Tao Su

CUNY Graduate Center, New York City, New York, United States

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Publications (22)172.45 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Studies indicate that extracts and purified components, including carnosic acid, from the herb rosemary display significant growth inhibitory activity on a variety of cancers. This paper examines the ability of rosemary/carnosic acid to inhibit the growth of human breast cancer cells and to synergize with curcumin. To do this, we treated human breast cancer cells with rosemary/carnosic acid and assessed effects on cell proliferation, cell cycle distribution, gene expression patterns, activity of the purified Na/K ATPase and combinations with curcumin. Rosemary/carnosic acid potently inhibits proliferation of ER-negative human breast cancer cells and induces G1 cell cycle arrest. Further, carnosic acid is selective for MCF7 cells transfected for Her2, indicating that Her2 may function in its action. To reveal primary effects, we treated ER-negative breast cancer cells with carnosic acid for 6h. At a low dose, 5 μg/ml (15 μM), carnosic acid activated the expression of 3 genes, induced through the presence of antioxidant response elements, including genes involved in glutathione biosynthesis (CYP4F3, GCLC) and transport (SLC7A11). At a higher dose, 20 μg/ml, carnosic acid activated the expression of antioxidant (AKR1C2, TNXRD1, HMOX1) and apoptosis (GDF15, PHLDA1, DDIT3) genes and suppressed the expression of inhibitor of transcription (ID3) and cell cycle (CDKN2C) genes. Carnosic acid exhibits synergy with turmeric/curcumin. These compounds inhibited the activity of the purified Na-K-ATPase which may contribute to this synergy. Rosemary/carnosic acid, alone or combined with curcumin, may be useful to prevent and treat ER-negative breast cancer.
    Fitoterapia 07/2012; 83(7):1160-8. · 2.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The expression of Cancer/Testis (CT) antigens in some tumors and restricted expression in normal tissue make CT antigens attractive vaccine targets. We evaluated the expression of MAGE-A3, PLAC1, GAGE, and CTAG2 in a series of colorectal cancers (CRC). CT mRNA expression was determined via quantitative PCR on paired tumors and normal tissue samples from 82 CRC patients. In addition, plasma antibody titers specific to MAGE-A3, PLAC1, GAGE, and CTAG2 were determined via ELISA. Tissue expression of MAGE-A3 was assessed via a standard IHC protocol. The Student's t-test was used for statistical analysis (significance p < 0.05). Tumor expression of MAGE-A3, CTAG2, and GAGE was compared to the levels of expression in testis. The percentage of samples that had a tumor vs. testis expression ratio above 0.1% was: MAGE-A3 (28%) and CTAG2 (17%) but no tumor presented GAGE expression levels above 0.1%. The expression levels of PLAC1 in tumors were compared to the levels in placenta, and in 12.8% of the samples analyzed, these levels were above 0.1%. Sero-reactivity specific for MAGE-A genes and PLAC1 was noted in 2.4% and 2.6% of patients, respectively. MAGE-A3 and PLAC1 may hold promise as vaccine targets for CRC. Further study is warranted.
    Cancer immunity: a journal of the Academy of Cancer Immunology 01/2012; 12:16.
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    ABSTRACT: This study examines the chemopreventive potential and action of the herb black cohosh on Sprague-Dawley rats. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with an extract of black cohosh enriched in triterpene glycosides (27%) at 35.7 (Group I), 7.14 (Group II), 0.714 (Group III) or 0 mg/kg b.w. for 40 weeks starting from 56 weeks of age and the incidence of benign and malignant mammary tumors was determined at the end of observation. Among female rats treated at 35.7 and 7.14 mg/kg b.w. there was a dose-related reduction (p<0.05) of the incidence of mammary adenocarcinomas when compared to the treatment of 0.714 mg/kg b.w., with a protection index (calculated relative to the group III; PI=[total tumours × 100 animals of group III] - [total tumours × 100 animals of the group I (or group II)]/ [total tumours of group III] × 100) for mammary adenocarcinomas of 87.5 and 48.8%, respectively. Black cohosh reduced Ki-67 and cyclin D1 protein expression in fibroadenomas, by immunohistochemistry. Our results suggest that black cohosh may have chemopreventive potential for mammary cancer.
    Anticancer research 01/2012; 32(1):21-30. · 1.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Studies indicate that extracts and purified components from black cohosh inhibit the growth of human breast cancer cells, but the molecular targets and signaling pathways have not yet been defined. This study examines the pharmacological mechanisms and toxicological effects in the short term of the herb black cohosh on female Sprague-Dawley rats. To assess effects on gene activity and lipid content, we treated female Sprague-Dawley rats with an extract of black cohosh enriched in triterpene glycosides (27%) at 35.7 or 0mg/kg. Four animals for each group were sacrificed at 1, 6 and 24h after treatment; liver tissue and serum samples were obtained for gene expression and lipid analysis. Microarray analysis of rat liver tissue indicated that black cohosh markedly downregulated mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation genes. Phospholipid biosynthesis and remodeling, PI3-Kinase and sphingosine signaling were upregulated, driven largely by an upregulation of several isoforms of phospholipase C. Hierarchical clustering indicated that black cohosh clustered with antiproliferative compounds, specifically tubulin binding vinca alkaloids and DNA alkylators. In support of this, black cohosh repressed the expression of cyclin D1 and ID3, and inhibited the proliferation of HepG2, p53 positive, liver cancer cells. Black cohosh reduced the level of free fatty acids at 6 and 24h and triglycerides at 6h in the serum, but increased the free fatty acid and triglyceride content of the treated livers at 24h. Our results suggest that black cohosh warrants further study for breast cancer prevention and therapy.
    Fitoterapia 12/2011; 83(3):461-8. · 2.23 Impact Factor
  • Gastroenterology 01/2011; 140(5). · 12.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abnormalities of genomic methylation patterns are lethal or cause disease, but the cues that normally designate CpG dinucleotides for methylation are poorly understood. We have developed a new method of methylation profiling that has single-CpG resolution and can address the methylation status of repeated sequences. We have used this method to determine the methylation status of >275 million CpG sites in human and mouse DNA from breast and brain tissues. Methylation density at most sequences was found to increase linearly with CpG density and to fall sharply at very high CpG densities, but transposons remained densely methylated even at higher CpG densities. The presence of histone H2A.Z and histone H3 di- or trimethylated at lysine 4 correlated strongly with unmethylated DNA and occurred primarily at promoter regions. We conclude that methylation is the default state of most CpG dinucleotides in the mammalian genome and that a combination of local dinucleotide frequencies, the interaction of repeated sequences, and the presence or absence of histone variants or modifications shields a population of CpG sites (most of which are in and around promoters) from DNA methyltransferases that lack intrinsic sequence specificity.
    Genome Research 07/2010; 20(7):972-80. · 14.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Numerous studies have suggested that digitalis derivatives promise to be superior to existing adjuvant therapy for breast cancer as to effects and side-effects. In the present study, we have used gene expression analysis to determine the molecular action of digitoxin on breast cancer cells and assessed digitoxin's ability to synergize with the chemotherapy agent paclitaxel with respect to inhibition of cell proliferation We treated (Her2 overexpressing, ER low) MDA-MB-453 human breast cancer cells with digitoxin at four doses {20 ng/ml (26 nM) to 1 μg/ml} and collected RNA at 6 h and 24 h for gene expression analysis. To examine the effects on ER positive cells, we treated MCF7 cells with digitoxin at 1 μg/ml and collected RNA for RT-PCR analysis. In addition, we assayed the growth inhibitory effect of low doses of digitoxin combined with paclitaxel and determined combination index values. To reveal primary effects, we examined digitoxin's effect 6 h post-treatment with the highest dose, 1μg/ml, and found upregulation of the stress response genes EGR-1 and NAB2, lipid biosynthetic genes and the tumor suppressor gene p21, and downregulation of the mitotic cell cycle gene CDC16 and the replication gene PolR3B. RT-PCR analysis validated effects on stress response, apoptotic and cell cycle genes on MDA-MB-453 and MCF7 cells. Western blot analysis confirmed induction of EGR1 protein at 1 h and ATF3 at 24 h. Paclitaxel, as well as digitoxin, inhibited the in vitro activity of the purified Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase; digitoxin enhanced the growth inhibitory effects of paclitaxel on Her2 overexpressing breast cancer cells. Our studies show the potential of digitoxin to prevent and treat breast cancer and indicate that the combination of digitoxin and paclitaxel is a promising treatment for ER negative breast cancer. These findings are the first to alert physicians to the possible dangers to patients who take a combination of digitoxin and paclitaxel. The potential dangers ensuing when paclitaxel and digitoxin are combined are dependent on the dose of digitoxin.
    Journal of Carcinogenesis 01/2010; 9:10.
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    ABSTRACT: PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog on chromosome 10) is a tumor suppressor whose cellular regulation remains incompletely understood. We identified phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate RAC exchanger 2a (P-REX2a) as a PTEN-interacting protein. P-REX2a mRNA was more abundant in human cancer cells and significantly increased in tumors with wild-type PTEN that expressed an activated mutant of PIK3CA encoding the p110 subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase subunit alpha (PI3Kalpha). P-REX2a inhibited PTEN lipid phosphatase activity and stimulated the PI3K pathway only in the presence of PTEN. P-REX2a stimulated cell growth and cooperated with a PIK3CA mutant to promote growth factor-independent proliferation and transformation. Depletion of P-REX2a reduced amounts of phosphorylated AKT and growth in human cell lines with intact PTEN. Thus, P-REX2a is a component of the PI3K pathway that can antagonize PTEN in cancer cells.
    Science 10/2009; 325(5945):1261-5. · 31.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lesions of ERBB2, PTEN, and PIK3CA activate the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway during cancer development by increasing levels of phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-triphosphate (PIP(3)). 3-Phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1) is the first node of the PI3K signal output and is required for activation of AKT. PIP(3) recruits PDK1 and AKT to the cell membrane through interactions with their pleckstrin homology domains, allowing PDK1 to activate AKT by phosphorylating it at residue threonine-308. We show that total PDK1 protein and mRNA were overexpressed in a majority of human breast cancers and that 21% of tumors had five or more copies of the gene encoding PDK1, PDPK1. We found that increased PDPK1 copy number was associated with upstream pathway lesions (ERBB2 amplification, PTEN loss, or PIK3CA mutation), as well as patient survival. Examination of an independent set of breast cancers and tumor cell lines derived from multiple forms of human cancers also found increased PDK1 protein levels associated with such upstream pathway lesions. In human mammary cells, PDK1 enhanced the ability of upstream lesions to signal to AKT, stimulate cell growth and migration, and rendered cells more resistant to PDK1 and PI3K inhibition. After orthotopic transplantation, PDK1 overexpression was not oncogenic but dramatically enhanced the ability of ERBB2 to form tumors. Our studies argue that PDK1 overexpression and increased PDPK1 copy number are common occurrences in cancer that potentiate the oncogenic effect of upstream lesions on the PI3K pathway. Therefore, we conclude that alteration of PDK1 is a critical component of oncogenic PI3K signaling in breast cancer.
    Cancer Research 09/2009; 69(15):6299-306. · 9.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to assess in rats the pharmacological parameters and effects on gene expression in the liver of the triterpene glycoside actein. Actein, an active component from the herb black cohosh, has been shown to inhibit the proliferation of human breast cancer cells. To conduct our assessment, we determined the molecular effects of actein on livers from Sprague-Dawley rats treated with actein at 35.7 mg/kg for 6 and 24 h. Chemogenomic analyses indicated that actein elicited stress and statin-associated responses in the liver; actein altered expression of cholesterol and fatty acid biosynthetic genes, p53 pathway genes, CCND1 and ID3. Real-time RT-PCR validated that actein induced three time-dependent patterns of gene expression in the liver: (i) a decrease followed by a significant increase of HMGCS1, HMGCR, HSD17B7, NQO1, S100A9; (ii) a progressive increase of BZRP and CYP7A1 and (iii) a significant increase followed by a decrease of CCND1 and ID3. Consistent with actein's statin- and stress-associated responses, actein reduced free fatty acid and cholesterol content in the liver by 0.6-fold at 24 h and inhibited the growth of human HepG2 liver cancer cells. To determine the bioavailability of actein, we collected serum samples for pharmacokinetic analysis at various times up to 24 h. The serum level of actein peaked at 2.4 microg/mL at 6 h. Actein's ability to alter pathways involved in lipid disorders and carcinogenesis may make it a new agent for preventing and treating these major disorders.
    Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology 07/2009; 23(3):311-21. · 1.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hint1 is a haploinsufficient tumor suppressor gene and the underlying molecular mechanisms for its tumor suppressor function are unknown. In this study we demonstrate that HINT1 participates in ionizing radiation (IR)-induced DNA damage responses. In response to IR, HINT1 is recruited to IR-induced foci (IRIF) and associates with gamma-H2AX and ATM. HINT1 deficiency does not affect the formation of gamma-H2AX foci; however, it impairs the removal of gamma-H2AX foci after DNA damage and this is associated with impaired acetylation of gamma-H2AX. HINT1 deficiency also impairs acetylation of ATM and activation of ATM and its downstream effectors, and retards DNA repair, in response to IR. HINT1-deficient cells exhibit resistance to IR-induced apoptosis and several types of chromosomal abnormalities. Our findings suggest that the tumor suppressor function of HINT1 is caused by, at least in part, its normal role in enhancing cellular responses to DNA damage by regulating the functions of both gamma-H2AX and ATM.
    The Journal of Cell Biology 11/2008; 183(2):253-65. · 10.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Carcinoma is an altered state of tissue differentiation in which epithelial cells no longer respond to cues that keep them in their proper position. A break down in these cues has disastrous consequences not only in cancer but also in embryonic development when cells of various lineages must organize into discrete entities to form a body plan. Paraxial protocadherin (PAPC) is an adhesion protein with six cadherin repeats that organizes the formation and polarity of developing cellular structures in frog, fish and mouse embryos. Here we show that protocadherin-8 (PCDH8), the human ortholog of PAPC, is inactivated through either mutation or epigenetic silencing in a high fraction of breast carcinomas. Loss of PCDH8 expression is associated with loss of heterozygosity, partial promoter methylation, and increased proliferation. Complementation of mutant tumor cell line HCC2218 with wild-type PCDH8 inhibited its growth. Two tumor mutants, E146K and R343H, were defective for inhibition of cell growth and migration. Surprisingly, the E146K mutant transformed the human mammary epithelial cell line MCF10A and sustained the expression of cyclin D1 and MYC without epidermal growth factor. We propose that loss of PCDH8 promotes oncogenesis in epithelial human cancers by disrupting cell-cell communication dedicated to tissue organization and repression of mitogenic signaling.
    Oncogene 05/2008; 27(34):4657-65. · 8.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In an effort to identify novel genes implicated in breast carcinogenesis, a genomewide scan for loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and copy number changes in paired-DNA samples extracted from normal and tumor tissue of frozen sections from women undergoing surgery for invasive breast cancer was conducted. The Affymetrix 10K SNP array was used to examine genomewide LOH of chromosomal regions. The number of LOH events, number of informative loci, percent heterozygosity, and percent fractional allelic loss (%FAL) were calculated. Although LOH events were detected in all samples, the proportion of LOH ranged from 0.1 to 57.2%. Elevated LOH events were detected in two samples, with a %FAL of 57.2 and 56.2. Chromosomal regions exceeding a threshold value for a P-value curve based on multiple-testing adjusted permutation methods were identified as significant regions of shared LOH across samples. Regions with significant LOH included 2p25.3; 2p21; 2p15 approximately p16.1, 2q23.3; and, 16q12.1. Chromosomal region 1q32.1 was identified as a region with significant copy number amplification. Regions of LOH and copy number changes identified from this analysis may provide insights into the underlying processes of and genes involved in breast carcinogenesis. The present study demonstrates a feasible methodological approach for the assessment of LOH and copy number changes.
    Cancer Genetics and Cytogenetics 05/2008; 182(2):69-74. · 1.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Screening for tumor suppressor genes in breast cancer revealed multiple truncating mutations of PB1, which encodes the BAF180 subunit of the PBAF chromatin remodeling complex. Mutation was associated with loss of heterozygosity of the wild-type allele. BAF180 complementation of BAF180-mutant tumor cells caused G(1) arrest that was dependent on increased expression of the cyclin/cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21/WAF1/CIP1. Endogenous wild-type BAF180 bound to the p21 promoter and was required for proper p21 expression and G(1) arrest after transforming growth factor-beta and gamma-radiation treatment. BAF180 thus functions on two tumor suppressor signaling pathways as a physiologic mediator of p21 expression. We conclude that BAF180 suppresses tumorigenesis, at least in part, through its ability to regulate p21.
    Cancer Research 04/2008; 68(6):1667-74. · 9.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Basal-like breast cancer (BBC) is a subtype of breast cancer with poor prognosis. Inherited mutations of BRCA1, a cancer susceptibility gene involved in double-strand DNA break (DSB) repair, lead to breast cancers that are nearly always of the BBC subtype; however, the precise molecular lesions and oncogenic consequences of BRCA1 dysfunction are poorly understood. Here we show that heterozygous inactivation of the tumor suppressor gene Pten leads to the formation of basal-like mammary tumors in mice, and that loss of PTEN expression is significantly associated with the BBC subtype in human sporadic and BRCA1-associated hereditary breast cancers. In addition, we identify frequent gross PTEN mutations, involving intragenic chromosome breaks, inversions, deletions and micro copy number aberrations, specifically in BRCA1-deficient tumors. These data provide an example of a specific and recurrent oncogenic consequence of BRCA1-dependent dysfunction in DNA repair and provide insight into the pathogenesis of BBC with therapeutic implications. These findings also argue that obtaining an accurate census of genes mutated in cancer will require a systematic examination for gross gene rearrangements, particularly in tumors with deficient DSB repair.
    Nature Genetics 02/2008; 40(1):102-7. · 35.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies indicate that the triterpene glycoside actein from the herb black cohosh inhibits growth of human breast cancer cells. This study seeks to identify genes altered in human breast cancer cells by treatment with actein, using gene expression analysis. We treated MDA-MB-453 human breast cancer cells with actein at 2 doses, 20 or 40 microg/mL, for 6 or 24 hr. We identified 5 genes that were activated after each of the treatments that are known to play a role in cellular responses to diverse stresses, including the DNA damage and unfolded protein responses. In addition, four genes that mediate the integrated stress response (ISR), including activating transcription factor 4, were induced under at least one of the 4 treatment conditions. We used hierarchical clustering to define clusters comprising patterns of gene expression. Two ISR genes, activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) and DNA damage- inducible transcript 3, and lipid biosynthetic genes were activated after exposure to actein at 40 microg/mL for 6 hr, whereas the cell cycle genes cyclin E2 and cell division cycle 25A were repressed. Our results suggest that actein induces 2 phases of the ISR, the survival phase and the apoptotic phase, depending on the dose and duration of treatment. We confirmed the results of gene expression analysis with real-time RT-PCR for 18 selected genes and Western blot analysis for ATF3. Since actein activated transcription factors that enhance apoptosis, and repressed cell cycle genes, it may be useful in the prevention and therapy of breast cancer.
    International Journal of Cancer 12/2007; 121(9):2073-83. · 6.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In previous studies we identified a novel gene Dipl, also designated CCNDBP1, which encodes a 42kDa helix-loop-helix (HLH) nuclear protein. Although this protein was originally identified by its ability to bind to cyclin D1 its precise biochemical functions are not known. In the present study we carried out mechanistic studies on Dip1 focusing on the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. We found that overexpression of Dip1 in MCF-7 cells inhibited colony formation and cell proliferation. Reporter assays in MCF-7 cells indicated that Dip1 strongly inhibited the transcriptional activities of the cyclin D1, c-fos, NF-kappaB, SRE and p21cP1 promoters. Furthermore studies with truncated and mutant forms of the cyclin D1 promoter suggest that Dip1 does not act on specific transcriptional elements. Assays with mutant and truncated forms of Dip1 indicated that both the LXXLL motif and the HLH domain play important, but not exclusive, roles in these inhibitory effects. Dip1 co-immunoprecipitated with the histone deacetylase (HDAC) proteins HDAC1 and HDAC3. Nevertheless Dip1 markedly inhibited the stimulation of cyclin D1 promoter activity obtained with trichostatin A [1], an inhibitor of HDAC. Taken together these findings suggest that Dip1 functions as a general repressor of transcription. Although the precise mechanism by which Dip1 inhibits gene transcription and the growth of MCF-7 cells remain to be determined, the present results suggest that Dip1 is a candidate tumor suppressor gene.
    Journal of Experimental Therapeutics and Oncology 02/2007; 6(2):117-27.
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    ABSTRACT: African-American women develop more aggressive breast cancers and at an earlier age compared with Caucasian women. We compared gene expression profiles of breast cancer cell lines that were developed from African-American and Caucasian patients to identify biological differences in breast cancers that develop in these groups. Real-time PCR was used to evaluate mRNA expression in cell lines and in a series of breast cancer cases. Gene microarray signal intensities were also analyzed in the International Genomics Consortium Expression Project for Oncology (expO) dataset. 17,-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (17HSD 2) gene and mRNA expression were significantly higher in the African-American cell lines (p<0.05). However, 17HSD 2 expression did not differ significantly between the two cohorts in either our clinical series or the expO dataset. 17HSD 2 expression was found to be predictive of younger age at diagnosis and estrogen receptor status. Overexpression of 17HSD 2 in African-American breast cancer may contribute to the increased proportion of estrogen receptor-negative breast cancers and worse clinical outcome among African-American patients.
    Cancer genomics & proteomics 01/2007; 4(5):341-8.
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    ABSTRACT: Deregulation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway either through loss of PTEN or mutation of the catalytic subunit alpha of PI3K (PIK3CA) occurs frequently in human cancer. We identified PIK3CA mutations in 26% of 342 human breast tumor samples and cell lines at about equal frequency in tumor stages I to IV. To investigate the relationship between PTEN and PIK3CA, we generated a cohort of tumors that had lost PTEN expression and compared it with a matched control set that had retained PTEN. A highly significant association between PIK3CA mutations and retention of PTEN protein expression was observed. In addition, PIK3CA mutations were associated with expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors (ER/PR), lymph node metastasis, and ERBB2 overexpression. The fact that PIK3CA mutations and PTEN loss are nearly mutually exclusive implies that deregulated phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-triphosphate (PIP(3)) is critical for tumorigenesis in a significant fraction of breast cancers and that loss of PIP(3) homeostasis by abrogation of either PIK3CA or PTEN relieves selective pressure for targeting of the other gene. The correlation of PIK3CA mutation to ER/PR-positive tumors and PTEN loss to ER/PR-negative tumors argues for disparate branches of tumor evolution. Furthermore, the association between ERBB2 overexpression and PIK3CA mutation implies that more than one input activating the PI3K/AKT pathway may be required to overcome intact PTEN. Thus, mutation of PIK3CA is frequent, occurs early in carcinoma development, and has prognostic and therapeutic implications.
    Cancer Research 05/2005; 65(7):2554-9. · 8.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The human mu-opioid receptor (HmuOR) is a G-protein coupled receptor that mediates analgesia, euphoria and other important central and peripheral neurological functions. In this study, we found in a yeast two-hybrid screen that a protein kinase C-interacting protein (PKCI) specifically interacts with the C terminus of HmuOR. The interaction of PKCI with HmuOR was recapitulated in Chinese hamster ovary cells that express the full-length HmuOR and PKCI proteins. The affinity of HmuOR for an opioid ligand and its ability to mediate the activation of a G-protein were not altered by their interaction. However, the association of PKCI with HmuOR reduced agonist-induced inhibition of adenylyl cyclase and suppressed HmuOR desensitization partially at the G protein level and completely at the adenylyl cyclase level. Furthermore, PMA-induced, but not DAMGO-induced, HmuOR phosphorylation was partially inhibited by the coexpression of PKCI, suggesting that PKCI exerts a selective regulatory effect on HmuOR signaling. This effect was specific to the mu-opioid receptor because delta-opioid receptor desensitization was unaffected by PKCI. In addition, behavioral studies revealed that both basal and morphine-induced analgesia were significantly enhanced in the mutant mice that lacked expression of PKCI gene, and these mice developed a greater extent of tolerance to morphine analgesia. Taken together, these results suggest that PKCI functions as a negative regulator in HmuOR desensitization, phosphorylation, and in mediating morphine analgesia.
    Molecular Pharmacology 12/2004; 66(5):1285-92. · 4.41 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

960 Citations
172.45 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2011–2012
    • CUNY Graduate Center
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 2003–2010
    • Columbia University
      • • College of Physicians and Surgeons
      • • Institute of Cancer Genetics
      New York City, New York, United States