[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Base-resolution methylome data generated by whole-genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS) is often used to segment the genome into domains with distinct methylation levels. However, most segmentation methods include many parameters to be carefully tuned and/or fail to exploit the unsurpassed resolution of the data. Furthermore, there is no simple method that displays the composition of the domains to grasp global trends in each methylome.
We propose to use changepoint detection for domain demarcation based on base-resolution methylome data. While the proposed method segments the methylome in a largely comparable manner to conventional approaches, it has only a single parameter to be tuned. Furthermore, it fully exploits the base-resolution of the data to enable simultaneous detection of methylation changes in even contrasting size ranges, such as focal hypermethylation and global hypomethylation in cancer methylomes. We also propose a simple plot termed methylated domain landscape (MDL) that globally displays the size, the methylation level and the number of the domains thus defined, thereby enabling one to intuitively grasp trends in each methylome. Since the pattern of MDL often reflects cell lineages and is largely unaffected by data size, it can serve as a novel signature of methylome.
Changepoint detection in base-resolution methylome data followed by MDL plotting provides a novel method for methylome characterization and will facilitate global comparison among various WGBS data differing in size and even species origin.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In mouse embryonic stem (mES) cells, ubiquitylation of histone H2A lysine 119 represses a large number of developmental genes and maintains mES cell pluripotency. It has been suggested that a number of H2A ubiquitin ligases as well as deubiquitylases and related peptide fragments contribute to a delicate balance between self-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation in mES cells. Here, we tested whether known H2A ubiquitin ligases and deubiquitylases are involved in mES cell regulation and discovered that Dzip3, the E3 ligase of H2AK119, represses differentiation-inducible genes, as does Ring1B. The two sets of target genes partially overlapped but had different spectra. We found that Dzip3 represses gene expression by orchestrating changes in 3D organization, in addition to regulating ubiquitylation of H2A. Our results shed light on the epigenetic mechanism of transcriptional regulation, which depends on 3D chromatin reorganization to regulate mES cell differentiation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acetylation of nucleosomal histones by diverse histone acetyltransferases (HAT) plays pivotal roles in many cellular events. Discoveries of novel HATs and HAT related factors have provided new insights to understand the roles and mechanisms of histone acetylation. In this study, we identified prominent Histone H3 acetylation activity in vitro and purified its activity, showing that it is composed of the MYST acetyltransferase Chameau and Enhancer of the Acetyltransferase Chameau (EAChm) family. EAChm is a negatively charged acidic protein retaining aspartate and glutamate. Furthermore, we identified that Chameau and EAChm stimulate transcription in vitro together with purified general transcription factors. In addition, RNA-seq analysis of Chameu KD and EAChm KD S2 cells suggest that Chameau and EAChm regulate transcription of common genes in vivo. Our results suggest that EAChm regulates gene transcription in Drosophila embryos by enhancing Acetyltransferase Chameau activity.
PLoS ONE 11/2015; 10(11):e0142305. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0142305 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The presence of methyl groups on cytosine nucleotides across an organism's genome (methylation) is a major regulator of genome stability, crossing over, and gene regulation. The capacity for DNA methylation to be altered by environmental conditions, and potentially passed between generations, makes it a prime candidate for transgenerational epigenetic inheritance. Here we conduct the first analysis of the Mimulus guttatus methylome, with a focus on the relationship between DNA methylation and gene expression.
We present a whole genome methylome for the inbred line Iron Mountain 62 (IM62). DNA methylation varies across chromosomes, genomic regions, and genes. We develop a model that predicts gene expression based on DNA methylation (R(2) = 0.2). Post hoc analysis of this model confirms prior relationships, and identifies novel relationships between methylation and gene expression. Additionally, we find that DNA methylation is significantly depleted near gene transcriptional start sites, which may explain the recently discovered elevated rate of recombination in these same regions.
The establishment here of a reference methylome will be a useful resource for the continued advancement of M. guttatus as a model system. Using a model-based approach, we demonstrate that methylation patterns are an important predictor of variation in gene expression. This model provides a novel approach for differential methylation analysis that generates distinct and testable hypotheses regarding gene expression.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The current gold standard method for methylome analysis is whole-genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS), but its cost is substantial,
especially for the purpose of multi-sample comparison of large methylomes. Shotgun bisulfite sequencing of target-enriched
DNA, or targeted methylome sequencing (TMS), can be a flexible, cost-effective alternative to WGBS. However, the current TMS
protocol requires a considerable amount of input DNA and hence is hardly applicable to samples of limited quantity. Here we
report a method to overcome this limitation by using post-bisulfite adaptor tagging (PBAT), in which adaptor tagging is conducted
after bisulfite treatment to circumvent bisulfite-induced loss of intact sequencing templates, thereby enabling TMS of a 100-fold
smaller amount of input DNA with far fewer cycles of polymerase chain reaction than in the current protocol. We thus expect
that the PBAT-mediated TMS will serve as an invaluable method in epigenomics.
DNA research: an international journal for rapid publication of reports on genes and genomes 10/2014; 22(1). DOI:10.1093/dnares/dsu034 · 3.05 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The yeast one-hybrid (Y1H) system has been among the methods of choice to detect protein-DNA interactions. However, conventional Y1H systems with a single auxotrophic reporter gene often suffer from high incidence of false positives to demonstrate a limited power in large-scale screenings. Here we describe a refined Y1H system that uses two independent bait sequences, each controlling a distinct reporter gene integrated in the host genome. With these modifications and a method of targeted DNA methylation, we succeeded in efficient isolation of clones for methylated DNA-binding proteins from mammalian cDNA libraries.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: USP21 is a deubiquitylase that catalyzes isopeptide bond hydrolysis between ubiquitin and histone H2A. Since ubiqutylated H2A (ubH2A) represses transcription, USP21 plays a role in transcriptional activation. On the other hand, the localization of USP21 suggests it has an additional function in the cytoplasm. Here, we identified a USP21 short variant (USP21SV) lacking a nuclear export signal (NES). Differential localization of USP21SV, more in the nucleus than the USP21 long variant (USP21LV), suggests they have redundant roles in the cell. Ectopic expression of both USP21 variants decreased ubH2A in the nucleus. Furthermore, both recombinant USP21 variants activate transcription by deubiquitylating ubH2A in vitro. These data suggest multiple roles for USP21 in the ubiquitylation-deubiquitylation network in the cell.
PLoS ONE 11/2013; 8(11):e79813. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0079813 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Changes in gene expression have been proposed to have an important role in the evolutionary changes in phenotypes. Interspecific changes in gene expression can result not only from genetic changes in regulatory regions but also from epigenetic changes in such regions. Here we report the identification of genomic regions showing differences in DNA methylation between humans and chimpanzees (termed S-DMRs for species-specific differentially methylated regions) on chromosomes 21 and 22. These regional methylation differences are frequently associated with genes, including those relevant to a disease, such as Alzheimer's disease, diabetes mellitus or cancer. Methylation differences are often correlated with changes in promoter activity or alternative splicing. Comparative studies including other great ape species provide evidence for the contribution of genetic changes to some of these S-DMRs. Genetic changes responsible for the S-DMRs include gain or loss of CTCF-binding site and changes in CpG density in microsatellite repeats. Our results suggest that DNA methylation changes, often caused by small sequence changes, contribute to transcriptional and phenotypic diversification in hominid evolution.Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 6 June 2013; doi:10.1038/jhg.2013.55.
Journal of Human Genetics 06/2013; 58(7). DOI:10.1038/jhg.2013.55 · 2.46 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification that plays a crucial role in normal mammalian development, retrotransposon silencing, and cellular reprogramming. Although methylation mainly occurs on the cytosine in a CG site, non-CG methylation is prevalent in pluripotent stem cells, brain, and oocytes. We previously identified non-CG methylation in several CG-rich regions in mouse germinal vesicle oocytes (GVOs), but the overall distribution of non-CG methylation and the enzymes responsible for this modification are unknown. Using amplification-free whole-genome bisulfite sequencing, which can be used with minute amounts of DNA, we constructed the base-resolution methylome maps of GVOs, non-growing oocytes (NGOs), and mutant GVOs lacking the DNA methyltransferase Dnmt1, Dnmt3a, Dnmt3b, or Dnmt3L. We found that nearly two-thirds of all methylcytosines occur in a non-CG context in GVOs. The distribution of non-CG methylation closely resembled that of CG methylation throughout the genome and showed clear enrichment in gene bodies. Compared to NGOs, GVOs were over four times more methylated at non-CG sites, indicating that non-CG methylation accumulates during oocyte growth. Lack of Dnmt3a or Dnmt3L resulted in a global reduction in both CG and non-CG methylation, showing that non-CG methylation depends on the Dnmt3a-Dnmt3L complex. Dnmt3b was dispensable. Of note, lack of Dnmt1 resulted in a slight decrease in CG methylation, suggesting that this maintenance enzyme plays a role in non-dividing oocytes. Dnmt1 may act on CG sites that remain hemimethylated in the de novo methylation process. Our results provide a basis for understanding the mechanisms and significance of non-CG methylation in mammalian oocytes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Formation of apico-basal polarity in epithelial cells is crucial for both morphogenesis (e.g., cyst formation) and function (e.g., tight junction development). Atypical protein kinase C (aPKC), complexed with Par6, is considered to translocate to the apical membrane and function in epithelial cell polarization. However, the mechanism for translocation of the Par6-aPKC complex has remained largely unknown. Here, we show that the WD40 protein Morg1 (mitogen-activated protein kinase organizer 1) directly binds to Par6 and thus facilitates apical targeting of Par6-aPKC in Madin-Darby canine kidney epithelial cells. Morg1 also interacts with the apical transmembrane protein Crumbs3 to promote Par6-aPKC binding to Crumbs3, which is reinforced with the apically localized small GTPase Cdc42. Depletion of Morg1 disrupted both tight junction development in monolayer culture and cyst formation in three-dimensional culture; apico-basal polarity was notably restored by forced targeting of aPKC to the apical surface. Thus, Par6-aPKC recruitment to the premature apical membrane appears to be required for definition of apical identity of epithelial cells.
The Journal of Cell Biology 03/2013; 200(5):635-50. DOI:10.1083/jcb.201208150 · 9.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dynamic epigenetic reprogramming occurs during mammalian germ cell development, although the targets of this process, including DNA demethylation and de novo methylation, remain poorly understood. We performed genome-wide DNA methylation analysis in male and female mouse primordial germ cells at embryonic days 10.5, 13.5, and 16.5 by whole-genome shotgun bisulfite sequencing. Our high-resolution DNA methylome maps demonstrated gender-specific differences in CpG methylation at genome-wide and gene-specific levels during fetal germline progression. There was extensive intra- and intergenic hypomethylation with erasure of methylation marks at imprinted, X-linked, or germline-specific genes during gonadal sex determination and partial methylation at particular retrotransposons. Following global demethylation and sex determination, CpG sites switched to de novo methylation in males, but the X-linked genes appeared resistant to the wave of de novo methylation. Significant differential methylation at a subset of imprinted loci was identified in both genders, and non-CpG methylation occurred only in male gonocytes. Our data establish the basis for future studies on the role of epigenetic modifications in germline development and other biological processes.
Genome Research 03/2013; 23(4). DOI:10.1101/gr.148023.112 · 14.63 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Monitoring levels of key metabolites in living cells comprises a critical step in various investigations. The simplest approach to this goal is a fluorescent reporter gene using an endogenous promoter responsive to the metabolite. However, such a promoter is often not identified or even present in the species of interest. An alternative can be a synthetic gene circuit based on a heterologous pair consisting of a promoter and a transcription factor known to respond to the metabolite. We exploited the met operator and MetJ repressor of Escherichia coli, the interaction between which depends on S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), to construct synthetic gene circuits that report SAM levels in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Using a dual-input circuit that outputs selection marker genes in a doxycycline-tunable manner, we screened a genomic library to identify GAL11 as a novel multicopy enhancer of SAM levels. These results demonstrate the potential and utility of synthetic gene circuit-mediated metabolite monitoring.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Author Summary
Polycomb-group (PcG) proteins play essential roles in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression during development. PcG proteins form two distinct multimeric complexes, PRC1 and PRC2. In the widely accepted hierarchical model, PRC2 is recruited to specific genomic locations and catalyzes trimethylation of H3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3), thereby creating binding sites for PRC1, which then catalyzes mono-ubiquitination of histone H2A (H2AK119u1). Recently, PRC1 has been shown to be able to compact chromatin structure at target loci independently of its histone ubiquitination activity. Therefore, the role of H2AK119u1 still remains unclear. To gain insight into this issue, we used ChIP-on-chip analysis to map H2AK119u1 genome-wide in mouse ES cells (ESCs). The data demonstrate that H2AK119u1 occupies a distinctive subset of genes with H3K27me3 enrichment. These genes are the central targets of Polycomb silencing to maintain ESC identity. We further show that the H2A ubiquitination activity of PRC1 is dispensable for its target binding and its activity to compact chromatin at Hox loci, but is indispensable for efficient repression of target genes and therefore ESC maintenance. We propose that multiple effector mechanisms including H2A ubiquitination and chromatin compaction combine to mediate PRC1-dependent repression of developmental genes to maintain the identity of ESCs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: DNA methylation plays a key role in epigenetic regulation of eukaryotic genomes. Hence the genome-wide distribution of 5-methylcytosine, or the methylome, has been attracting intense attention. In recent years, whole-genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS) has enabled methylome analysis at single-base resolution. However, WGBS typically requires microgram quantities of DNA as well as global PCR amplification, thereby precluding its application to samples of limited amounts. This is presumably because bisulfite treatment of adaptor-tagged templates, which is inherent to current WGBS methods, leads to substantial DNA fragmentation. To circumvent the bisulfite-induced loss of intact sequencing templates, we conceived an alternative method termed Post-Bisulfite Adaptor Tagging (PBAT) wherein bisulfite treatment precedes adaptor tagging by two rounds of random primer extension. The PBAT method can generate a substantial number of unamplified reads from as little as subnanogram quantities of DNA. It requires only 100 ng of DNA for amplification-free WGBS of mammalian genomes. Thus, the PBAT method will enable various novel applications that would not otherwise be possible, thereby contributing to the rapidly growing field of epigenomics.
Nucleic Acids Research 05/2012; 40(17):e136. DOI:10.1093/nar/gks454 · 9.11 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interferon regulatory factor (IRF)-4 is a member of the IRF transcription factor family, whose expression is primarily restricted to lymphoid and myeloid cells. In T-cells, IRF-4 expression is induced by T-cell receptor (TCR) cross-linking or treatment with phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA)/Ionomycin, and IRF-4 is thought to be a critical factor for various functions of T-cells. To elucidate the IRF-4 functions in human adult T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-infected T-cells, which constitutively express IRF-4, we isolated IRF-4-binding proteins from T-cells, using a tandem affinity purification (TAP)-mass spectrometry strategy. Fourteen proteins were identified in the IRF-4-binding complex, including endogenous IRF-4 and the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) family member, c-Rel. The specific association of IRF-4 with c-Rel was confirmed by immunoprecipitation experiments, and IRF-4 was shown to enhance the c-Rel-dependent binding and activation of the interleukin-4 (IL-4) promoter region. We also demonstrated that IL-2 production was also enhanced by exogenously-expressed IRF-4 and c-Rel in the presence of P/I, in T-cells, and that the optimal IL-2 and IL-4 productions in vivo was IRF-4-dependent using IRF-4-/- mice. These data provide molecular evidence to support the clinical observation that elevated expression of c-Rel and IRF-4 is associated with the prognosis in adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) patients, and present possible targets for future gene therapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The 5'-UTR serves as the loading dock for ribosomes during translation initiation and is the key site for translation regulation. Many genes in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae contain poly(A) tracts in their 5'-UTRs. We studied these pre-AUG poly(A) tracts in a set of 3274 recently identified 5'-UTRs in the yeast to characterize their effect on in vivo protein abundance, ribosomal density, and protein synthesis rate in the yeast. The protein abundance and the protein synthesis rate increase with the length of the poly(A), but exhibit a dramatic decrease when the poly(A) length is ≥12. The ribosomal density also reaches the lowest level when the poly(A) length is ≥12. This supports the hypothesis that a pre-AUG poly(A) tract can bind to translation initiation factors to enhance translation initiation, but a long (≥12) pre-AUG poly(A) tract will bind to Pab1p, whose binding size is 12 consecutive A residues in yeast, resulting in repression of translation. The hypothesis explains why a long pre-AUG poly(A) leads to more efficient translation initiation than a short one when PABP is absent, and why pre-AUG poly(A) is short in the early genes but long in the late genes of vaccinia virus.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously developed a simple method termed HpaII-McrBC PCR (HM-PCR) to discriminate allelic methylation status of the genomic sites of interest, and successfully applied it to a comprehensive analysis of CpG islands (CGIs) on human chromosome 21q. However, HM-PCR requires 200 ng of genomic DNA to examine one target site, thereby precluding its application to such samples that are limited in quantity.
We developed HpaII-McrBC whole-genome-amplification PCR (HM-WGA-PCR) that uses whole-genome-amplified DNA as the template. HM-WGA-PCR uses only 1/100th the genomic template material required for HM-PCR. Indeed, we successfully analyzed 147 CGIs by HM-WGA-PCR using only ~300 ng of DNA, whereas previous HM-PCR study had required ~30 μg. Furthermore, we confirmed that allelic methylation status revealed by HM-WGA-PCR is identical to that by HM-PCR in every case of the 147 CGIs tested, proving high consistency between the two methods.
HM-WGA-PCR would serve as a reliable alternative to HM-PCR in the analysis of allelic methylation status when the quantity of DNA available is limited.
BMC Research Notes 06/2011; 4:179. DOI:10.1186/1756-0500-4-179
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Protein methylation pathways comprise methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT), which produces S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) and SAM-dependent substrate-specific methyltransferases. However, the function of MAT in the nucleus is largely unknown. MafK represses or activates expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) gene, depending on its heterodimer partners. Proteomics analysis of MafK revealed its interaction with MATIIα, a MAT isozyme. MATIIα was localized in nuclei and found to form a dense network with chromatin-related proteins including Swi/Snf and NuRD complexes. MATIIα was recruited to Maf recognition element (MARE) at HO-1 gene. When MATIIα was knocked down in murine hepatoma cell line, expression of HO-1 was derepressed at both basal and induced levels. The catalytic activity of MATIIα, as well as its interacting factors such as MATIIβ, BAF53a, CHD4, and PARP1, was required for HO-1 repression. MATII serves as a transcriptional corepressor of MafK by interacting with chromatin regulators and supplying SAM for methyltransferases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We had previously exploited a method for targeted DNA methylation in budding yeast to succeed in one-hybrid detection of methylation-dependent DNA-protein interactions. Based on this finding, we developed a yeast one-hybrid system to screen cDNA libraries for clones encoding methylated DNA-binding proteins. Concurrent use of two independent bait sequences in the same cell, or dual-bait system, effectively reduced false positive clones, which were derived from methylation-insensitive sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins. We applied the dual-bait system to screen cDNA libraries and demonstrated efficient isolation of clones for methylated DNA-binding proteins. This system would serve as a unique research tool for epigenetics.
Nucleic Acids Research 11/2010; 38(20):e189. DOI:10.1093/nar/gkq757 · 9.11 Impact Factor