[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This exploratory trial was conducted to investigate whether daikenchuto accelerates the recovery of gastrointestinal function in patients undergoing open surgery for sigmoid or rectosigmoid cancer.
Eighty-eight patients who underwent colectomy at one of the 11 clinical trial sites in Japan from January 2009 to June 2011 were registered in the study. Patients received either placebo or daikenchuto (15.0 g/day, 5 g three times a day) from postoperative day 2 to postoperative day 8. The study end points included the gastrointestinal tract transit time evaluated with radiopaque markers and the time to first flatus. The safety profile of daikenchuto was also evaluated until postoperative day 8.
Seventy-one patients (daikenchuto, n = 38; placebo, n = 33) were statistically analyzed. Although the number of radiopaque markers in the anal side of the small intestine at 6 h was significantly greater in the daikenchuto group than in the placebo group (15.19 vs 10.06, p = 0.008), the total transit analysis results and the mean time to first flatus did not differ significantly between the two groups.
Daikenchuto has a positive effect on the resolution of delayed gastric emptying, but has a limited effect on the resolution of postoperative paralytic ileus after open surgery in patients with sigmoid or rectosigmoid cancer. Daikenchuto may contribute to early oral intake in the postoperative course.
Journal of Gastroenterology 07/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00535-015-1100-1 · 4.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously demonstrated that the deletion of phospholipase C-related catalytically inactive protein-1/2 (PRIP-1/2) enhances the desensitization of GABAA receptors (GABAARs), while it facilitates their resensitization at the offset of GABA puff, causing a hump-like tail current (tail-I) in layer 3 (L3) pyramidal cells (PCs) of the barrel cortex. In the present study, we investigated whether inhibitory synaptic transmission in L3 PCs in the barrel cortex is altered in the PRIP-1/2 double-knockout (PRIP-DKO) mice, and if so, how the interaction between excitation and inhibition is subsequently modified. PRIP-1/2 deletion resulted in the prolongation of the decay phase of inhibitory postsynaptic currents/potentials (IPSCs/IPSPs) in L3 PCs evoked by stimulation of L3, leaving the overall features of miniature IPSCs unchanged. An optical imaging revealed that the spatiotemporal profile of a horizontal excitation spread across columns in L2/3 caused by L4 stimulation in the barrel cortex was more restricted in PRIP-DKO mice compared to the wild type, while those obtained in the presence of bicuculline were almost identical between the two genotypes. These findings suggest that PRIP-1/2 deletion enhances the lateral inhibition by prolonging inhibitory synaptic actions to limit the intercolumnar integration in the barrel cortex. Considering the present findings together with our previous study including a mathematical simulation, the prolongation of inhibitory synaptic actions is likely to result from an enhancement of desensitization followed by an enhanced resensitization in GABAARs.
Pflügers Archiv - European Journal of Physiology 08/2014; 467(7). DOI:10.1007/s00424-014-1592-1 · 4.10 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Recent studies have revealed the antinociceptive effects of glycine transporter (GlyT) inhibitors in neuropathic pain models such as sciatic nerve-injured and diabetic animals. Bone cancer can cause the most severe pain according to complex mechanisms in which a neuropathic element is included. Bone cancer modifies the analgesic action of opioids and limits their effectiveness, and thus novel medicament for bone cancer pain is desired.
For the femur bone cancer model, NCTC 2472 tumor cells were injected into the medullary cavity of the distal femur of C3H/HeN mice. Effects of GlyT2 inhibitors, ORG 25543 and ALX 1393, and GlyT1 inhibitors, ORG 25935, and knockdown of the expression of spinal GlyTs protein by GlyTs siRNA on pain-like behaviors, such as allodynia, withdrawal threshold, guarding behavior, and limb-use abnormality, were examined in the femur bone cancer model mice. Effects of morphine in combination with GlyT inhibitor were examined.
GlyT2 inhibitors, ORG 25543 and ALX 1393, and GlyT1 inhibitor ORG 25935 by IV or oral administration or knockdown of the expression of spinal GlyTs protein improved pain-like behaviors at 11 days after tumor transplantation. The pain-relief activity was potent and long lasting. Morphine at a dose with no analgesic activity combined with ORG 25543 further promoted the ORG 25543-induced pain-relief activity. Injection of ORG 25543 on the second day after tumor implantation caused 3 phases of pain responses; pain-like behaviors were initially accelerated (at 2-4 days) and subsequently almost disappeared (5-7 days) and then reappeared. Intrathecal injection of strychnine 1 day after injection of ORG 25543 transiently antagonized the pain-relief activity of ORG 25543. In control mice, strychnine improved pain-like behaviors 4 days after tumor implantation and aggravated the behaviors between 4 and 5 days. The evidence suggests that the different mechanisms are phase-dependently involved.
GlyT inhibitors with or without morphine may be a new strategy for the treatment of bone cancer pain and lead to further investigations of the mechanisms underlying the development of bone cancer pain.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phosphorylation of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) and perilipin by protein kinase A (PKA) promotes the hydrolysis of lipids in adipocytes. Although activation of lipolysis by PKA has been well studied, inactivation via protein phosphatases is poorly understood. Here, we investigated whether phospholipase C-related catalytically inactive protein (PRIP), a binding partner for protein phosphatase 1 and protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), is involved in lipolysis by regulating phosphatase activity. PRIP knockout (PRIP-KO) mice displayed reduced body-fat mass as compared with wild-type mice fed with standard chow ad libitum. Most other organs appeared normal, suggesting that mutant mice had aberrant fat metabolism in adipocytes. HSL in PRIP-KO adipose tissue was highly phosphorylated compared to that in wild-type mice. Starvation of wild-type mice or stimulation of adipose tissue explants with the catabolic hormone, adrenaline, translocated both PRIP and PP2A from the cytosol to lipid droplets, but the translocation of PP2A was significantly reduced in PRIP-KO adipocytes. Consistently, the phosphatase activity associated with lipid droplet fraction in PRIP-KO adipocytes was significantly reduced and was independent of adrenaline stimulation. Lipolysis activity, as assessed by measurement of non-esterified fatty acids and glycerol, was higher in PRIP-KO adipocytes. When wild-type adipocytes were treated with a phosphatase inhibitor, they showed a high lipolysis activity at the similar level to PRIP-KO adipocytes. Collectively, these results suggest that PRIP promotes the translocation of phosphatases to lipid droplets to trigger the dephosphorylation of HSL and perilipin A, thus reducing PKA-mediated lipolysis.
PLoS ONE 06/2014; 9(6):e100559. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0100559 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rationale
The selective N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) channel blocker MK-801 is known to induce no loss of the righting reflex (LORR) and to stimulate catecholaminergic (CAergic) neurons in rodents, playing a crucial role in arousal.
We examined whether MK-801 in combination with CA receptor ligands, which inhibit CAergic neuronal activities, could induce anesthesia including LORR.
All drugs were administered systemically to mice. To assess anesthesia, three different behaviors were used: loss of nociceptive response (analgesia in the free-moving state without LORR), LORR, and loss of movement in response to noxious stimulation (immobility under LORR).
A very large dose of MK-801 (50 mg/kg) induced neither analgesia nor LORR. In contrast, MK-801 in combination with a small dose of the dopamine (DA) receptor antagonist haloperidol (0.2 mg/kg) dose-dependently produced LORR with a 50 % effective dose (ED50) of 1.6 (0.9–3.0; 95 % confidence limit) mg/kg, but not immobility. The α2-adrenoceptor agonist dexmedetomidine induced not only analgesia, but also immobility in animals treated with MK-801 (5 mg/kg) plus haloperidol (0.2 mg/kg), which then lost their righting reflex. The ED50 value of 0.26 (0.10–0.66) mg/kg (various doses of dexmedetomidine plus a fixed dose of MK-801 and haloperidol) for immobility was approximately three-fold larger than that of 0.09 (0.03–0.23) mg/kg (dexmedetomidine plus vehicle saline) for analgesia. This may occur, as LORR induced by MK-801 plus haloperidol inhibits the pain suppression system. The other ligands had little or no effect.
The DAergic stimulant actions of MK-801 may mask its LORR effects by NMDA channel blockade.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Autophagy is an intrinsic host defense system that recognizes and eliminates invading bacterial pathogens. We have identified microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3), a hallmark of autophagy, as a binding partner of phospholipase C-related catalytically inactive protein (PRIP) that was originally identified as an inositol trisphosphate-binding protein. Here, we investigated the involvement of PRIP in the autophagic elimination of Staphylococcus aureus in infected mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). We observed significantly more LC3-positive autophagosome-like vacuoles enclosing an increased number of S. aureus cells in PRIP-deficient MEFs than control MEFs, 3 h and 4.5 h post infection, suggesting that S. aureus proliferates in LC3-positive autophagosome-like vacuoles in PRIP-deficient MEFs. We performed autophagic flux analysis using an mRFP-GFP-tagged LC3 plasmid and found that autophagosome maturation is significantly inhibited in PRIP-deficient MEFs. Furthermore, acidification of autophagosomes was significantly inhibited in PRIP-deficient MEFs compared to the wild-type MEFs, as determined by LysoTracker staining and time-lapse image analysis performed using mRFP-GFP-tagged LC3. Taken together, our data show that PRIP is required for the fusion of S. aureus-containing autophagosome-like vacuoles with lysosomes, indicating that PRIP is a novel modulator in the regulation of the innate immune system in non-professional phagocytic host cells.
PLoS ONE 05/2014; 9(5):e98285. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0098285 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously reported that phospholipase C-related catalytically inactive protein (PRIP)-knockout mice exhibited hyperinsulinemia. Here, we investigated the role of PRIP in insulin granule exocytosis using Prip-knockdown mouse insulinoma (MIN6) cells. Insulin release from Prip-knockdown MIN6 cells was higher than that from control cells, and Prip knockdown facilitated movement of GFP-phogrin-labeled insulin secretory vesicles. Double-immunofluorescent staining and density step-gradient analyses showed that the KIF5B motor protein co-localized with insulin vesicles in Prip-knockdown MIN6 cells. Knockdown of GABAA-receptor-associated protein (GABARAP), a microtubule-associated PRIP-binding partner, by Gabarap silencing in MIN6 cells reduced the co-localization of insulin vesicles with KIF5B and the movement of vesicles, resulting in decreased insulin secretion. However, the co-localization of KIF5B with microtubules was not altered in Prip- and Gabarap-knockdown cells. The presence of unbound GABARAP, freed either by an interference peptide or by Prip silencing, in MIN6 cells enhanced the co-localization of insulin vesicles with microtubules and promoted vesicle mobility. Taken together, these data demonstrate that PRIP and GABARAP function in a complex to regulate KIF5B-mediated insulin secretion, providing new insights into insulin exocytic mechanisms.
Biology Open 05/2014; 3(6). DOI:10.1242/bio.20147591 · 2.42 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phospholipase C-related catalytically inactive proteins (PRIP-1/2) are previously reported to be involved in the membrane trafficking of GABAA receptor (GABAAR) and the regulation of intracellular Ca(2+) stores. GABAAR-mediated currents can be regulated by the intracellular Ca(2+). However, in PRIP-1/2 double-knockout (PRIP-DKO) mice, it remains unclear whether the kinetic properties of GABAARs are modulated by the altered regulation of intracellular Ca(2+) stores. Here, we investigated whether GABAAR currents (IGABA) evoked by GABA puff in layer 3 (L3) pyramidal cells (PCs) of the barrel cortex are altered in PRIP-DKO mice. The deletion of PRIP-1/2 enhanced the desensitization of IGABA but induced a hump-like tail current (tail-I) at the GABA puff offset. IGABA and the hump-like tail-I were suppressed by GABAAR antagonists. The enhanced desensitization of IGABA and the hump-like tail-I in PRIP-DKO PCs were mediated by increases in the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration and were largely abolished by a calcineurin inhibitor and ruthenium red. Calcium imaging revealed that Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+) release (CICR) and subsequent store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) are more potent in PRIP-DKO PCs than in wild-type PCs. A mathematical model revealed that a slowdown of GABA-unbinding rate and an acceleration of fast desensitization rate by enhancing its GABA concentration dependency are involved in the generation of hump-like tail-Is. These results suggest that in L3 PCs of the barrel cortex in PRIP-DKO mice, the increased calcineurin activity due to the potentiated CICR and SOCE enhances the desensitization of GABAARs and slows the GABA-unbinding rate, resulting in their unusual resensitization following removal of GABA.
Pflügers Archiv - European Journal of Physiology 04/2014; 467(2). DOI:10.1007/s00424-014-1511-5 · 4.10 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bone cancer pain is the most severe among cancer pain and is often resistant to current analgesics. Thus, the development of novel analgesics effective at treating bone cancer pain are desired. Platelet-activating factor (PAF) receptor antagonists were recently demonstrated to have effective pain relieving effects on neuropathic pain in several animal models. The present study examined the pain relieving effect of PAF receptor antagonists on bone cancer pain using the femur bone cancer (FBC) model in mice. Animals were injected with osteolytic NCTC2472 cells into the tibia, and subsequently the effects of PAF receptor antagonists on pain behaviors were evaluated. Chemical structurally different type of antagonists, TCV-309, BN 50739 and WEB 2086 ameliorated the allodynia and improved pain behaviors such as guarding behavior and limb-use abnormalities in FBC model mice. The pain relieving effects of these antagonists were achieved with low doses and were long lasting. Blockade of spinal PAF receptors by intrathecal injection of TCV-309 and WEB 2086 or knockdown of the expression of spinal PAF receptor protein by intrathecal transfer of PAF receptor siRNA also produced a pain relieving effect. The amount of an inducible PAF synthesis enzyme, lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 2 (LPCAT2) protein significantly increased in the spinal cord after transplantation of NCTC 2472 tumor cells into mouse tibia. The combination of morphine with PAF receptor antagonists develops marked enhancement of the analgesic effect against bone cancer pain without affecting morphine-induced constipation. Repeated administration of TCV-309 suppressed the appearance of pain behaviors and prolonged survival of FBC mice. The present results suggest that PAF receptor antagonists in combination with, or without, opioids may represent a new strategy for the treatment of persistent bone cancer pain and improve the quality of life of patients.
PLoS ONE 03/2014; 9(3):e91746. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0091746 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This multi-center, phase III trial assesses the efficacy of daikenchuto (TU-100) on gastrointestinal disorders after hepatic resection (UMIN Registration No. 000003103).
A total of 231 patients, who underwent hepatic resection at 26 Japanese centers, were enrolled. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either oral doses (15 g/day, three times a day) of TU-100 or placebo control from preoperative day 3 to postoperative day 10, except on the day of surgery. Primary end points were the time from extubation until the first postoperative bowel movement (FBM-T), serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and ammonia levels.
Finally, 209 patients (TU-100: n = 108, placebo: n = 101) were included in the statistical analysis. The median FBM-T was 88.2 h (95 % CI 74.0-94.1) in the TU-100 group and 93.1 h (95 % CI 83.3-99.4) in the placebo group, demonstrating that TU-100 accelerated the time to first bowel movement significantly more than placebo control. Serum CRP levels did not differ significantly during the study period, although serum CRP levels in the TU-100 group tended to be lower than those in the placebo group in patients with grade B liver damage. Meanwhile, the two groups had similar serum ammonia levels. TU-100-related serious adverse events did not occur during the study.
TU-100 appears to improve gastrointestinal dysmotility and reduce serum CRP levels in patients with grade B liver damage after hepatectomy. TU-100 is an effective treatment option after hepatic resection in patients with liver cancer.
International Journal of Clinical Oncology 03/2014; 20(1). DOI:10.1007/s10147-014-0678-2 · 2.13 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Platelet-activating factor (PAF) has been implicated in the pathology of neuropathic pain. Previous studies reported that PAF receptor (PAF-R) antagonists have varied anti-allodynia effects by route of administration and nerve injury models in rats.
The present study elucidated the effectiveness of PAF antagonists against neuropathic pain in four different models of peripheral nerve injury and provided insights into the mode of anti-allodynia action.
PAF antagonists, TCV-309, BN 50739 and WEB 2086 by intravenous (i.v.) and oral administration have potent and long-lasting anti-allodynia action in mice neuropathic pain models. Treatment with PAF antagonists before surgery delayed the initiation of allodynia until the effects of these treatments were abolished. Intrathecal (i.t.) injection of the PAF antagonists and siRNA against PAF receptor ameliorated allodynia. I.t. injection of the glycine receptor (GlyR)α3 siRNA reduced the anti-allodynia effect of PAF antagonists. This evidence suggests that the anti-allodynia effect of PAF antagonists is at least in part mediated by spinal relief of PAF-induced dysfunction of GlyRα3. An analysis of the mode of anti-allodynia action of TCV-309 in vivo revealed a competitive action against PAF shortly after the injection of TCV-309, converting to a non-competitive action later.
The present results revealed the effectiveness in anti-allodynia of PAF antagonists in different nerve injury models, and the unique mode of action; long-lasting anti-allodynia effects mediated by spinal GlyRα3 with a competitive manner at the initial stage and the following non-competitive manner of inhibition.
European journal of pain (London, England) 09/2013; 17(8). DOI:10.1002/j.1532-2149.2013.00289.x · 2.93 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PRIP, phospholipase C (PLC)-related but catalytically inactive protein is a protein with a domain organization similar to PLC-δ1. We have reported that PRIP interacts with the catalytic subunits of protein phosphatase 1 and 2A (PP1c and PP2Ac), depending on the phosphorylation of PRIP. We also found that Akt was precipitated along with PRIP by anti-PRIP antibody from neuronal cells. In this article, we summarize our current reach regarding the interaction of PRIP with Akt and protein phosphatases, in relation to the cellular phospho-regulations. PP1 and PP2A are major members of the protein serine/threonine phosphatase families. We have identified PP1 and PP2A as interacting partners of PRIP. We first investigated the interaction of PRIP with two phosphatases, using purified recombinant proteins. PRIP immobilized on beads pulled-down the catalytic subunits of both PP1 and PP2A, indicating that the interactions were in a direct manner, and the binding of PP1 and PP2A to PRIP were mutually exclusive. Site-directed mutagenesis experiments revealed that the binding sites for PP1 and PP2A on PRIP were not identical, but in close proximity. Phosphorylation of PRIP by protein kinase A (PKA) resulted in the reduced binding of PP1, but not PP2A. Rather, the dissociation of PP1 from PRIP by phosphorylation accompanied the increased binding of PP2A in in vitro experiments. This binding regulation of PP1 and PP2A to PRIP by PKA-dependent phosphorylation was also observed in living cells treated with forskolin or isoproterenol. These results suggested that PRIP directly interacts with the catalytic subunits of two distinct phosphatases in a mutually exclusive manner and the interactions are regulated by phosphorylation, thus functioning as a scaffold to regulate the activities and subcellular localizations of both PP1 and PP2A in phospho-dependent cellular signaling.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
An inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate binding protein, comprising 2 isoforms termed PRIP-1 and PRIP-2, was identified as a novel modulator for GABAA receptor trafficking. It has been reported that naive PRIP-1 knockout mice have hyperalgesic responses.
To determine the involvement of PRIP in pain sensation, a hind paw withdrawal test was performed before and after partial sciatic nerve ligation (PSNL) in PRIP-1 and PRIP-2 double knockout (DKO) mice. We found that naive DKO mice exhibited normal pain sensitivity. However, DKO mice that underwent PSNL surgery showed increased ipsilateral paw withdrawal threshold. To further investigate the inverse phenotype in PRIP-1 KO and DKO mice, we produced mice with specific siRNA-mediated knockdown of PRIPs in the spinal cord. Consistent with the phenotypes of KO mice, PRIP-1 knockdown mice showed allodynia, while PRIP double knockdown (DKD) mice with PSNL showed decreased pain-related behavior. This indicates that reduced expression of both PRIPs in the spinal cord induces resistance towards a painful sensation. GABAA receptor subunit expression pattern was similar between PRIP-1 KO and DKO spinal cord, while expression of K+-Cl--cotransporter-2 (KCC2), which controls the balance of neuronal excitation and inhibition, was significantly upregulated in DKO mice. Furthermore, in the DKD PSNL model, an inhibitor-induced KCC2 inhibition exhibited an altered phenotype from painless to painful sensations.
Suppressed expression of PRIPs induces an elevated expression of KCC2 in the spinal cord, resulting in inhibition of nociception and amelioration of neuropathic pain in DKO mice.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Upon starvation, cells undergo autophagy, an intracellular bulk-degradation process, to provide the required nutrients. Here, we observed that phospholipase C-related catalytically inactive protein (PRIP) binds to microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3), a mammalian autophagy-related initiator that regulates the autophagy pathway. Then, we examined the involvement of PRIP in the nutrient depletion-induced autophagy pathway. Enhanced colocalization of PRIP with LC3 was clearly seen in nutrient-starved mouse embryonic fibroblasts under a fluorescent microscope, and interaction of the proteins was revealed by immunoprecipitation experiments with an anti-LC3 antibody. Under starvation conditions, there were more green fluorescent protein fused-LC3 dots in mouse embryonic fibroblasts from PRIP-deficient mice than in fibroblasts from wild type cells. The formation of new dots in a single cell increased, as assessed by time-lapse microscopy. Furthermore, the increase in autophagosome formation in PRIP-deficient cells was notably inhibited by exogenously overexpressed PRIP. Taken together, PRIP is a novel LC3-binding protein that acts as a negative modulator of autophagosome formation.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 02/2013; 432(2). DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2013.01.119 · 2.30 Impact Factor