[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Accumulation of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) in malignant cells is the basis of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-mediated photodynamic therapy. We studied the expression of proteins that possibly affect ALA-mediated PpIX accumulation, namely oligopeptide transporter-1 and -2, ferrochelatase and ATP-binding cassette transporter G2 (ABCG2), in several tumor cell lines. Among these proteins, only ABCG2 correlated negatively with ALA-mediated PpIX accumulation. Both a subcellular fractionation study and confocal laser microscopic analysis revealed that ABCG2 was distributed not only in the plasma membrane but also intracellular organelles, including mitochondria. In addition, mitochondrial ABCG2 regulated the content of ALA-mediated PpIX in mitochondria, and Ko143, a specific inhibitor of ABCG2, enhanced mitochondrial PpIX accumulation. To clarify the possible roles of mitochondrial ABCG2, we characterized stably transfected-HEK (ST-HEK) cells overexpressing ABCG2. In these ST-HEK cells, functionally active ABCG2 was detected in mitochondria, and treatment with Ko143 increased ALA-mediated mitochondrial PpIX accumulation. Moreover, the mitochondria isolated from ST-HEK cells exported doxorubicin probably through ABCG2, because the export of doxorubicin was inhibited by Ko143. The susceptibility of ABCG2 distributed in mitochondria to proteinase K, endoglycosidase H and peptide-N-glycosidase F suggested that ABCG2 in mitochondrial fraction is modified by N-glycans and trafficked through the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus and finally localizes within the mitochondria. Thus, it was found that ABCG2 distributed in mitochondria is a functional transporter and that the mitochondrial ABCG2 regulates ALA-mediated PpIX level through PpIX export from mitochondria to the cytosol.
PLoS ONE 11/2012; 7(11):e50082. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0050082 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endometriosis has been proposed to be an autoimmune disease because of the presence of a variety of autoantibodies specific for endometrial or ovarian antigens. The object of the present study is to characterize binding specificity of anti-laminin-111 autoantibodies in infertile patients with endometriosis and to investigate whether these autoantibodies affect the in vitro embryo development.
An ELISA analysis using overlapping synthesized peptides that covered the entire G domain of laminin-α1 chain was performed in infertile patients with endometriosis (n = 45). Mouse blastocysts were cultured in media containing the purified IgG from one antibody-positive serum on laminin-111-coated dishes.
Anti-laminin-111 autoantibodies were directed to several particular biologically functional peptide sequences in laminin-α 1 chain G domain. The tested IgG significantly inhibited the extent of in vitro trophoblast outgrowth.
Anti-laminin-111 autoantibodies may have major pathogenic roles on early reproductive failure including endometriosis-associated infertility.
American Journal Of Reproductive Immunology 08/2011; 66(2):90-9. DOI:10.1111/j.1600-0897.2010.00956.x · 2.44 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: beta 2-Glycoprotein I (beta 2-GPI) is a major antigen for antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) present in patients with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). We previously reported that beta 2-GPI specifically binds to oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL). Further, a ligand specific for beta 2-GPI, oxLig-1, purified from the extracted lipids of oxLDL was identified as 7-ketocholesterol-9-carboxynonanoate (i.e., 9-oxo-9-(7-ketocholest-5-en-3 beta-yloxy) nonanoic acid) OxLig-1 was recognized by beta 2-GPI and subsequently by anti-beta 2-GPI autoantibodies. Binding of liposomes containing oxLig-1 to macrophages were significantly enhanced in the presence of both beta 2-GPI and an anti-beta 2-GPI autoantibody derived from (NZW x BXSB) F1 mouse, an animal APS model, or from APS patients. Anti-beta 2-GPI autoantibodies derived from APS patients with episodes of arterial thrombosis were detected in ELISA, using a solid phase beta 2-GPI complex with oxLig-1. It was also reported that LDL-receptor-deficient mice that were fed a chow diet and immunized with beta 2-GPI had an accelerated atherosclerosis and that beta 2-GPI was abundantly expressed within subendothelial regions and intimal-medial borders of human atherosclerotic plaques. All of these observations strongly suggest that autoimmune atherogenesis linked to beta 2-GPI interaction with oxLDL and autoantibodies may be present in APS.
International Reviews Of Immunology 08/2009; 21(1):51-66. DOI:10.1080/08830180210414 · 4.10 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization is a key feature of apoptotic cell death and plays an important role in clearance of apoptotic cells by phagocytes. PS externalization during apoptosis is generally an irreversible event mediated by caspase activation and is accompanied by other apoptotic events. We report here that an apoptosis inducer alpha-tocopheryl succinate (TOS) can induce PS externalization that is independent of apoptosis and reversible in the absence of fetal bovine serum (FBS) in histiocytic lymphoma U937 cells. In the presence of FBS, TOS induced PS externalization via a caspase-dependent mechanism accompanied by mitochondrial depolarization, cell shrinkage, increase of caspase-3 activity, and chromatin condensation. In contrast, in the absence of FBS, TOS induced the rapid PS externalization which was not accompanied by other apoptotic events. The PS externalization was reversible by removing TOS and was not involved in Ca(2+)-dependent scramblase activation and thiol oxidation of aminophospholipid translocase. A similar PS externalization was also induced by cholesteryl hemisuccinate (CS), the other succinate ester. These results suggested that the mechanism of TOS- and CS-induced PS externalization in the absence of FBS was different from it occurring during typical apoptosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Antiglycolipid antibodies were measured in normal and pathologic sera and synovial fluids by means of a modified microplate method of complement-mediated immune lysis of fluorescent dye-trapped liposomes. All sera of normal subjects had antibodies against globopentaosylceramide (IV3 GalNAcGbOse4Cer), ganglioside GMI, gangliotriaosylceramide, gangliotetraosylceramide, and galactosylneolactotetraosylceramide antigens. Most sera of normal subjects had antibodies against lactotriaosylceramide, N-glycolylneuraminosyl-neolactotetraosylceramide (NeuGcnLcOse4Cer), GM3 ganglioside with N-glycolylneuraminic acid (NeuGcGM3) and GDIa antigens. Differences of titers against IV3GalNAcGbOse4Cer, neolactotetraosylceramide, NeuGcGM3 and NeuGcnLcOse4Cer antigens were observed between sera of normal subjects and pathologic sera from cases of leukemias, lymphomas, several autoimmune diseases and liver diseases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Calcium ions (Ca(2+)) are involved in a number of physiological cellular functions including apoptosis. An elevation in intracellular levels of Ca(2+) in A23187-treated HL-60 cells was associated with the generation of both intracellular and extracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and induction of apoptotic cell death. A23187-induced apoptosis was prevented by cyclosporin A, a potent inhibitor of mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT). The generation of extracellular ROS was suppressed by the NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenylene iodonium, and by superoxide dismutase, but these agents had no effect on A23187-induced apoptosis. In contrast, the blocking of intracellular ROS by a cell-permeant antioxidant diminished completely the induction of MPT and apoptosis. In isolated mitochondria, the addition of Ca(2+) induced a typical MPT concomitant with the generation of ROS, which leads to augmentation of intracellular ROS levels. These results indicate that intracellular not extracellular ROS generated by A23187 is associated with the opening of MPT pores that leads to apoptotic cell death.
Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry 12/2007; 71(11):2701-11. · 1.06 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Beta(2)-glycoprotein I (beta(2)GPI) is known as a major autoantigen for antiphospholipid antibodies. Our recent data show that binding of beta(2)GPI to oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) or to liposomes containing anionic phospholipid(s) may facilitate the presentation of beta(2)GPI's epitope by macrophages/dendritic cells to autoreactive T cells. In the present study, we investigated intracellular trafficking of beta(2)GPI and its complexes with oxLDL or liposomes containing phosphatidylserine (PS-liposomes) in mouse macrophage-like J774 cells. A relatively small amount of non-complexed beta(2)GPI was taken up and stagnated in the late endosome after incubating for 16h. In contrast, beta(2)GPI complexes with oxLDL or PS-liposomes were transported into the lysosome. In the presence of the IgG anti-beta(2)GPI autoantibody, WB-CAL-1, beta(2)GPI/oxLDL complexes were rapidly incorporated into intracellular space and were finally localized in the lysosome. Interestingly, in vitro pulses by beta(2)GPI/oxLDL complexes together with WB-CAL-1 led to the expression of membranous CD36 as well as Fcgamma type I receptors (FcgammaRI). These observations suggest that IgG immune complexes of beta(2)GPI/oxLDL provide not only FcgammaRI- but also scavenger receptor-mediated uptake of beta(2)GPI/oxLDL complexes by macrophages. Thus, beta(2)GPI/oxLDL complexes as a major atherogenic autoantigen and IgG anti-beta(2)GPI autoantibodies may facilitate antigen presentation and foam cell formation in antiphospholipid syndrome.
Journal of Autoimmunity 09/2007; 29(2-3):164-73. DOI:10.1016/j.jaut.2007.07.003 · 8.41 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Immunocytochemical staining for ganglioside GD3 (II3α (NeuAcα2–8NeuAc)-LacCer, GD3) in neuronal cells of the cerebral cortices (cerebral neurons), and cerebellar dentate nucleus (dentate neurons) and Purkinje cells, in human autopsy cases of progressive supranuclear palsy, senile dementia of the Alzheimer type, Pick's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and olivopontocerebellar atrophy (OPCA) was undertaken using mouse IgM anti-GD3 monoclonal antibody. Cerebral neurons and dentate neurons were constantly GD3-immunoreactive and immunoreactivity was observed in the cytoplasm. The peroxidase reaction product for GD3 (RP) in cerebral and dentate neurons was granular in appearance. It appeared that RP was associated with lipofuscin granules. However, immunoreactivity of Purkinje cells varied among cases, and the RP was slightly granular even when they were positive. This study suggests that lipofuscin granules contributed to the neuronal immunoreactivity of GD3 in aged human brains.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: C-reactive protein (CRP) is one of the strongest independent predictors of cardiovascular disease. We have previously reported that oxidized LDL (oxLDL) interacts with beta2-glycoprotein I (beta2GPI), implicating oxLDL/beta2GPI complexes as putative autoantigens in autoimmune-mediated atherosclerotic vascular disease. In this study, we investigated the interaction of CRP with oxLDL/beta2GPI complexes and its association with atherosclerosis in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). CRP/oxLDL/beta2GPI complexes were predominantly found in sera of DM patients with atherosclerosis. In contrast, noncomplexed CRP isoforms were present in sera of patients with acute/chronic inflammation, i.e., various pyrogenic diseases, rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and DM. Immunohistochemistry staining colocalized CRP and beta2GPI together with oxLDL in carotid artery plaques but not in synovial tissue from RA patients, strongly suggesting that complex formation occurs during the development of atherosclerosis. Serum levels of CRP correlated with soluble forms of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and oxLDL/beta2GPI complexes correlated with total cholesterol and hemoglobin A1c. Thus, the generation of CRP/oxLDL/beta2GPI complexes seems to be associated with arterial inflammation, hyperglycemia, and hypercholesterolemia. CRP/oxLDL/beta2GPI complexes can be distinguished from pyrogenic noncomplexed CRP isoforms and may represent a more specific and predictive marker for atherosclerosis.
The Journal of Lipid Research 05/2007; 48(4):768-81. DOI:10.1194/jlr.M600414-JLR200 · 4.42 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the present work is to clarify the mechanism(s) that regulates the accumulation of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) in human histiocytic lymphoma cell line U937 incubated with 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA). Biosynthesis and accumulation of PpIX in the cells was determined after incubation with 0.1-5 mM ALA using a flow cytometric technique. The synthesized endogenous PpIX was found to localize predominantly in the mitochondrial region of the cells. The ALA-enhanced PpIX synthesis was suppressed by the presence of either beta-alanine, a competitive inhibitor of beta-transporters on cell membranes, or carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenyl hydrazone, an uncoupler of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. In contrast, cellular accumulation of PpIX was enhanced by the presence of either deferoxamine (an iron chelater), MnCl2 (a ferrochelatase inhibitor), or Sn-mesoporphyrin (heme oxygenase inhibitor). These results suggest that ALA-enhanced accumulation of PpIX in U937 cells was regulated by cellular uptake and conversion of ALA to PpIX and by degradation of Heme.
Physiological chemistry and physics and medical NMR 02/2007; 39(1):69-82.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Isoprenylation of geranylgeranyl-pyrophosphate (GGPP) is critical for activation of small GTPases. We examined the roles of GGPP synthase (GGPPS) during the differentiation induced by the cell-to-cell contact in osteoblastic cell line MC3T3-E1 cells. We found that (1) both mRNA and protein expression of GGPPS was reduced with decrement of its activity during the differentiation, (2) GGOH, which is converted to GGPP in the cells, inhibited differentiation. These results suggest that the decrement of GGPP is critical for the cell-to-cell contact-induced differentiation, in which the down-regulation of GGPPS might be involved.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Beta2-glycoprotein I (beta2-GPI) is a major antigen for anti-cardiolipin antibodies and their epitopes are cryptic. Conformation of each domain of beta2-GPI was optimized from its crystal structure by energy minimization and by molecular dynamics simulation. Three electrostatic interactions, i.e. D193-K246, D222-K317 and E228-K308, were observed between domains IV and V in the optimized structure that was constructed based on the consensus sequences obtained by the phage-displayed random peptide library. Antigenic structures determined by the epitope mapping mainly consisted of hydrophobic amino acids located on two discontinuous sequences in domain IV. These amino acid clusters, as an epitope, were covered by domain V and were of a hidden nature. A similar but incomplete counterpart to the epitopic clusters was found in domain I but was not in domains II or III. Binding of anti-beta2-GPI auto-antibodies to solid-phase beta2-GPI was significantly reduced either by L replacement for W235, a common amino acid component for the epitopes, or by V replacement for all of D193, D222 and E228. Structural analysis indicated a hypothesis that these electrostatic interactions between domains IV and V retained exposure to W235 and that epitope spreading occurred in the region surrounding W235. Thus, epitopic structures recognized by anti-beta2-GPI auto-antibodies are cryptic and inter-domain electrostatic interactions are involved in their in exposure.
International Immunology 01/2006; 17(12):1533-42. DOI:10.1093/intimm/dxh330 · 2.54 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although risedronate, a nitrogen containing bisphosphonate (BPs), strongly inhibits bone resorption by enhanced apoptosis of osteoclasts, its mechanism remained unclear. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism of risedronate-induced apoptosis of U937 cells, with a focus on extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK 1/2) and protein kinase B (Akt) pathways, mitochondria-mediated apoptosis, and the effect of disruption of the actin cytoskeleton. Risedronate facilitated the relocation of Ras from membrane to cytosol through inhibited isoprenylation. Accordingly, risedronate suppressed the phosphorylation of ERK 1/2, a downstream survival signaling kinase of Ras, affected the intracellular distribution of Bcl-xL, and induced the mitochondrial membrane depolarization, cytochrome c release, activated caspase cascade and DNA fragmentation. The risedronate-induced apoptosis was effectively suppressed with cyclosporine A plus trifluoperazine, potent inhibitors of mitochondrial membrane permeability transition (MPT). The risedronate-induced apoptosis was independent of Akt, another cAMP-dependent survival signaling kinase. Risedronate facilitated dephosphorylation of Bad at Ser112, an ERK phosphorylation site, but not at Ser136, an Akt phosphorylation site. All of these apoptosis-related changes induced by risedronate were strongly suppressed by cytochalasin B, an inhibitor of actin filament polymerization. These results indicate that risedronate-induced apoptosis in U937 cells involves Ras/ERK, but not Akt signaling pathway, and is dependent on MPT, and that disruption of the actin cytoskeleton inhibits the risedronate-induced apoptosis at its early step.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Laminin-1 is a structural glycoprotein that forms an integral part of the scaffolding of basement membranes, and plays an important role during embryonic development. We have recently demonstrated a significant association between anti-laminin1 antibodies (Abs) and reproductive failure, such as recurrent spontaneous abortions and infertility-associated endometriosis in both human and mouse studies. In the present study, we established an IgM (micro, kappa) monoclonal anti-laminin-1 Ab (AK8) by immunizing mice with mouse Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm sarcoma (EHS)-derived laminin-1. The AK8 monoclonal antibody (mAb) reacted with particular peptide sequences from the globular G domain of mouse laminin-alpha1 chain of using ELISA and Western blot techniques. The peptide tertiary structure of the epitope recognized by AK8 mAb was predicted using eight synthesized domain peptide sequences and three consensus sequences obtained by phage displayed random peptide library. Basement membranes of endometrium of pregnant mice and humans were immunostained with AK8 mAb. Thus, AK8 mAb recognized a common structure present in the G domain of the laminin-alpha1 chain in both mice and humans. The passive immunization of mice with AK8 mAb may represent a suitable animal model for anti-laminin-1 Ab-mediated reproductive failure.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mitochondria reduce Cr(VI) to Cr(V) with concomitant generation of reactive oxygen species, thereby exhibiting cytotoxic effects leading to apoptosis in various types of cells. To clarify the mechanism by which Cr(VI) induces apoptosis, we examined the effect of Cr(VI) on Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Cr(VI) increased cellular levels of ceramide by activating acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase) and inhibiting the phosphorylation of pleckstrin homology domain-containing protein kinase B (Akt). Cr(VI) also induced cyclosporin A- and trifluoperazine-sensitive depolarization of mitochondria and activated caspase-3, 8 and 9, thereby causing fragmentation of cellular DNA. The presence of desipramine, an inhibitor of ASMase, and membrane permeable pCPT-cAMP suppressed the Cr(VI)-induced activation of caspases and DNA fragmentation. These results suggested that accumulation of ceramide play an important role in the Cr(VI)-induced apoptosis of CHO cells through activation of mitochondrial membrane permeability transition.
Free Radical Research 07/2004; 38(6):613-21. DOI:10.1080/10715760410001694035 · 2.98 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have reported that geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP), one of the isoprenoids in the mevalonate pathway, plays an essential role for cell growth through the geranylgeranylation of Rho small GTPases, which control the degradation of P27Kip1 at G1/S transition in rat thyroid FRTL-5 cells. Since GGPP is synthesized from isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) and farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) by GGPP synthase, we analyzed the regulatory roles of GGPP synthase in the proliferation of FRTL-5 cells stimulated by thyrotropin and insulin in the presence of 5% calf serum (TSH+Ins). We found that: (1) GGPP synthase was activated at G1/S transition with increasing mRNA accumulation followed by protein expression, (2) pravastatin, an inhibitor of HMG-CoA reductase, did not suppress the increasing activity of GGPP synthase with its protein expression although it inhibits proliferation in growth-stimulated FRTL-5 cells, (3) forskolin stimulated proliferation with activation of GGPP synthase in FRTL-5 cells, and (4) LY294002, an inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, inhibited proliferation with the decreasing activity of GGPP synthase in growth-stimulated FRTL-5 cells. These data indicated that growth stimulation by TSH+Ins increased the activity of GGPP synthase with its increasing protein expression from G1/S transition, in which both cAMP-PKA and PI3-kinase pathways are involved in the proliferation of FRTL-5 cells.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 04/2004; 315(4):1147-53. DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2004.02.008 · 2.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress-induced apoptotic cell death has been implicated to play a critical role in the mechanism of corpus luteum regression and follicular atresia. Recent studies suggests that reactive oxygen species (ROS) might play important roles in the regulation of luteal function. The present work describes the inhibitory effect of 17beta-estradiol (E2) on ROS-induced mitochondrial membrane permeability transition (MPT) and apoptosis of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. ROS generated by Fe2+ and H2O2 induced mitochondrial lipid peroxidation, depolarization, activation of caspase-3 and DNA fragmentation in CHO cells by some E2-inhibitable mechanism. E2 suppressed the Fe2+/H2O2-induced lipid peroxidation and MPT of isolated mitochondria that was characterized by cyclosporin A-inhibitable swelling, depolarization and cytochrome c release. Furthermore, E2 scavenged the xanthine oxidase generated ROS. These results suggests that Fe2+/H2O2 induced MPT and apoptosis of CHO cells by a mechanism that could be suppressed by antioxidant properties of E2.
Physiological chemistry and physics and medical NMR 02/2004; 36(1):21-35.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Peroxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) plays an important role in the development of dyslipidemias associated with the progression of chronic renal disorders. We recently reported [J Lipid Res 2001;42:697, 2002;43:1486, 2003;44:716] that oxidized LDL (oxLDL) interacts with an endogenous plasma protein, beta2-glycoprotein I (beta2GPI), via specific ligands. In the present study, the prevalence and clinical significance of oxLDL/beta2GPI complexes were evaluated in patients with chronic renal disorders.
Serum levels of oxLDL/beta(2)GPI complexes were measured by ELISA in patients with chronic renal disease and their association with clinical manifestations was assessed.
The serum levels of oxLDL/beta2GPI complexes were significantly higher in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF), chronic nephritis (CN) and diabetes mellitus than those in healthy individuals. The presence of complexes in patients with CN was significantly associated with high dietary protein and sodium chloride intake, but not with lipid metabolic parameters. Malondialdehyde-modified LDL was significantly associated with total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol in all patient groups, but did not correlate with renal function parameters.
Serum oxLDL/beta2GPI complexes, generated by oxidative stress and associated with high dietary protein and salt intake, might be a novel risk factor and a diagnostic marker for the development of chronic renal diseases, especially IgA nephropathy.
Nephron Clinical Practice 02/2004; 98(1):c15-24. DOI:10.1159/000079923 · 1.40 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously showed that Ca2+-induced cyclosporin A-sensitive membrane permeability transition (MPT) of mitochondria occurred with concomitant generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and release of cytochrome c (Free Rad. Res.38, 29-35, 2004). To elucidate the role of alpha-tocopherol in MPT, we investigated the effect of alpha-tocopherol on mitochondrial ROS generation, swelling and cytochrome c release induced by Ca2+ or hydroxyl radicals. Biochemical analysis revealed that alpha-tocopherol suppressed Ca2+-induced ROS generation and oxidation of critical thiol groups of mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) but not swelling and cytochrome c release. Hydroxyl radicals also induced cyclosporin A-sensitive MPT of mitochondria. alpha-Tocopherol suppressed the hydroxyl radical-induced lipid peroxidation, swelling and cytochrome c release from mitochondria. These results indicate that alpha-tocopherol inhibits ROS generation, ANT oxidation, lipid peroxidation and the opening of MPT, thereby playing important roles in the prevention of oxidative cell death.
Physiological chemistry and physics and medical NMR 02/2004; 36(2):95-107.