pelvic phased-array coil. The images from all examinations were read by two radiologists. MRI findings were correlated with clinical follow-up data. RESULTS. The study group (103 patients) was stratified into patients with no history of anorectal disease (n = 60) and those who had a history of surgery for anorectal disease (n = 43). MRI findings suggested the final diagnoses in 40 patients (39%). These diagnoses were 28 cases of suppurative lesions (27%), 11 cases of painful scarring of the anus (11%), and one case of metastasis to the sacrum (1%). Suppurative lesions were surgically proved with marked relief of pain after surgery. In the other patients the final diagnoses were 37 cases of levator ani syndrome (36%) and 26 cases of unspecified functional anorectal pain (25%). No MRI abnormalities were found in 33 of the patients with levator ani syndrome and 26 of the patients with unspecified anorectal pain. The two readers had very good agreement (κ = 0.92). The patients with a history of anorectal disease had significantly more MRI findings of abnormalities (60%) than did patients without a history of anorectal disease (23%). The positive predictive value of MRI was 91%, and the negative predictive value was 100%. CONCLUSION. In 39% of patients, MRI showed abnormalities that were clinically confirmed as the final diagnosis. Surgical treatment will especially benefit patients with suppurative lesions, resulting in relief of pain.
American Journal of Roentgenology 05/2013; 200(5):1034-41. · 2.90 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mycoplasma pneumoniae is thought to be a common cause of respiratory tract infections (RTIs) in children. The diagnosis of M. pneumoniae RTIs currently relies on serological methods and/or the detection of bacterial DNA in the upper respiratory tract (URT). It is conceivable, however, that these diagnostic methods also yield positive results if M. pneumoniae is carried asymptomatically in the URT. Positive results from these tests may therefore not always be indicative of a symptomatic infection. The existence of asymptomatic carriage of M. pneumoniae has not been established. We hypothesized that asymptomatic carriage in children exists and investigated whether colonization and symptomatic infection could be differentiated by current diagnostic methods.
This study was conducted at the Erasmus MC-Sophia Children's Hospital and the after-hours General Practitioners Cooperative in Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Asymptomatic children (n = 405) and children with RTI symptoms (n = 321) aged 3 mo to 16 y were enrolled in a cross-sectional study from July 1, 2008, to November 30, 2011. Clinical data, pharyngeal and nasopharyngeal specimens, and serum samples were collected. The primary objective was to differentiate between colonization and symptomatic infection with M. pneumoniae by current diagnostic methods, especially real-time PCR. M. pneumoniae DNA was detected in 21.2% (95% CI 17.2%-25.2%) of the asymptomatic children and in 16.2% (95% CI 12.2%-20.2%) of the symptomatic children (p = 0.11). Neither serology nor quantitative PCR nor culture differentiated asymptomatic carriage from infection. A total of 202 children were tested for the presence of other bacterial and viral pathogens. Two or more pathogens were found in 56% (63/112) of the asymptomatic children and in 55.5% (50/90) of the symptomatic children. Finally, longitudinal sampling showed persistence of M. pneumoniae in the URT for up to 4 mo. Fifteen of the 21 asymptomatic children with M. pneumoniae and 19 of the 22 symptomatic children with M. pneumoniae in this longitudinal follow-up tested negative after 1 mo.
Although our study has limitations, such as a single study site and limited sample size, our data indicate that the presence of M. pneumoniae in the URT is common in asymptomatic children. The current diagnostic tests for M. pneumoniae are unable to differentiate between asymptomatic carriage and symptomatic infection. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.
PLoS Medicine 05/2013; 10(5):e1001444. · 15.25 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Pompe disease is a hereditary metabolic myopathy, for which enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) has been available since 2006. We investigated whether ERT reduces fatigue in adult patients with Pompe disease. METHODS: In this prospective international observational survey, we used the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) to measure fatigue. Repeated measures ANOVA was used to analyze the data over time. In a subgroup of patients, we also evaluated muscle strength using the Medical Research Council Scale, measured pulmonary function as Forced Vital Capacity, and assessed depression using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. RESULTS: We followed 163 patients for a median period of 4years before ERT and for 3years during ERT. Before ERT, the mean FSS score remained stable at around 5.3 score points; during ERT, scores improved significantly by 0.13 score points per year (p<0.001). Fatigue decreased mainly in women, in older patients and in those with shorter disease duration. Patients' improvements in fatigue were moderately correlated with the effect of ERT on depression (r 0.55; CI 95% 0.07 to 0.70) but not with the effect of ERT on muscle strength or pulmonary function. CONCLUSIONS: Fatigue is a common and disabling problem in patients with early and advanced stages of Pompe disease. Our finding that ERT helps to reduce fatigue is therefore important for this patient population, irrespective of the mechanisms underlying this effect.
Molecular Genetics and Metabolism 04/2013; · 2.83 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: The incidence of surgical site infections (SSI) is increasingly considered to be an indicator of quality of care. We conducted a study in which daily inspection of the surgical wound was performed by an independent, trained team to monitor the incidence of SS using CDC definitions, as a gold-standard measure of care. In the department of surgery, two registration systems for SSI were routinely used by the surgeon: An electronic and a plenary tracking system. The results of the independent team were compared with the outcomes provided by two registration systems for SSI, so as to evaluate the reliability of these systems as possible alternative for indicating quality of care. Methods: The study was an incidence study conducted from May 2007 to January 2009 that included 1,000 adult patients scheduled to undergo open abdominal surgery in an academic teaching hospital. Surgical wounds were inspected daily to check for SSI according to definitions of healthcare-associated infections established by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Follow-up after discharge was done at the outpatient clinic of the hospital by telephone or letter in combination with wound diaries and reviews of patient charts, discharge letters, electronic files, and reported wound complications. Univariate and multivariate analyses were done to identify putative risk factors for missing registrations. Results: Of the 1,000 patients in the study, 33 were not evaluated. SSIs were diagnosed in 26.8% of the 967 remaining patients, of which 18.0% were superficial infections, 5.4% deep infections, and 3.4% organ/space infections. More than 60% of SSIs were unreported in either of the department's two tracking systems for such infections. For these two systems, independent major risk factors for missing registrations were (1) the lack of occurrence of an SSI, (2) transplantation surgery, and (3) admission to nonsurgical departments. Conclusions: Most SSIs were not tracked with the department's two systems. These systems proved poor alternatives to the gold-standard method of quantitating the incidence of SSI and, therefore, the quality of care. Both protocolled wound assessment and onsite documentation are mandatory for realistic quantification of the incidence of SSI.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: STUDY QUESTION: Is it possible to evaluate first trimester brain ventricle development in human pregnancies using an innovative virtual reality (VR) application and to analyze the relation of the embryonic volume (EV) and brain ventricle fluid volume (BVFV) with gestational age (GA), crown-rump length (CRL) and the Carnegie stage? SUMMARY ANSWER: Volumetry and staging of the human embryo using a VR application make it possible to obtain unique information about in-vivo embryonic normal and abnormal development and about the sizes of the ventricles and body. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Human brain development is complex and has a rapidly changing anatomy during the first trimester of pregnancy. New insights will enable early detection of cerebral pathology. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: In a prospective cohort study, we weekly performed three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound examinations in 112 uncomplicated pregnancies between 6 + 0 and 12 + 6 weeks GA. MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: The examinations resulted in 696 3D ultrasound scans that were transferred to the I-Space VR system and analyzed using V-Scope volume rendering software. V-Scope is used to create a 'hologram' of the ultrasound image and allows depth perception and interaction with the rendered objects. The CRL measurements were performed with a tracing tool, and the volume measurements were automatically performed with a segmentation algorithm. The embryos were staged according to the internal and external characteristics of the Carnegie staging system. All longitudinal outcomes were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: CRL could be measured in 91% of the datasets and ranged from 2.5 to 79.0 mm. EV could be measured in 66% of the datasets and ranged from 2.4 to 23 812.0 mm³, whereas the BVFV could be measured in 38% of the datasets and ranged from 10.4 to 226.3 mm³. Finally, in 74% of the datasets, the embryos were staged according to the Carnegie criteria, starting as early as stage 12. Reference charts of volumes versus GA, CRL and stage were constructed. There was no significant relationship between the CRL or EV and the birthweight. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTIONS: The low success rate is a limitation of this study that can be explained mainly by non-targeted scanning of the embryonic head. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: The I-Space VR system and the V-Scope software enable automatic EV and BVFV measurements and 3D observations of embryonic development in the first trimester. This allows in-vivo staging of human embryos based on both internal and external morphological characteristics. STUDY FUNDING, COMPETING INTERESTS: None.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome (mucopolysaccharidosis type VI, MPS VI) is a rare progressive metabolic disorder characterized by coarse facial features, hepatosplenomegaly, restrictive pulmonary function, cardiac abnormalities and stiff joints. The disease is caused by a deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme N-acetyl galactosamine 4-sulfatase which leads to glycosaminoglycan (GAG) storage in various tissues. It presents as a clinical spectrum with varying disease progressions and severities. While the phases I/II/III studies proved the effectiveness of enzyme-replacement therapy (ERT) with recombinant human arylsulfatase B, long-term data are still scarce. Over treatment periods ranging from 1.3 to 5.4years, this prospective open-label follow-up study in 11 Dutch mucopolysaccharidosis type VI patients (age 2-18years) showed that ERT had significant positive effects on cardiac-wall diameters (IVSd and LVMI), left and right shoulder flexions (p<0.001), liver size and spleen size (p<0.001), urinary GAG excretion (p<0.001), and the scales of quality of life (motor functioning and body functioning). ERT did not affect cardiac valve regurgitation or hearing function; HRQoL decreased slightly in two domains ('anxiety' and 'negative emotions'), and patients with the rapid and slow progressive forms of the disease differed with regard to baseline GAG excretion and GAG decrease during treatment. In conclusion, ERT had an effect on several clinical parameters. This effect was established in an open cohort of young mucopolysaccharidosis type VI patients.
Molecular Genetics and Metabolism 03/2013; · 2.83 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: IMPORTANCE Incisional hernia is the most frequent surgical complication after laparotomy. Up to 30% of all patients undergoing laparotomy develop an incisional hernia. OBJECTIVE To compare laparoscopic vs open ventral incisional hernia repair with regard to postoperative pain and nausea, operative results, perioperative and postoperative complications, hospital admission, and recurrence rate. DESIGN Multicenter randomized controlled trial between May 1999 and December 2006 with a mean follow-up period of 35 months. SETTING All patients were operated on in a clinical setting at 1 of the 2 participating university medical centers or at the other 8 teaching hospitals. PARTICIPANTS Two hundred six patients from 10 hospitals were randomized equally to laparoscopic or open mesh repair. Patients with an incisional hernia larger than 3 cm and smaller than 15 cm, either primary or recurrent, were included. Patients were excluded if they had an open abdomen treatment in their medical histories. INTERVENTION Laparoscopic or open ventral incisional hernia repair. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES The primary outcome of the trial was postoperative pain. Secondary outcomes were use of analgesics, perioperative and postoperative complications, operative time, postoperative nausea, length of hospital stay, recurrence, morbidity, and mortality. RESULTS Median blood loss during the operation was significantly less (10 mL vs 50 mL; P = .05) as well as the number of patients receiving a wound drain (3% vs 45%; P < .001) in the laparoscopic group. Operative time for the laparoscopic group was longer (100 minutes vs 76 minutes; P = .001). Perioperative complications were significantly higher after laparoscopy (9% vs 2%). Visual analog scale scores for pain and nausea, completed before surgery and 3 days and 1 and 4 weeks postoperatively, showed no significant differences between the 2 groups. At a mean follow-up period of 35 months, a recurrence rate of 14% was reported in the open group and 18%, in the laparoscopic group (P = .30). The size of the defect was found to be an independent predictor for recurrence (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE During the operation, there was less blood loss and less need for a wound drain in the laparoscopic group. However, operative time was longer during laparoscopy. Perioperative complications were significantly higher in the laparoscopic group. Visual analog scores for pain and nausea did not differ between groups. The incidence of a recurrence was similar in both groups. The size of the defect was found to be an independent factor for recurrence of an incisional hernia.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The monobloc advancement with distraction is a treatment modality for syndromic craniosynostosis, to correct exorbitism, upper airway compromise and malocclusion. In this report orbital volume and movements of (peri-)orbital structures and globes of seven patients following monobloc distraction are evaluated. In preoperative and postoperative CT-scans orbital volume was assessed and a 3D coordinate system with eleven landmarks was used to measure the movements of orbital structures and globes and to measure the change of exorbitism. Correlation between orbital volume, movements of the orbital structures and change in exorbitism was studied. The orbital volume increased by 49.9% (left) and 50.4% (right). The average anterior movement of the bone was 13.6 mm (left) and 13.9 mm (right). The mean anterior movement of the left globe was 5.8 mm and of the right globe 5.3 mm. The ratio of globe/bone movement was 0.4. Exorbitism decreased with 7.8 mm (left) and 8.1 mm (right). Differences between left and right for orbital volume, for movements and for the decrease in exorbitism were not significant. Volume enlargement and decrease in exorbitism were correlated (p ≤ 0.05). Following monobloc advancement orbital volume increases, (peri-)orbital structures and the globe move forward and exorbitism diminishes.
Journal of cranio-maxillo-facial surgery: official publication of the European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery 01/2013; · 1.25 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of our study was to evaluate the first trimester cerebellar growth and development using 2 different measuring techniques: 3-dimensional (3D) and virtual reality (VR) ultrasound visualization. The cerebellum measurements were related to gestational age (GA) and crown-rump length (CRL). Finally, the reproducibility of both the methods was tested. In a prospective cohort study, we collected 630 first trimester, serially obtained, 3D ultrasound scans of 112 uncomplicated pregnancies between 7 + 0 and 12 + 6 weeks of GA. Only scans with high-quality images of the fossa posterior were selected for the analysis. Measurements were performed offline in the coronal plane using 3D (4D view) and VR (V-Scope) software. The VR enables the observer to use all available dimensions in a data set by visualizing the volume as a "hologram." Total cerebellar diameter, left, and right hemispheric diameter, and thickness were measured using both the techniques. All measurements were performed 3 times and means were used in repeated measurements analysis. After exclusion criteria were applied 177 (28%) 3D data sets were available for further analysis. The median GA was 10 + 0 weeks and the median CRL was 31.4 mm (range: 5.2-79.0 mm). The cerebellar parameters could be measured from 7 gestational weeks onward. The total cerebellar diameter increased from 2.2 mm at 7 weeks of GA to 13.9 mm at 12 weeks of GA using VR and from 2.2 to 13.8 mm using 3D ultrasound. The reproducibility, established in a subset of 35 data sets, resulted in intraclass correlation coefficient values ≥0.98. It can be concluded that cerebellar measurements performed by the 2 methods proved to be reproducible and comparable with each other. However, VR-using all three dimensions-provides a superior method for the visualization of the cerebellum. The constructed reference values can be used to study normal and abnormal cerebellar growth and development.