A M LeMonte

Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis, Indianapolis, IN, United States

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Publications (3)10.44 Total impact

  • A I Hartstein, A M LeMonte, P K Iwamoto
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    ABSTRACT: To describe control of endemic and outbreak-related methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) at two affiliated hospitals. Prospective surveillance of patients with MRSA. Disposable gloves were used by all staff having direct contact with the affected patient or his immediate environment, and patient isolates were typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of genomic DNA. Surveillance and PFGE typing were used concurrently to identify possible nosocomial outbreaks, confirm or refute cross-infection, and support a need for additional outbreak control interventions. A university hospital (Hospital A) and a university-affiliated public hospital (Hospital B). Patients with MRSA colonization or infection over an 18-month interval (June 1993-November 1994). Proper handwashing and gloving practices were reemphasized with staff following confirmation of outbreaks. Hospital A had 60 community-acquired and 48 nosocomial cases of MRSA. Two small outbreaks (affecting a total of seven patients) and two pseudo-outbreaks were identified. Hospital B had 36 community-acquired and 22 nosocomial cases of MRSA. Only one outbreak affecting five patients occurred. All outbreaks ended shortly after staff meetings that emphasized ongoing and extremely careful handwashing and gloving when caring for identified patients. The majority of nosocomial cases at both hospitals were not related epidemiologically or had isolates with unique PFGE types. Pseudo-outbreaks were confirmed by demonstrating that isolates from epidemiologically related cases (by time and clinical service or hospital unit) had different PFGE types. Hospital A cases had 39 different PFGE types, and Hospital B cases had 31 different PFGE types. MRSA in hospitals, including outbreaks identified by prospective surveillance and confirmed by PFGE typing, can be controlled by minimal special precautions and interventions. This is possible despite the continuous admission of patients with MRSA from the community. PFGE typing is useful to confirm outbreaks and pseudo-outbreaks, demonstrate differences among epidemiologically unrelated isolates, and substantiate the efficacy of MRSA control programs within hospitals.
    Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology 02/1997; 18(1):42-8. · 3.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We typed 39 sets of multiple bacterial isolates of the same species from patients by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of genomic DNA (PFGE). Isolates were cultured from different sites or over a 2-week or longer interval. Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Enterobacter cloacae were tested. Excluding E. cloacae, 28 of 32 sets of isolates (87%) demonstrated only identical or highly related PFGE types. Four of the seven sets of E. cloacae showed different types. For species other than E. cloacae, our results suggest that patients are usually colonized and infected with a single strain of these bacterial pathogens. Unlike all of the other tested species, E. cloacae PFGE typing differences suggested the presence of multiple strains causing colonization and infection.
    Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease 09/1995; 22(4):309-14. · 2.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To describe methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) control in a hospital, including a surgical intensive care unit (SICU) outbreak. Prospective surveillance of newly identified patients with MRSA. Barrier isolation (disposable gloves for direct contact with patient or immediate environment) was used for the routine care of hospitalized MRSA patients as of October 1991. Beginning in 1992, MRSA isolates were typed by restriction endonuclease enzyme analysis of plasmid DNA (REAP) and/or pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of genomic DNA (PFGE). Surveillance information and MRSA typing were used concurrently to identify nosocomial case clustering, confirm cross-infection, and support a need for additional outbreak control interventions. University-affiliated public hospital. Patients with newly identified MRSA colonization or infection from 1991 through 1993 and epidemiologically associated staff providing care to eight SICU patients in an outbreak. Barrier isolation for affected and unaffected patients in and admitted to the SICU institution when the outbreak was identified and cross-infection confirmed. Anterior nares cultures of staff in contact with outbreak cases for detection of MRSA colonization. Fifty-six hospitalized patients with community-acquired MRSA and 80 patients with nosocomial MRSA colonization or infection were identified during the 3 years. After the introduction of barrier isolation, the annual frequency of new nosocomial MRSA cases decreased and only one outbreak (eight cases in the SICU) caused by type-related isolates occurred. The other 35 nosocomial cases of MRSA during 1992 and 1993 were not epidemiologically related or were caused by isolates with different types. The SICU outbreak ended after instituting barrier isolation for all patients (with and without MRSA) in and admitted to the unit. Six colonized SICU staff were identified. All outbreak cases had identical or related MRSA types by PFGE and REAP. Staff isolates were different from case isolates by typing, and staff were not restricted and not given treatment for colonization. After more than 6 months of follow up, no further outbreaks of MRSA in the SICU or elsewhere in the hospital occurred despite returning to barrier isolation for affected patients only. MRSA in hospitals and outbreaks of MRSA in ICUs can be controlled by surveillance and minimal barrier interventions. REAP or PFGE typing of MRSA can be used to support or refute the presence of cross-transmission. Typing also may be helpful when planning and assessing the effectiveness of interventions directed at endemic, as well as outbreak, MRSA control.
    Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology 08/1995; 16(7):405-11. · 3.94 Impact Factor