[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The human ALL-1 gene is involved in acute leukemia through gene fusions, partial tandem duplications or a specific deletion. Several sequence motifs within the ALL-1 protein, such as the SET domain, PHD fingers and the region with homology to DNA methyl transferase are shared with other proteins involved in transcription regulation through chromatin alterations. However, the function of these motifs is still not clear. Studying ALL-1 presents an additional challenge because the gene is the human homologue of Drosophila trithorax. The latter is a member of the trithorax-Polycomb gene family which acts to determine the body pattern of Drosophila by maintaining expression or repression of the Antennapedia-bithorax homeotic gene complex. Here we apply yeast two hybrid methodology, in vivo immunoprecipitation and in vitro 'pull down' techniques to show self association of the SET motifs of ALL-1, TRITHORAX and ASH1 proteins (Drosophila ASH1 is encoded by a trithorax-group gene). Point mutations in evolutionary conserved residues of TRITHORAX SET, abolish the interaction. SET-SET interactions might act in integrating the activity of ALL-1 (TRX and ASH1) protein molecules, simultaneously positioned at different maintenance elements and directing expression of the same or different target genes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Trithorax (TRX) and ASH1 belong to the trithorax group (trxG) of transcriptional activator proteins, which maintains homeotic gene expression during Drosophila development. TRX and ASH1 are localized on chromosomes and share several homologous domains with other chromatin-associated proteins, including a highly conserved SET domain and PHD fingers. Based on genetic interactions between trx and ash1 and our previous observation that association of the TRX protein with polytene chromosomes is ash1 dependent, we investigated the possibility of a physical linkage between the two proteins. We found that the endogenous TRX and ASH1 proteins coimmunoprecipitate from embryonic extracts and colocalize on salivary gland polytene chromosomes. Furthermore, we demonstrated that TRX and ASH1 bind in vivo to a relatively small (4 kb) bxd subregion of the homeotic gene Ultrabithorax (Ubx), which contains several trx response elements. Analysis of the effects of ash1 mutations on the activity of this regulatory region indicates that it also contains ash1 response element(s). This suggests that ASH1 and TRX act on Ubx in relatively close proximity to each other. Finally, TRX and ASH1 appear to interact directly through their conserved SET domains, based on binding assays in vitro and in yeast and on coimmunoprecipitation assays with embryo extracts. Collectively, these results suggest that TRX and ASH1 are components that interact either within trxG protein complexes or between complexes that act in close proximity on regulatory DNA to maintain Ubx transcription.
Molecular and Cellular Biology 10/1999; · 5.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ALL1, the human homologue of Drosophila trithorax, is directly involved in human acute leukemias associated with abnormalities at 11q23. Using the differential display method, we isolated a gene that is down-regulated in All1 double-knockout mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. The gene, designated ARP1 (also termed RIEG, Ptx2, or Otlx2), is a member of a family of homeotic genes containing a short motif shared with several homeobox genes. Using a bacterially synthesized All1 polypeptide encompassing the AT-hook motifs, we identified a 0.5-kb ARP1 DNA fragment that preferentially bound to the polypeptide. Within this DNA, a region of approximately 100 bp was protected by the polypeptide from digestion with ExoIII and DNase I. Whole-mount in situ hybridization to early mouse embryos of 9.5-10.5 days indicated a complex pattern of Arp1 expression spatially overlapping with the expression of All1. Although the ARP1 gene is expressed strongly in bone marrow cells, no transcripts were detected in six leukemia cell lines with 11q23 translocations. These results suggest that ARP1 is up-regulated by the All1 protein, possibly through direct interaction with an upstream DNA sequence of the former. The results are also consistent with the suggestion that ALL1 chimeric proteins resulting from 11q23 abnormalities act in a dominant negative fashion.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 04/1998; 95(8):4573-8. · 9.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ALL1, the human homologue of Drosophila trithorax, is directly involved in human acute leukemias associated with abnormalities at 11q23. Using the differential display method,
we isolated a gene that is down-regulated in All1 double-knockout mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. The gene, designated ARP1 (also termed RIEG, Ptx2, or Otlx2), is a member of a family of homeotic genes containing a short motif shared with several homeobox genes. Using a bacterially
synthesized All1 polypeptide encompassing the AT-hook motifs, we identified a 0.5-kb ARP1 DNA fragment that preferentially bound to the polypeptide. Within this DNA, a region of ≈100 bp was protected by the polypeptide
from digestion with ExoIII and DNase I. Whole-mount in situ hybridization to early mouse embryos of 9.5–10.5 days indicated a complex pattern of Arp1 expression spatially overlapping with the expression of All1. Although the ARP1 gene is expressed strongly in bone marrow cells, no transcripts were detected in six leukemia cell lines with 11q23 translocations.
These results suggest that ARP1 is up-regulated by the All1 protein, possibly through direct interaction with an upstream DNA sequence of the former. The
results are also consistent with the suggestion that ALL1 chimeric proteins resulting from 11q23 abnormalities act in a dominant negative fashion.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 04/1998; 95(8):4573-4578. · 9.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ALL-1 gene is involved in human acute leukemia through chromosome translocations or internal rearrangements. ALL-1 is the human homologue of Drosophila trithorax. The latter is a member of the trithorax group (trx-G) genes which together with the Polycomb group (Pc-G) genes act as positive and negative regulators, respectively, to determine the body structure of Drosophila. We have cloned a novel human gene, ALR, which encodes a gigantic 5262 amino acid long protein containing a SET domain, five PHD fingers, potential zinc fingers, and a very long run of glutamines interrupted by hydrophobic residues, mostly leucine. The SET motif, PDH fingers, zinc fingers and two other regions are most similar to domains of ALL-1 and TRX. The first two motifs are also found in other trx-G and Pc-G proteins. The ALR gene was mapped to chromosome band 12q12-13, adjacent to the VDR gene. This region is involved in duplications and translocations associated with cancer. The analysis of ALR expression showed that its approximately 18 kb long mRNA is expressed, like ALL-1, in most adult tissues, including a variety of hematopoietic cells, with the exception of the liver. Whole mount in situ hybridization to early mouse embryos indicates expression in multiple tissues. Based on similarities in structure and expression pattern, ALR is likely to play a similar role to ALL-1 and trx, although its target genes have yet to be identified.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ALL-1 gene positioned at 11q23 is directly involved in human acute leukemia either through a variety of chromosome translocations or by partial tandem duplications. ALL-1 is the human homologue of Drosophila trithorax which plays a critical role in maintaining proper spatial and temporal expression of the Antennapedia-bithorax homeotic genes determining the fruit fly's body pattern. Utilizing specific antibodies, we found that the ALL-1 protein distributes in cultured cells in a nuclear punctate pattern. Several chimeric ALL-1 proteins encoded by products of the chromosome translocations and expressed in transfected cells showed similar speckles. Dissection of the ALL-1 protein identified within its approximately 1,100 N-terminal residues three polypeptides directing nuclear localization and at least two main domains conferring distribution in dots. The latter spanned two short sequences conserved with TRITHORAX. Enforced nuclear expression of other domains of ALL-1, such as the PHD (zinc) fingers and the SET motif, resulted in uniform nonpunctate patterns. This indicates that positioning of the ALL-1 protein in subnuclear structures is mediated via interactions of ALL-1 N-terminal elements. We suggest that the speckles represent protein complexes which contain multiple copies of the ALL-1 protein and are positioned at ALL-1 target sites on the chromatin. Therefore, the role of the N-terminal portion of ALL-1 is to direct the protein to its target genes.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 08/1997; 94(14):7286-91. · 9.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ALL-1 gene is involved in human acute leukemia through chromosome translocations and fusion to partner genes, or through partial tandem duplications. ALL-1 is the human homologue of Drosophila trithorax which transregulates the homeotic genes of the Antennapedia and bithorax complexes controlling body segment identity. ALL-1 encodes a very large protein of 3968 amino acids which presumably interacts with many proteins. Here we applied yeast two hybrid screening to identify proteins interacting with the N-terminal segment of ALL-1. One protein obtained in this way was the product of the unr gene. This protein consists of multiple repeats homologous to the cold shock domain (CSD), a motif common to some bacterial and eukaryotic nucleic acids-binding proteins. The minimal region on unr required for the interaction with ALL-1 included two CSD and two intervening polypeptides. The interaction was confirmed by in vitro binding studies, and by coimmunoprecipitation from COS cells overexpressing the relevant segments of the two proteins. These results suggest that unr is involved in an interaction of ALL-1 with DNA or RNA.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Herpesvirus-like DNA sequences have been identified in a high proportion of both AIDS-associated and classical Kaposi's sarcoma, and in a small percentage of AIDS-associated malignant lymphomas. To determine the extent of involvement of this new agent designated HHV-8 (human herpesvirus type 8) or KSHV (Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus) in human malignant lymphomas, we analyzed 24 AIDS-associated lymphoid malignancies and 100 non-AIDS-associated lymphomas by PCR and Southern blot analysis. Three of 24 lymphoid malignancies from patients with AIDS demonstrated HHV-8 sequences by Southern blot and PCR analyses. The fourth was positive by PCR only. None of the non-AIDS-associated lymphomas contained HHV-8 sequences. All three Southern blot positive samples were derived from extranodal regions, two from pleural effusions, and one from a soft tissue mass in the thigh. This latter patient initially presented with a pleural effusion. The fourth PCR positive but Southern blot negative tumor was from a gingival lymphoma in a patient with a history of Kaposi's sarcoma. All tumors positive for HHV-8 were also positive for EBV. These results confirm a recent report that this novel herpesvirus may play a role in AIDS-associated lymphomas especially in those with body cavity presentation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The role of ras gene mutations in the progression of follicular lymphoma has been ascertained by SSCP-PCR and sequencing. A total of 40 transformed lymphomas were studied, 16 of which had a matched preceding low-grade biopsy. Only one transformed lymphoma was found to have a missense mutation at codon 12 of N-ras, resulting in an amino acid change of glycine to serine. We conclude that mutation within the ras gene family is a rare event in the transformation of follicular lymphoma.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ALL-1 gene is involved in translocations with many partner genes in different types of the acute leukemias, but it is not clear whether it acts as an oncogene or whether the fusion proteins resulting from the translocations have dominant negative effects. To distinguish between these two possibilities, we analyzed the ability of wild-type AB2.1 embryonal stem (ES) cells and of single or double ALL-1 gene knockout cells derived from them to differentiate along hematopoietic lineages after withdrawal of leukemia inhibitory factor, using in vitro colony formation assays. All-1 double knockout ES cells formed a significantly greater number of colonies with faster kinetics than wild-type and ALL-1 single knockout ES cells. Parental ES cells formed lineage-restricted colonies, whereas single and double knockout ES cells developed, at high frequency, immature and/or "biphenotypic" colonies, mimicking the aberrant hematopoiesis typical of leukemic patients. These data are consistent with the possibility that loss of function of the ALL-1 gene is important in leukemogenesis.
Cancer Research 04/1996; 56(6):1179-83. · 8.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ALLI gene, located at chromosome band 11q23, is involved in acute leukemia through a series of chromosome translocations and fusion to a variety of genes, most frequently to A4 and AF9. The fused genes encode chimeric proteins proteins. Because the Drosophila homologue of ALL1, trithorax, is a positive regulator of homeotic genes and acts at the level of transcription, it is conceivable that alterations in ALL1 transcriptional activity may underlie its action in malignant transformation. To begin studying this, we examined the All1, AF4, AF9, and AF17 proteins for the presence of potential transcriptional regulatory domains. This was done by fusing regions of the proteins to the yeast GAL4 DNA binding domain and assaying their effect on transcription of a reporter gene. A domain of 55 residues positioned at amino acids 2829-2883 of ALL1 was identified as a very strong activator. Further analysis of this domain by in vitro mutagenesis pointed to a core of hydrophobic and acidic residues as critical for the activity. An ALL1 domain that repressed transcription of the reporter gene coincided with the sequence homologous to a segment of DNA methyltransferase. An AF4 polypeptide containing residues 480-560 showed strong activation potential. The C-terminal segment of AF9 spanning amino acids 478-568 transactivated transcription of the reporter gene in HeLa but not in NIH 3T3 cells. These results suggest that ALL1, AF4, and probably AF9 interact with the transcriptional machinery of the cell.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 01/1996; 92(26):12160-4. · 9.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The c-Myc protein is a transcription factor with an N-terminal transcriptional regulatory domain and C-terminal oligomerization and DNA-binding motifs. Previous studies have demonstrated that p107, a protein related to the retinoblastoma protein, binds to the c-Myc transcriptional activation domain and suppresses its activity. We sought to characterize the transforming activity and transcriptional properties of lymphoma-derived mutant MYC alleles. Alleles encoding c-Myc proteins with missense mutations in the transcriptional regulatory domain were more potent than wild-type c-Myc in transforming rodent fibroblasts. Although the mutant c-Myc proteins retained their binding to p107 in in vitro and in vivo assays, p107 failed to suppress their transcriptional activation activities. Many of the lymphoma-derived MYC alleles contain missense mutations that result in substitution for the threonine at codon 58 or affect sequences flanking this amino acid. We observed that in vivo phosphorylation of Thr-58 was absent in a lymphoma cell line with a mutant MYC allele containing a missense mutation flanking codon 58. Our in vitro studies suggest that phosphorylation of Thr-58 in wild-type c-Myc was dependent on cyclin A and required prior phosphorylation of Ser-62 by a p107-cyclin A-CDK complex. In contrast, Thr-58 remained unphosphorylated in two representative mutant c-Myc transactivation domains in vitro. Our studies suggest that missense mutations in MYC may be selected for during lymphomagenesis, because the mutant MYC proteins have altered functional interactions with p107 protein complexes and fail to be phosphorylated at Thr-58.
Molecular and Cellular Biology 09/1995; 15(8):4031-42. · 5.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The LAZ3 gene encodes a novel zinc-finger protein that shares homology with several Drosophila transcription factors. This gene was identified by its disruption in translocations involving chromosome 3q27 in diffuse large-cell lymphomas. To assess the frequency and role of this gene's involvement in lymphomagenesis and tumor progression, we examined a series of 170 cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas of B-cell lineage for LAZ3 gene rearrangement, expression, and mutation. The cases included 35 de novo diffuse aggressive lymphomas (DAL; 19 large-cell, 4 mixed-cell, and 12 large-cell immunoblastic), 52 transformed aggressive lymphomas derived from follicular lymphomas (TFL), 42 indolent follicular lymphomas (FL), 14 mantle cell lymphomas (MCL), and 27 small noncleaved cell lymphomas (SNCL). LAZ3 rearrangements were found in 10 DAL (28.6%), 9 TFL (17.3%), and 6 FL (14.3%), but not in any of the SNCL or MCL. LAZ3 rearrangement was not exclusive of bcl-2 rearrangement. Most rearrangement breakpoints mapped to a 10-kb BamHI-Xba I fragment located 5' to the LAZ3 coding sequence, consistent with previously reported breakpoint locations. Northern analysis of both rearranged and nonrearranged B-cell lymphoma cases showed similar levels of a transcript of approximately 3.8 kb, indicating that LAZ3 is broadly expressed in B-cell tumors and is not confined to rearranged cases. To investigate whether mutation of the LAZ3 gene might contribute to a potential role for this gene in lymphomagenesis, we screened the coding sequences of 13 rearranged cases, 6 nonrearranged cases, and 13 hematopoietic tumor cell lines. Although three probable polymorphisms were identified, mutations were detected in only 2 rearranged cases. Only 1 of these resulted in an amino acid substitution. Two cell lines (SU-DHL4 and Molt-4) also contained mutations; only one resulted in an amino acid substitution. We conclude (1) that LAZ3 rearrangements occur in a significant fraction of de novo DAL as well as in a smaller subset of indolent and transformed follicular lymphomas; (2) that LAZ3 message is expressed in both rearranged and nonrearranged B-cell lymphomas; and (3) that mutation of the LAZ3 gene does not contribute to its putative oncogenic role in most 3q27 translocated B-cell lymphomas.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Few reports correlating specific cytogenetic abnormalities with distinct subtypes of lymphoma have performed serial studies at diagnosis and at tumor recurrence or progression. In our file of 325 cytogenetically analyzed non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) patients studied over the past decade, 43 had serial biopsies, 39 of whom had at least two successful preparations; of the 43, nine had one and 32 had two or more cytogenetically abnormal specimens. In this study, we correlated cytogenetic, histopathologic, molecular, and clinical parameters. Patients with low-grade lymphomas were as likely as patients with intermediate- or high-grade lymphomas to acquire new chromosomal abnormalities with time (16 of 23 patients as compared with 7 of 16; P2 = .11, chi 2 test). In four patients, originally diagnosed indolent disease progressed to aggressive disease; all had t(14;18), all gained additional chromosomal abnormalities with disease progression, and three of the four expressed abnormalities associated with disease progression and/or short survival: der(18), +7, and/or +12. Cytogenetic results from early disease were compared with those obtained later in disease: in the t(14;18) group, the most common abnormalities were +7 (eight patients) and der(18) (five patients), both seen later in disease. The most common abnormalities in patients without t(14;18) were 6q deletions; they were seen in both early and late disease and were associated with significantly shorter survivals (P2 = .0014) compared with all patients without 6q deletions. Secondary chromosomal abnormalities, observed after at least one previous abnormal study, were seen in 19 of 22 t(14;18) patients and in 11 of 21 patients without t(14;18) and were associated with a poor survival (P2 = .13) compared with patients without any secondary chromosomal abnormalities. Chromosome 1 abnormalities were seen in almost half of the patients and were observed in initial specimens and early in disease as well as late in disease and as secondary abnormalities; 1q involvement was more frequent than 1p (15 versus eight patients) and was significantly associated with poor survival only in patients with intermediate-/high-grade disease; the most common breakpoints were 1q21-q22 (nine patients) and 1p36 (six patients). Breakpoints at 2q21 and 3q27-q29 were limited to patients with t(14;18) and were almost exclusively secondary in nature. Molecular studies in 24 of our patients showed discrepancies with the cytogenetic results in only three patients: two had t(14;18) but no molecular rearrangements while two patients had no visible t(14;18) but were positive for major breakpoint region (MBR) rearrangement. The presence of MBR or minor breakpoint cluster (MCR) rearrangement had no apparent effect on survival.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our previous studies of the translocated MYC gene in Burkitt's lymphoma showed the existence of clustered somatic mutations located in the transcriptional activation domain. We now report that aggressive lymphomas arising in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) contain similar mutations and that the presence of mutations is correlated with the rearrangement of the oncogene. Mutations were also found in other de novo non-AIDS, non-Burkitt's aggressive lymphomas with MYC rearrangements. An unusual asparagine to serine mutation at codon 11 was identified in several transformed follicular lymphomas without MYC rearrangement but not in normal tissues from patients with this mutation. These findings indicate that AIDS-associated and other de novo aggressive lymphomas with the MYC gene rearrangement are subject to the same mutation and selection process that affects Burkitt's lymphomas.
Cancer Research 08/1994; 54(13):3383-6. · 8.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The majority of low-grade follicular lymphomas will eventually transform to an aggressive intermediate, or high-grade lymphoma. The molecular mechanisms responsible for this transformation have not been determined. We studied serial biopsies from 34 patients with follicular lymphomas that underwent histologic transformation, for abnormalities of the p53 tumor suppressor gene by a combination of immunohistochemistry, single strand conformation polymorphism analysis (SSCP), and sequencing. We found overexpression of p53 in 10 of the 34 transformed aggressive lymphomas, 9 of which contained mutations identified by SSCP analysis and subsequent sequencing. Matched pretransformation low-grade follicular lymphoma biopsies were available for 7 of the 10 cases. None of six studied by immunohistochemistry showed overexpression of p53 and only 1 of 4 studied by SSCP/sequencing showed the presence of mutation in the pretransformation biopsy. Interestingly, an eighth p53 positive transformed lymphoma recurred with a clonally related, p53 negative low-grade lymphoma 5 years after the patient had achieved a complete remission. Immunohistochemistry also showed that several pretransformation biopsies from p53 positive transformed cases showed rare p53 positive cells and in one case we could document an increase in their number over time. Twenty-five additional low-grade follicular lymphoma biopsies were also examined. Three patients had lymphomas positive for p53 mutation. One of the three subsequently transformed within a year of the biopsy studied; the second patient had an earlier (unavailable) biopsy at a different site that showed transformed histology. The third patient was treated with ProMACE-MOPP combination chemotherapy and attained a complete remission. We conclude that (1) mutations of p53 are associated with histologic transformation in approximately 25% to 30% of follicular lymphomas and (2) p53 positive cells can be detected before histologic transformation, but do not comprise a significant percentage of the neoplastic cell population (identifiable by SSCP) until late in the disease, just before or after histologic progression. Finally, the data also suggest that p53 positive low-grade lymphomas are at risk for progression and that in this subset, aggressive therapy may be warranted.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The primary tumors from 15 untreated patients with Burkitt's lymphoma were analysed for abnormalities in the coding region of the MYC gene by single stranded conformational polymorphism (SSCP) analysis followed by DNA sequencing. Fourteen of the 15 tumors had one or more clonal mutations. Forty one mutations were found in the second exon; only one occurred in the third exon. Seven tumors had mutations that clustered in a region spanning amino acids 38-63. Four of these possessed mutations that altered prolines at positions 57 (3), 60 (1), and 63 (1). Seven tumors were mutated in the central portions of the second exon. These occurred at position 95 (2), position 115 (2), position 137 (1), and position 138 (3). Analysis of the published sequences from five lymphoma cell lines and one primary tumor showed a similar clustering of mutations, with all six having mutations in codons between positions 38-63. The regions where mutations occurred have been associated with a variety of properties, including transcriptional activation and cellular transformation. The number and location of mutations showed no correlation with either chromosome 8 or chromosome 14 breakpoints or with the Epstein-Barr virus positivity of the tumors. This unexpected, frequent occurrence of clustered mutations in the second exon of the MYC gene suggests a role for the mutated MYC proteins in the pathogenesis of Burkitt's lymphoma, possibly through altered interactions of this domain with other cellular factors.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To better understand the role of the BCL-3 locus at chromosome 17q22 in the pathogenesis and progression of leukemias and lymphomas, we examined its genomic configuration in 264 B-cell malignancies and its expression in a smaller subset. Cases studied included 39 chronic lymphocytic leukemias, 58 low-grade follicular lymphomas, 20 mantle cell lymphomas, 30 small noncleaved cell lymphomas, 25 acute lymphoblastic leukemias, 10 acquired immunodeficiency syndrome--related non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, and 44 diffuse mixed- or diffuse large-cell lymphomas. In addition, 38 aggressive lymphomas (transformed follicular lymphomas) derived from previously indolent follicular lymphomas were examined. Southern blot analysis showed BCL-3 locus rearrangement in 4 cases (1.5%), ie, in 3 transformed follicular lymphomas and in 1 indolent follicular lymphoma. All 4 also had BCL-2 rearrangements consistent with their follicular center cell origin. None of the BCL-3 rearranged cases showed MYC gene rearrangement, as reported for the original leukemia that led to the discovery of BCL-3. Pretransformation specimens of all three transformed follicular lymphomas showed the presence of the BCL-3 alteration before histologic progression. In 1 case, serial pretransformation biopsies showed that the BCL-3 rearrangement was acquired during the indolent follicular phase of the patient's disease. Thirty lymphomas, including 2 of the 4 with BCL-3 rearrangement, were also examined for BCL-3 message. All 30, including the 2 with BCL-3 rearrangements, expressed the normal 1.7-kb BCL-3 transcript, at approximately equivalent levels. The data indicate that, although BCL-3 locus alterations are found in only a small fraction of B-cell lymphoid malignancies, they occur primarily in a subset of follicular center cell lymphomas. Interestingly, these alterations appear to be acquired during the indolent (follicular) phase of the disease and they are maintained when histologic transformation takes place. The data also suggest that BCL-3 locus alterations do not result in gross changes of BCL-3 gene expression and do not necessarily involve the MYC gene. Although the preferential involvement of BCL-3 alterations in a small subset of follicular lymphomas that transform suggests a possible link between these abnormalities and progression, further studies are needed to ensure that these alterations are biologically relevant and not simply a manifestation of genomic instability.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We reviewed our experience with 30 nodal and extranodal lymphoid lesions from 17 patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID). Immunohistochemical studies were performed on biopsies from 15 patients, in situ hybridization for Epstein-Barr virus in nine cases, and gene rearrangement analysis on seven lesions. The biopsies were classified into four groups: malignant lymphoma (two cases); atypical lymphoid hyperplasia (eight cases); reactive lymphoid hyperplasia (14 cases); and chronic granulomatous inflammation (six cases). The two malignant lymphomas were diagnosed using histologic criteria; tissue was not available for the assessment of clonality. In one neoplasm, Epstein-Barr virus was identified in the tumor cells by in situ hybridization. The cases of reactive lymphoid hyperplasia and chronic granulomatous inflammation had no atypical architectural, cytologic, or immunohistochemical features. The cases of atypical lymphoid hyperplasia were of particular interest, as these patients had either widespread involvement or massive disease. The diagnosis of lymphoma was considered likely by the clinicians and, in three cases, the histologic slides were originally interpreted as malignant lymphoma by the referring pathologists. Although the architecture of these lesions appeared to be effaced on hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections, immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated preserved architecture with florid expansion of B-cell and T-cell compartments. In addition, clinical follow-up of these patients was benign, and gene rearrangement analysis in three lesions revealed no evidence of clonality. We conclude that the majority of lymphoid lesions in patients with CVID are benign. Immunohistochemical and gene rearrangement studies are particularly helpful in the assessment of cases of atypical lymphoid hyperplasia.
American Journal of Surgical Pathology 01/1993; 16(12):1170-82. · 4.87 Impact Factor