Timothy J Wilt

University of Minnesota Duluth, Duluth, Minnesota, United States

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Publications (294)1987.39 Total impact

  • 07/2015; 1. DOI:10.1177/2333721415595789
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    ABSTRACT: Risks for intermediate- and long-term cognitive impairment after cardiovascular procedures in older adults are poorly understood. To summarize evidence about cognitive outcomes in adults aged 65 years or older at least 3 months after coronary or carotid revascularization, cardiac valve procedures, or ablation for atrial fibrillation. MEDLINE, Cochrane, and Scopus databases from 1990 to January 2015; ClinicalTrials.gov; and bibliographies of reviews and eligible studies. English-language trials and prospective cohort studies. One reviewer extracted data, a second checked accuracy, and 2 independently rated quality and strength of evidence (SOE). 17 trials and 4 cohort studies were included; 80% of patients were men, and mean age was 68 years. Cognitive function did not differ after the procedure between on- and off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) (n = 6; low SOE), hypothermic and normothermic CABG (n = 3; moderate to low SOE), or CABG and medical management (n = 1; insufficient SOE). One trial reported lower risk for incident cognitive impairment with minimal versus conventional extracorporeal CABG (risk ratio, 0.34 [95% CI, 0.16 to 0.73]; low SOE). Two trials found no difference between surgical carotid revascularization and carotid stenting or angioplasty (low and insufficient SOE, respectively). One cohort study reported increased cognitive decline after transcatheter versus surgical aortic valve replacement but had large selection and outcome measurement biases (insufficient SOE). Mostly low to insufficient SOE; no pertinent data for ablation; limited generalizability to the most elderly patients, women, and persons with substantial baseline cognitive impairment; and possible selective reporting and publication bias. Intermediate- and long-term cognitive impairment in older adults attributable to the studied cardiovascular procedures may be uncommon. Nevertheless, clinicians counseling patients before these procedures should discuss the uncertainty in their risk for adverse cognitive outcomes. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.
    Annals of internal medicine 07/2015; 163(2):107-117. DOI:10.7326/M14-2793 · 17.81 Impact Factor
  • Russell P Harris · Timothy J Wilt · Amir Qaseem
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    ABSTRACT: Experts, professional societies, and consumer groups often recommend different strategies for cancer screening. These strategies vary in the intensity of their search for asymptomatic lesions and in their value. This article outlines a framework for thinking about the value of varying intensities of cancer screening. The authors conclude that increasing intensity beyond an optimal level leads to low-value screening and speculate about pressures that encourage overly intensive, low-value screening.
    Annals of internal medicine 05/2015; 162(10):712-717. DOI:10.7326/M14-2327 · 17.81 Impact Factor
  • Timothy J Wilt · Russell P Harris · Amir Qaseem
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    ABSTRACT: Cancer screening is one approach to reducing cancer-related morbidity and mortality rates. Screening strategies vary in intensity. Higher-intensity strategies are not necessarily higher value. High-value strategies provide a degree of benefits that clearly justifies the harms and costs incurred; low-value screening provides limited or no benefits to justify the harms and costs. When cancer screening leads to benefits, an optimal intensity of screening maximizes value. Some aspects of screening practices, especially overuse and underuse, are low value. Screening strategies for asymptomatic, average-risk adults for 5 common types of cancer were evaluated by reviewing clinical guidelines and evidence syntheses from the American College of Physicians (ACP), U.S. Preventive Services Task Force, American Academy of Family Physicians, American Cancer Society, American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, American Gastroenterological Association, and American Urological Association. "High value" was defined as the lowest screening intensity threshold at which organizations agree about screening recommendations for each type of cancer and "low value" as agreement about not recommending overly intensive screening strategies. This information is supplemented with additional findings from randomized, controlled trials; modeling studies; and studies of costs or resource use, including information found in the National Cancer Institute's Physician Data Query and UpToDate. The ACP provides high-value care screening advice for 5 common types of cancer; the specifics are outlined in this article. The ACP strongly encourages clinicians to adopt a cancer screening strategy that focuses on reaching all eligible persons with these high-value screening options while reducing overly intensive, low-value screening.
    Annals of internal medicine 05/2015; 162(10):718-725. DOI:10.7326/M14-2326 · 17.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The role of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is not well-known. To assess the efficacy, comparative effectiveness, and harms of FMT for CDI. MEDLINE (1980 to January 2015), Cochrane Library, and ClinicalTrials.gov, followed by hand-searching references from systematic reviews and identified studies. Any study of FMT to treat adult patients with CDI; case reports were only used to report harms. Data were extracted by 1 author and verified by another; 2 authors independently assessed risk of bias and strength of evidence. Two randomized, controlled trials (RCTs); 28 case-series studies; and 5 case reports were included. Two RCTs and 21 case-series studies (516 patients receiving FMT) reported using FMT for patients with recurrent CDI. A high proportion of treated patients had symptom resolution; however, the role of previous antimicrobials is unclear. One RCT comparing FMT with 2 control groups (n = 43) reported resolution of symptoms in 81%, 31%, and 23% of the FMT, vancomycin, or vancomycin-plus-bowel lavage groups, respectively (P < 0.001 for both control groups vs. FMT). An RCT comparing FMT route (n = 20) reported no difference between groups (60% in the nasogastric tube group and 80% in the colonoscopy group; P = 0.63). Across all studies for recurrent CDI, symptom resolution was seen in 85% of cases. In 7 case-series studies of patients with refractory CDI, symptom resolution ranged from 0% to 100%. Among 7 patients treated with FMT for initial CDI, results were mixed. Most studies were uncontrolled case-series studies; only 2 RCTs were available for analysis. Fecal microbiota transplantation may have a substantial effect with few short-term adverse events for recurrent CDI. Evidence is insufficient on FMT for refractory or initial CDI treatment and on whether effects vary by donor, preparation, or delivery method. U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs.
    Annals of internal medicine 05/2015; 162(9):630-638. DOI:10.7326/M14-2693 · 17.81 Impact Factor
  • J Dik F Habbema · Timothy J Wilt · Ruth Etzioni
    Annals of internal medicine 04/2015; 162(7):530-531. DOI:10.7326/L15-5075-2 · 17.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Evaluate the effect of outpatient antimicrobial stewardship programs on prescribing, patient, microbial outcomes, and costs. Systematic review Search of MEDLINE (2000 through November 2013), Cochrane Library, and reference lists of relevant studies. We included English language studies with patient populations relevant to the United States (eg, infectious conditions, prescription services) evaluating stewardship programs in outpatient settings and reporting outcomes of interest. Data regarding study characteristics and outcomes were extracted and organized by intervention type. We identified 50 studies eligible for inclusion, with most (29 of 50; 58%) reporting on respiratory tract infections, followed by multiple/unspecified infections (17 of 50; 34%). We found medium-strength evidence that stewardship programs incorporating communication skills training and laboratory testing are associated with reductions in antimicrobial use, and low-strength evidence that other stewardship interventions are associated with improved prescribing. Patient-centered outcomes, which were infrequently reported, were not adversely affected. Medication costs were generally lower with stewardship interventions, but overall program costs were rarely reported. No studies reported microbial outcomes, and data regarding outpatient settings other than primary care clinics are limited. Low- to moderate-strength evidence suggests that antimicrobial stewardship programs in outpatient settings improve antimicrobial prescribing without adversely effecting patient outcomes. Effectiveness depends on program type. Most studies were not designed to measure patient or resistance outcomes. Data regarding sustainability and scalability of interventions are limited. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2014;00(0):1-11.
    Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology 02/2015; 36(2):142-52. DOI:10.1017/ice.2014.41 · 4.18 Impact Factor
  • Hanna E Bloomfield · Andrew Olson · Timothy J Wilt
    Annals of internal medicine 12/2014; 161(12):924-5. DOI:10.7326/L14-5034-2 · 17.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Clinical practice guidelines should be based on the best scientific evidence derived from systematic reviews of primary research. However, these studies often do not provide evidence needed by guideline development groups to evaluate the tradeoffs between benefits and harms. In this article, the authors identify 4 areas where models can bridge the gaps between published evidence and the information needed for guideline development applying new or updated information on disease risk, diagnostic test properties, and treatment efficacy; exploring a more complete array of alternative intervention strategies; assessing benefits and harms over a lifetime horizon; and projecting outcomes for the conditions for which the guideline is intended. The use of modeling as an approach to bridge these gaps (provided that the models are high-quality and adequately validated) is considered. Colorectal and breast cancer screening are used as examples to show the utility of models for these purposes. The authors propose that a modeling study is most useful when strong primary evidence is available to inform the model but critical gaps remain between the evidence and the questions that the guideline group must address. In these cases, model results have a place alongside the findings of systematic reviews to inform health care practice and policy.
    Annals of internal medicine 12/2014; 161(11):812-8. DOI:10.7326/M14-0845 · 17.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The American College of Physicians (ACP) developed this guideline to present the evidence and provide clinical recommendations on the comparative effectiveness and safety of preventive dietary and pharmacologic management of recurrent nephrolithiasis in adults.
    Annals of internal medicine 11/2014; 161(9):659-67. DOI:10.7326/M13-2908 · 17.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To inform the VA Office of Health Promotion and Disease Prevention we conducted a systematic review to examine the effects of cancer screening shared decision making (SDM) interventions. Method: We searched MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and relevant journals from 1995 through 2013 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of cancer screening SDM interventions in adults in clinical settings. We extracted key study population and intervention characteristics and the effect of SDM on three outcomes of interest. Outcomes of interest drawn from the Ottawa Decision Support Framework included: (1) Decision Quality (informed, values-based, patient involvement), (2) Decision Action (screening preference/intention, screening behavior), and (3) Decision Impact (decisional conflict, health services use, decision satisfaction). Result: We identified twenty-two eligible RCTs evaluating SDM interventions for: breast (k=2), colorectal (k=3), and prostate (k=17) cancer screening. More than half of all SDM interventions included a values clarification exercise (k=15), but few used a theoretical framework (k=7). SDM intervention effects on outcomes varied. For Decision Quality, knowledge was assessed in the majority of studies (n=19), and in all cases SDM increased knowledge. Studies measured values and patient involvement less often (k=5 and k=11, respectively) and found no consistent effect. Eleven studies assessed Decision Action with no consistent SDM effect of SDM. Screening intention was evaluated for breast (k=2) and prostate cancer (k=9). Three studies assessed screening preference, all colorectal cancer. Screening behavior was assessed in 16 studies, ranging from 2 weeks to 1 year. SDM enhanced Decision Impact as measured by a consistent decrease in decisional conflict (k=12). However, SDM had no consistent effect on health services use (k=6) or decision satisfaction (k=2), though outcomes were infrequently reported. Conclusion: SDM interventions for cancer screening consistently increase patient knowledge and often decrease decisional conflict. However, there have been varying intervention effects on Decision Action or Decision Impact. Research is needed to guide future SDM intervention development to enhance the effect on decision action and impact.
    The 36th Annual Meeting of the Society for Medical Decision Making; 10/2014
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    ABSTRACT: Prostate cancer is a common malignancy in men and the worldwide burden of this disease is rising. Lifestyle modifications such as smoking cessation, exercise, and weight control offer opportunities to reduce the risk of developing prostate cancer. Early detection of prostate cancer by prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening is controversial, but changes in the PSA threshold, frequency of screening, and the use of other biomarkers have the potential to minimise the overdiagnosis associated with PSA screening. Several new biomarkers for individuals with raised PSA concentrations or those diagnosed with prostate cancer are likely to identify individuals who can be spared aggressive treatment. Several pharmacological agents such as 5α-reductase inhibitors and aspirin could prevent development of prostate cancer. In this Review, we discuss the present evidence and research questions regarding prevention, early detection of prostate cancer, and management of men either at high risk of prostate cancer or diagnosed with low-grade prostate cancer.
    The Lancet Oncology 10/2014; 15(11):e484-e492. DOI:10.1016/S1470-2045(14)70211-6 · 24.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective. Evaluate the evidence for effects of inpatient antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) on patient, prescribing, and microbial outcomes. Design. Systematic review. Methods. Search of MEDLINE (2000 through November 2013), Cochrane Library, and reference lists of relevant studies. We included English language studies with patient populations relevant to the United States (ie, infectious conditions and prescriptions required for antimicrobials) that evaluated ASP interventions and reported outcomes of interest. Study characteristics and outcomes data were extracted and reviewed by investigators and trained research personnel. Results. Few intervention types (eg, audit and feedback, guideline implementation, and decision support) substantially impacted patient outcomes, including mortality, length of stay, readmission, or incidence of Clostridium difficile infection. However, most interventions were not powered adequately to demonstrate impacts on patient outcomes. Most interventions were associated with improved prescribing patterns as measured by decreased antimicrobial use or increased appropriate use. Where reported, ASPs were generally associated with improvements in microbial outcomes, including institutional resistance patterns or resistance in the study population. Few data were provided on harms, sustainability, or key intervention components. Studies were typically of short duration, low in methodological quality, and varied in study design, populations enrolled, hospital setting, ASP intent, intervention composition and implementation, comparison group, and outcomes assessed. Conclusions. Numerous studies suggest that ASPs can improve prescribing and microbial outcomes. Strength of evidence was low, and most studies were not designed adequately to detect improvements in mortality or other patient outcomes, but obvious adverse effects on patient outcomes were not reported.
    Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology 10/2014; 35(10):1209-1228. DOI:10.1086/678057 · 4.18 Impact Factor
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    Amir Qaseem · Timothy J Wilt · Molly Cooke · Thomas D Denberg
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    ABSTRACT: The American College of Physicians recently published a guideline on screening for CKD that recommends against screening for CKD in asymptomatic adults without risk factors. The generally accepted criteria for population-based screening for disease state that screening should improve important clinical outcomes while limiting harms for those individuals screened. However, CKD screening does not meet these criteria. There is currently no evidence evaluating or demonstrating benefits for providing early treatment for patients identified via screening who do not have risk factors. On the other hand, harms are associated with the screening and include false-positive results, unnecessary testing and treatment, and disease labeling.
    Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 09/2014; 9(11). DOI:10.2215/CJN.02940314 · 4.61 Impact Factor
  • John M Hollingsworth · Timothy J Wilt
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    ABSTRACT: Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a highly prevalent and costly condition that affects older men worldwide. Many affected men develop lower urinary tract symptoms, which can have a negative impact on their quality of life. In the past, transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) was the mainstay of treatment. However, several efficacious drug treatments have been developed, which have transformed BPH from an acute surgical entity to a chronic medical condition. Specifically, multiple clinical trials have shown that α adrenoceptor antagonists can significantly ameliorate lower urinary tract symptoms. Moreover, 5α reductase inhibitors, alone or combined with an α adrenoceptor antagonist, can reverse the natural course of BPH, reducing the risk of urinary retention and the need for surgical intervention. Newer medical regimens including the use of antimuscarinic agents or phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, have shown promise in men with predominantly storage symptoms and concomitant erectile dysfunction, respectively. For men who do not adequately respond to conservative measures or pharmacotherapy, minimally invasive surgical techniques (such as transurethral needle ablation, microwave thermotherapy, and prostatic urethral lift) may be of benefit, although they lack the durability of TURP. A variety of laser procedures have also been introduced, whose improved hemostatic properties abrogate many of the complications associated with traditional surgery.
    BMJ Clinical Research 08/2014; 349(aug14 7):g4474. DOI:10.1136/bmj.g4474 · 14.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) has funded systematic reviews of comparative effectiveness research in 17 areas over the last 10 years as part of a federal mandate. These reviews provide a reliable and unbiased source of comprehensive information about the effectiveness and risks of treatment alternatives for patients and clinicians. This article describes comparative effectiveness research, provides an overview of how physicians can use it in clinical practice, and references important contributions made by the Minnesota Evidence-based Practice Center.
    Minnesota medicine 08/2014; 97(8):49-51.
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Pelvic examination is often included in well-woman visits even when cervical cancer screening is not required. Purpose: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy, benefits, and harms of pelvic examination in asymptomatic, nonpregnant, average-risk adult women. Cervical cancer screening was not included. Data Sources: MEDLINE and Cochrane databases through January 2014 and reference lists from identified studies. Study Selection: 52 English-language studies, 32 of which included primary data. Data Extraction: Data were extracted on study and sample characteristics, interventions, and outcomes. Quality of the diagnostic accuracy studies was evaluated using a published instrument, and quality of the survey studies was evaluated with metrics assessing population representativeness, instrument development, and response rates. Data Synthesis: The positive predictive value of pelvic examination for detecting ovarian cancer was less than 4% in the 2 studies that reported this metric. No studies that investigated the morbidity or mortality benefits of screening pelvic examination for any condition were identified. The percentage of women reporting pelvic examination-related pain or discomfort ranged from 11% to 60% (median, 35%; 8 studies [n = 4576]). Corresponding figures for fear, embarrassment, or anxiety ranged from 10% to 80% (median, 34%; 7 studies [n = 10 702]). Limitation: Only English-language publications were included; the evidence on diagnostic accuracy, morbidity, and mortality was scant; and the studies reporting harms were generally low quality. Conclusion: No data supporting the use of pelvic examination in asymptomatic, average-risk women were found. Low-quality data suggest that pelvic examinations may cause pain, discomfort, fear, anxiety, or embarrassment in about 30% of women.
    Annals of internal medicine 07/2014; 161(1):46-53. DOI:10.7326/M13-2881 · 17.81 Impact Factor
  • Amir Qaseem · Timothy Wilt · Thomas D Denberg
    Annals of internal medicine 07/2014; 161(1):83-84. DOI:10.7326/L14-5013-5 · 17.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Behavioral change is critical for improving health outcomes in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. An educational approach alone is insufficient; changes in behavior, especially the acquisition of self-care skills, are also required. There is mounting evidence that embedding collaborative self-management (CSM) within existing health care systems provides an effective model to meet these needs. CSM should be integrated with pulmonary rehabilitation programs, one of the main goals of which is to induce long-term changes in behavior. More research is needed to evaluate the effectiveness of assimilating CSM into primary care, patient-centered medical homes, and palliative care teams.
    Clinics in Chest Medicine 06/2014; 35(2):337-351. DOI:10.1016/j.ccm.2014.02.004 · 2.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Family and caregiver interventions typically aim to develop family members' coping and caregiving skills and to reduce caregiver burden. We conducted a systematic review of published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating whether family-involved interventions improve patient outcomes among adults with cancer. Methods: RCTs enrolling patients with cancer were identified by searching MEDLINE, PsycInfo and other sources through December 2012. Studies were limited to subjects over 18 years of age, published in English language, and conducted in the United States. Patient outcomes included global quality of life; physical, general psychological and social functioning; depression/anxiety; symptom control and management; health care utilization; and relationship adjustment. Results: We identified 27 unique trials, of which 18 compared a family intervention to usual care or wait list (i.e., usual care with promise of intervention at completion of study period) and 13 compared one family intervention to another individual or family intervention (active control). Compared to usual care, overall strength of evidence for family interventions was low. The available data indicated that overall, family-involved interventions did not consistently improve outcomes of interest. Similarly, with low or insufficient evidence, family-involved interventions were not superior to active controls at improving cancer patient outcomes. Discussion: Overall, there was low or insufficient evidence that family and caregiver interventions were superior to usual or active care. Variability in study populations and interventions made pooling of data problematic and generalizing findings from any single study difficult. Most of the included trials were of poor or fair quality.
    Journal of General Internal Medicine 05/2014; 29(9). DOI:10.1007/s11606-014-2873-2 · 3.45 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

12k Citations
1,987.39 Total Impact Points


  • 2001–2015
    • University of Minnesota Duluth
      • Medical School
      Duluth, Minnesota, United States
    • Massachusetts General Hospital
      • Hospital Medicine Unit
      Boston, MA, United States
    • United States Department of Veterans Affairs
      Бедфорд, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1998–2012
    • Minneapolis Veterans Affairs Hospital
      Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States
  • 2011
    • Arizona State University
      Phoenix, Arizona, United States
    • University of Aberdeen
      • Academic Urology Unit
      Aberdeen, SCT, United Kingdom
  • 2008–2011
    • University of Minnesota Twin Cities
      • • Division of Health Policy and Management
      • • School of Public Health
      Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States
    • Terumo BCT
      Denver, Colorado, United States
  • 2006–2011
    • Monash University (Australia)
      • School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    • San Francisco VA Medical Center
      San Francisco, California, United States
    • University of Virginia
      Charlottesville, Virginia, United States
  • 2009
    • University of Ottawa
      Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
  • 2002–2009
    • Spokane VA Medical Center
      Spokane, Washington, United States
  • 2007
    • Universidade Federal de São Paulo
      • School of Medicine
      San Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
  • 2006–2007
    • University of Washington Seattle
      Seattle, Washington, United States
  • 2004–2007
    • Velindre NHS Trust
      Cardiff, Wales, United Kingdom
  • 2005
    • Sichuan University
      • Department of Urology
      Hua-yang, Sichuan, China
    • Hennepin County Medical Center
      Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States
  • 2000
    • BC Cancer Agency
      Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
  • 1999
    • National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
      베서스다, Maryland, United States
  • 1996
    • Harvard University
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1995
    • University of Wisconsin, Madison
      • Department of Surgery
      Madison, MS, United States