Tomoyuki Nakamura

Kyushu University, Hukuoka, Fukuoka, Japan

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Publications (11)52.1 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The chromosomal translocation t(11;22)(q24;q12) generates the EWS-Fli1 fusion gene, which contributes to the development of Ewing Family Tumors (EFTs). Although p53 mutations are found only in 5-20% of EFTs, the p53 pathway is thought to be abrogated in EFTs. The role of EWS-Fli1 in the p53 pathway in the tumor is still poorly understood. In this study, using immunoprecipitation and co-localization, we show that EWS-Fli1 interacts with p53 within the nucleus in vivo. The introduction of EWS-Fli1 resulted in significant reduction of promoter activities and mRNA levels of p21 and mdm2, meanwhile it canceled p53-dependent growth suppression. In contrast, knockdown of EWS-Fli1 expression mediated by small interfering RNAs (siRNA) also augmented the induction of p21 and mdm2 in response to DNA damage. Furthermore, using serial deletion constructs of the EWS-Fli1 fusion protein, we determined that EWS-Fli1 binding to p53 as well as inhibition of p21 and mdm2 promoter activities was mediated by its N-terminal domain (amino acid residues 65-109). These observations suggest that the N-terminal region of EWS-Fli1 might associate with p53 and impair its transcriptional activity, subsequently inhibiting the expression of its downstream genes. These results might provide new insight into the oncogenesis of EFTs by EWS-Fli1 via the inhibition of p53 function.
    Cancer letters 02/2010; 294(1):57-65. · 5.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Since chondrosarcoma has a high resistance to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy, surgical resection is currently the only effective treatment. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor exert anticancer effects, but have not been tested in chondrosarcoma. We investigated the phenotypic change in chondrosarcoma cells treated with SAHA by cell viability assay, Western blot, flow cytometric analysis and electron microscopy. SAHA inhibited the growth of chondrosarcoma cell lines and induced apoptosis in SW1353 with a cleaved-PARP expression and sub-G1 fragmentation according to flow cytometric analysis. On the other hand, in RCS and OUMS-27, SAHA induced autophagy-associated cell death as shown by the detection of autophagosome-specific protein and specific ultrastructural morphology in the cytoplasm. In addition, SAHA significantly inhibited tumor growth in an in vivo xenograft model. These results suggest that SAHA might be a promising agent for performing clinically useful chemotherapy against chondrosarcomas.
    Anticancer research 01/2008; 28(3A):1585-91. · 1.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: EWS-Fli1 plays important roles in oncogenesis of Ewing's family tumors (EFTs). We have reported that EWS-Fli1 inhibits p21(waf1/cip1) and p27(kip1) expressions, which are degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Bortezomib efficiently up-regulated p21(waf1/cip1) and p27(kip1) expression, and induced apoptosis accompanied by the expression of cleaved-PARP, DR4 and activated caspase-8 in EFT cells. Since most EFTs deaths result from the tumor being resistant to chemotherapeutic drugs, the effects of novel anti-tumor reagents on drug-resistant tumors were next investigated. The results demonstrated that the drug-resistant EFT clones were cross-resistant to bortezomib probably due to the over-expression of the efflux pumps, P-glycoprotein and MRP1. We further investigated whether the efflux pump inhibitors would modulate the effects of bortezomib. The combination of P-gp-specific or MRP1-specific inhibitors could enhance the anti-tumor effects of bortezomib on the drug-resistant clones. These data suggest that bortezomib might be a substrate of P-gp and MRP1. Although bortezomib would be effective on the primary EFTs, it is necessary to pay attention to the resistance to bortezomib in clinical trials for the advanced cases. The combination of bortezomib and the efflux pump inhibitors might be a promising method as a novel molecular target therapy for advanced EFTs.
    International Journal of Oncology 11/2007; 31(4):803-11. · 2.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Multimodal therapies play important roles in the treatment of osteosarcoma (OS) and Ewing's family of tumors (EFTs), two most frequent malignant bone tumors. Although the clinical outcome of primary OS and EFTs is greatly improved, the relapsed cases often are associated with multidrug resistance of the tumors and the prognosis of these patients is still poor. Flavopiridol, a pan cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor is a novel antitumor agent that can induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in many cancer cells. However, there have been no studies about the effects of flavopiridol on drug-resistant OS and EFTs. Here, we demonstrated that flavopiridol induced the cleavage of poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) in a time and dose dependent manner in adriamycin-resistant OS and EFTs cells expressing P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP(1)) as effectively as in their parental cells. Our data also showed that flavopiridol caused the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c and the activation of caspase-9, caspase-8 and caspase-3, with an increase ratio of the proapoptotic protein level (Bax) to the antiapoptotic protein level (Bcl-2 and Bcl-X(L)), while apoptosis was inhibited by pan caspase inhibitor (Z-VAD-FMK) and caspase-3 inhibitor (Z-DEVD-FMK), not by caspase-8 inhibitor (Z-IETD-FMK). The treatment with flavopiridol further inhibited the tumor growth in mouse models of the drug-resistant OS and EFTs. These results suggest that flavopiridol might be promising in clinical therapy for the relapsed OS and EFTs.
    International Journal of Cancer 10/2007; 121(6):1212-8. · 5.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Histologically, chondrosarcomas represent the degree of chondrogenic differentiation, which is associated with the prognosis of the disease. Histone acetylation and deacetylation play key roles in the regulation of chondrocytic differentiation. Here, we describe the antitumor effects of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors as differentiating reagents on chondrosarcomas. We examined the effects of a HDAC inhibitor, depsipeptide, on the growth of chondrosarcoma cell lines. We also investigated the modulation of the expression levels of extracellular matrix genes and the induction of phenotypic change in chondrosarcoma cells treated with depsipeptide. Finally, we examined the antitumor effect of depsipeptide on chondrosarcoma in vivo. Depsipeptide inhibited the growth of chondrosarcoma cells by inducing cell cycle arrest and/or apoptosis. HDAC inhibitors increased the expression of the alpha1 chain of type II collagen (COL2A1) gene due to the enhanced histone acetylation in the promoter and enhancer. Depsipeptide also up-regulated the expressions of aggrecan and the alpha2 chain of type XI collagen (COL11A2) mRNA in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, long-term treatment with a low dose of depsipeptide resulted in the induction of differentiation into hypertrophic phenotype, as shown by the increment of the alpha1 chain of type X collagen (COL10A1) expression in chondrosarcoma cells. In vivo studies and histologic analyses confirmed that depsipeptide significantly inhibited tumor growth and induced differentiation into the hypertrophic and mineralized state in chondrosarcoma cells. These results strongly suggest that HDAC inhibitors may be promising reagents for use as a differentiating chemotherapy against chondrosarcomas.
    Clinical Cancer Research 02/2007; 13(1):275-82. · 8.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Adventitial cystic disease (ACD), also known as cystic mucoid or myxomatous degeneration, is a rare vascular disease seen mainly in arteries. It is very unusual for these cystic masses to develop in a vein. We report the case of a 56-year-old woman with leg swelling caused by ACD arising in the popliteal vein. The swelling appeared after a long period of standing. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a popliteal cystic mass and venography showed disrupted venous flow. We resected the cyst wall without venous reconstruction, after which venous blood flow normalized and her symptoms subsided. To our knowledge, this is only the third documented case of ACD arising in the popliteal vein. A misdiagnosis could easily have been made, since the mass was not obvious on physical examination and the only symptom was intermittent swelling. Thus, it is important to be aware of ACD as a possible diagnosis when examining patients with a swelling in the leg.
    Surgery Today 02/2006; 36(12):1098-100. · 1.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The chromosomal translocation t(11;22) yields the EWS-Fli1 fusion gene and is associated with oncogenesis of Ewing family tumors (EFT). In this study, using the RNA interference method, we show that EWS-Fli1-targeting small interfering RNAs (siRNA) depleted EWS-Fli1 protein and caused growth inhibition in EFT cells with the accumulation of p27 protein and the down-regulation of Skp2 protein in dose-dependent, time-dependent, and sequence-specific manners. Depletion of EWS-Fli1 subacutely elicited a senescence-like phenotype, but not apoptosis, in EFT cells. Furthermore, not only the knockdown of p27, but also the forced expression of Skp2, reduced the expression levels of p27 protein and partially rescued senescence-like phenotype caused by EWS-Fli1-targeting siRNAs. The accumulation of p27 protein in EWS-Fli1-depleted cells inhibited cdk2 kinase activity and was related to the stability of p27 protein, which resulted from a decrease in Skp2 protein. Immunohistochemical analysis of p27 and Skp2 proteins in EFT samples revealed that there was an inverse relationship between the expression profiles of p27 and Skp2 proteins. These findings indicate an important role of EWS-Fli1 in the prevention of senescence, leading to the unlimited growth and oncogenesis of EFT cells through a decrease in the stability of p27 protein due to increased action of Skp2-mediated 26S proteasome degradation.
    Cancer Research 02/2006; 66(2):803-11. · 9.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Despite recent improvements in multimodal therapies for osteosarcoma (OS) and Ewing's family of tumors (EFTs), the prognosis of relapsed cases remains very poor because of the resistance to chemotherapy. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs), including members of the cyclic tetrapeptide family such as FK228 and apicidin, are novel antitumor agents that can induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in various cancer cells. HDACIs also exhibit potent antitumor effects on OS and EFTs. However, to date there have been no studies to our knowledge reporting the effects of HDACIs on drug-resistant OS and EFTs. Here, we demonstrated that FK228 and apicidin exhibited strong resistance in doxorubicin-resistant clones of OS and EFTs expressing P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1) and that P-gp and MRP1 might play a crucial role in the resistance mechanism to FK228 and apicidin. A P-gp inhibitor (verapamil) and an MRP1 inhibitor (MK571) could independently reverse the resistance to FK228 and apicidin in the drug-resistant clones. Moreover, the combination of verapamil and MK571 could enhance HDACI-induced cell number reduction in drug-resistant clones to a similar extent as that in their parental clones. Although these findings suggest the difficulty in treating drug-resistant tumors expressing P-gp and/or MRP1 with these HDACIs, the combination of P-gp and MRP1 inhibitors might reverse the resistance to the HDACIs in the treatment of those tumors. Because HDACIs are potent and promising antitumor drugs and seem to be close to clinical use, it is necessary to pay attention to the resistance mechanisms against HDACIs.
    International Journal of Cancer 02/2006; 118(1):90-7. · 5.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A chimeric protein, EWS-Fli1, identified in most Ewing's family tumors (EFTs) has been shown to be associated with the tumorigenicity of EFTs. We have previously reported that p21(Waf1/Cip1) expression was inhibited by EWS-Fli1 in EFTs. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) are known to up-regulate p21(Waf1/Cip1) expression in various cells and show promise as a cancer therapy. Here, we demonstrate the possible involvement of EWS-Fli1 in the activities of both histone acetylation and deacetylation, as well as the potential use of HDACIs as an antitumor agent for EFTs. A novel HDACI, FK228, strongly induced p21(Waf1/Cip1) expression, leading to the hypophosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein (Rb) in EFT cells. Results indicated that EWS-Fli1 deregulated histone acetylation through both the repression of histone acetyltransferase (HAT) and the enhancement of histone deacetylase (HDAC) activities in EFT cells. FK228 treatment blocked both of the abnormal functions of EWS-Fli1. Expressions of EWS-Fli1 protein and mRNA were also inhibited by HDACIs. We suggest that HDACIs might inhibit the expression of EWS-Fli1 via the suppression of the EWS promoter activity. FK228 demonstrated potent growth inhibitory effects on EFT cells at nanomolar concentrations, as well as an apparent distinction in the apoptotic effects between EFT and normal cells. Moreover, intraperitoneal administration of FK228 significantly inhibited tumor growth and induced apoptosis in EFTs in vivo. These results suggest that HDACI might be a promising reagent for use in molecular-based chemotherapy against EFTs.
    International Journal of Cancer 10/2005; 116(5):784-92. · 5.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chromosomal translocation t(11; 22)(q24; q12) is detected in approximately 90% of Ewing's family tumors (EFTs) including Ewing's sarcoma and primitive neuroectodermal tumor. This results in the formation of the EWS-Fli1 fusion gene, which produces EWS-Fli1 fusion protein. This chimerical gene product acts as an aberrant transcriptional activator, which may be responsible for the tumorigenesis of EFTs. We have previously reported that cyclin E expression was upregulated in EFT cells and in EWS-Fli1 transformed fibroblastic cells. However, the mechanism of the overexpression of cyclin E by EWS-Fli1 is still unknown. In our study, we investigated the mechanism of transactivation of the cyclin E gene in EFT cells. We found that EWS-Fli1 enhanced the activity of the cyclin E gene promoter partially through E2F binding sites in the promoter. In addition, the basic transcriptional factor, Sp1, might also be involved in the transactivation of the cyclin E gene by EWS-Fli1. To study the biological significance of cyclin E overexpression in EFT cells, we used flavopiridol, a pan-cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor and found that flavopiridol efficiently suppressed the growth of EFT cells in vitro and in vivo by the inhibition of cyclinE/CDK2 kinase activity and the induction of apoptosis. These results suggest that targeting of the cyclin/CDK complex may provide new insight into treatment of EFTs.
    International Journal of Cancer 10/2005; 116(3):385-94. · 5.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a nonreceptor tyrosine kinase that is overexpressed in several human cancers, and induces survival, proliferation and motility of cells in culture. Phosphorylation of FAK has been studied extensively in vitro, but little is known about its regulation during tumor invasion in vivo. In the current study, green fluorescent protein (GFP) was expressed stably in an invasive murine fibrosarcoma cell line for the purpose of discrimination between tumor and normal cells. Under fluorescence microscopy, the tumor was highly fluorescent, and the margin between the tumor and normal tissue was clearly demarcated. Using this invasion model, we showed localization of pY397-FAK expression in the infiltrative edge of tumors. We reproduced local invasion in vivo using a tumor tissue culture method in a three dimensional collagen gel. Phosphorylation of FAK is also upregulated in invading fibrosarcoma cells under in vitro conditions. Expression of the FAK C-terminal domain termed FRNK (FAK-related non-kinase) in 2,472 cells decreased FAK phosphorylation without changing total FAK levels. FRNK inhibited the motility of 2,472 cells, and reduced invasion in vitro. Although FRNK did not affect cell growth, it inhibited experimental metastases in syngenic mice. These results demonstrate that the phosphorylation of FAK might be specifically upregulated in invading fibrosarcoma cells and regulate their invasion and metastasis.
    Clinical and Experimental Metastasis 02/2005; 22(6):485-94. · 3.73 Impact Factor