Taiya Kato

Fujita Health University, Nagoya, Aichi, Japan

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Publications (15)39.32 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Telomerase (TA) activity is known to be present in malignant tumor cells, but not in most somatic differentiated cells. TA shows relatively high activity in thyroid cancer cells, but reports vary. This fact prompted us to elucidate whether cell component inhibitors of TA in the thyroid follicles can modulate its activity. The activity of TA extracted from Hela cells was inhibited by mixing with the supernatant fraction of human thyroid tissue extract. To examine the effect of iodine, thyroid hormones (l-T3 and l-T4) and human thyroglobulin (hTg) contained in the thyroid follicles, l-T3, l-T4 and hTg were added to the TRAP assay system in vitro, using TA from Hela cells. Iodine, l-T3 and l-T4 did not affect TA activity, but hTg inhibited the TA activity in a dose-dependent manner (IC(50) of hTg: ca 0.45 microM: inhibiting concentration of hTg was from 0.15 microM to 3.0 microM). The hTg inhibition was not evident in the RT-PCR system, suggesting no effect of hTg on Taq DNA polymerase activity. The hTg inhibition of TA activity was attenuated by dNTP but not significantly by TS primer. These data suggest that hTg contained in thyroid follicular cells of various thyroid diseases may affect the TA activity measured in biopsied thyroid specimens, and that the reduction of the TA activity by hTg may induce slow progression and growth, and low grade malignancy of thyroid cancer, particularly differentiated carcinoma.
    Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry 11/2008; 24(2):524-30. DOI:10.1080/14756360802218920 · 2.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The prevalence of hypovitaminosis D has been recently reevaluated, and diabetes is considered as a risk factor for osteoporosis. We studied the association of the prevalence of hypovitaminosis D with the clinical features of diabetes. We conducted the observational study in 581 Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and 51 normal subjects, and analyzed the relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) concentration and the clinical features associated with type 2 diabetes. Mean serum 25-OHD concentration in type 2 diabetes patients was 17.0 +/- 7.1 ng/ml (Mean +/- SD) in winter, and was not statistically different from normal population (17.5 +/- 3.6 ng/ml). The prevalence of hypovitaminosis D (<20 ng/ml) was 70.6%. Serum concentrations of 25-OHD were associated with HbA1c (P = 0.013), age (P = 0.070) and serum albumin (P < 0.001), but were not related to BMI or the duration of diabetes. The levels of 25-OHD were significantly lower in the population with apparent microvascular complications, although serum creatinine levels were below 2.0 mg/dl. Serum 25-OHD concentrations in the group treated with insulin (15.4 +/- 6.5 ng/ml) was lower than those in the patients treated with diet alone (20.8 +/- 7.6 ng/ml) and with oral hypoglycemic agents (17.3 +/- 7.0 ng/ml). Furthermore, the highest incidence of osteoporotic fracture and/or back deformity was observed in insulin-treated patients with hypovitaminosis D. In conclusion, these results suggest that microvascular complications and insulin treatment in type 2 diabetes patients are associated with the co-existence of hypovitaminosis D, and that hypovitaminosis D in insulin-treated patients is possibly related to the risk of osteoporotic fracture.
    Endocrine Journal 08/2006; 53(4):503-10. DOI:10.1507/endocrj.K06-001 · 2.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Understanding the causes of diabetic vascular complications has become an increasingly important issue because of the rapidly rising prevalence of diabetes. Recently discovered vasoconstrictors and angiogenesis regulators, such as endothelin (ET) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), have been intensely studied for possible pathogenic roles in diabetic vascular complications. The present study was undertaken to clarify the effect of glycemic control on serum VEGF and plasma ET-1 concentrations in diabetic patients, and to identify other factors that may cause fluctuations of these substances. Plasma VEGF and ET-1 concentrations of 45 hospitalized diabetic patients and 54 control subjects were measured by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and radioimmunoassay (RIA), respectively. Plasma VEGF was elevated in poorly controlled diabetic patients compared with healthy subjects and plasma VEGF concentrations declined after hospitalized treatment with either insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents in combination with diet. There was a significant correlation between plasma VEGF concentration and both fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and hemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1c)). Plasma ET-1 in poorly controlled diabetic patients was higher than in healthy controls, but improved glycemic control did not affect plasma ET-1 concentrations. Thus, poor glycemic control causes increased levels of plasma VEGF, which may result in hypertension and vascular complications in diabetes. Short-term treatment resulting in good glycemic control can improve levels of VEGF and may provide beneficial effects on diabetic vascular complications.
    Metabolism 06/2004; 53(5):550-5. DOI:10.1016/j.metabol.2003.12.002 · 3.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) acts as an essential cofactor for the enzymatic activity of nitric oxide (NO) synthases. Biosynthesis of the cofactor BH4 starts from GTP and requires 3 enzymatic steps, which include GTP cyclohydrolase I (GCH I) catalysis of the first and rate-limiting step. In this study we examined the effects of cGMP on GCH I activity in human umbilical vein endothelial cells under inflammatory conditions. Exogenous application of the cGMP analogue 8-bromo-cGMP markedly inhibited GCH I activity in the short term, whereas an cAMP analogue had no effect on GCH I activity under the same condition. NO donors, NOR3 and sodium nitroprusside, elevated the intracellular cGMP level and reduced GCH I activity in the short term. This inhibition of GCH I activity was obliterated in the presence of an NO trapper carboxy-PTIO. NO donors had no effect on GCH I mRNA expression in the short term. Moreover, cycloheximide did not alter the inhibition by NO donors of GCH I activity. These findings suggest that stimulation of the cGMP signaling cascade down-regulates GCH I activity through post translational modification of the GCH I enzyme.
    Journal of Pharmacological Sciences 12/2003; 93(3):265-71. DOI:10.1254/jphs.93.265 · 2.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The amounts of sorbitol (SOR) excreted in 24-h urine were determined on two groups, i.e., diabetic and nondiabetic patients, using an improved method in which ion exchange resin column processing was applied, and these levels were compared with SOR levels in whole blood. Urinary SOR concentration was also determined in diabetic and normal rats in the same manner and its relationship to aldose reductase (AR) activity in whole blood was investigated. Changes in SOR levels in urine and whole blood were compared in diabetic rats after administration of an AR inhibitor (ARI). Whole blood SOR levels and urinary SOR excretion were significantly higher in diabetic patients than in nondiabetic patients. The same results were obtained in the animal models. In diabetic rats, the urinary SOR excretion was about five times higher than that in control rats, and the AR activity in whole blood was also significantly higher. The increase in urinary SOR excretion and whole blood SOR levels, as well as AR activity, in blood in the diabetic state was inhibited by ARI administration. The influence of the diabetic state and the efficacy of the ARI were more marked in urinary SOR excretion than in whole blood SOR levels. These data indicate that determinations of urinary SOR excretion and AR activity are easily measurable and of benefit to assessing the diabetic condition.
    Journal of Diabetes and its Complications 11/2003; 17(6):337-42. DOI:10.1016/S1056-8727(02)00169-1 · 1.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The possible role of abnormal T cell-dependent B-cell activation in Graves' disease was investigated by comparing lymphocyte subset distribution and the production of soluble CD8 (sCD8), sCD23, IL-10 and IL-12 by peripheral blood cells (PBMC) and thyroid-infiltrating lymphocytes (TL) in vitro. In TL, the percentage of CD8(+) cells was slightly higher and the sCD8 concentration was significantly higher than in PBMC. The ratio CD23(+) cells to CD20(+) cells (activated B/pan B cells) was increased in TL compared to PBMC from Graves' or normal controls, although the percentage of CD20(+) cells was decreased. Compared to PBMC in Graves' disease, the relative ratio of IL-10 to IL-12 release (IL-10/IL-12) by unstimulated TL was increased, despite a lack of significant difference between PBMC and TL in mean values for either IL-10 or IL-12 secretion. Incubating PBMC with a combination of anti-CD40 monoclonal antibodies and interleukin-4 (IL-4) resulted in B cell activation, reflected in an increase in the sCD23 level in both controls and Graves' patients, but especially prominent in the latter. Stimulation with anti-CD40 antibody and IL-4 also decreased the percentage of CD8(+) cells in PBMC but not TL from both Graves' disease and normal controls, and the percentage of CD8(+) cells in TL was higher than PBMC after the stimulation. The sCD23 concentration in TL was decreased compared to PBMC both in patients with Graves' disease and normal controls. However, in contrast to the increased responses observed in Graves' PBMC or normal controls after stimulation, sCD23 levels remained the same in stimulated TL from Graves' patients. This combination of B cell stimulants increased production of IL-10 in PBMC but not in TL obtained from patients with Graves' disease, and the increased IL-10/IL-12 ratio declined to a value no different from that in PBMC group after stimulation. Thus, T cell-dependent B-cell activation via a CD40 pathway may cause a shift in the Th(1)/Th(2) balance to Th(2) dominance in Graves' disease, while increased CD8(+) cells in TL may suppress sCD23 production and IL-10-producing Th(2) cells.
    Cytokine 09/2002; 19(3):107-14. DOI:10.1006/cyto.2002.1055 · 2.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In general, many cases of malignancy-associated hypercalcemia are due to HHM. In patients with humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy (HHM), it has been reported that plasma parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels were elevated, while plasma PTH and active vitamin D(3) levels were suppressed. Our patient showed hypercalcemia with a concurrent increase in plasma and tumor tissue PTHrP and PTH concentrations and also high cAMP and low 1-25(OH)(2)VD(3) levels in the plasma. These data suggest that the hypercalcemia exhibited by our patient was consistent with HHM due to lung cancer and its liver metastasis. Moreover, diagnostic imaging and autopsy findings showed no appreciable lesions of the parathyroid gland. In addition, histopathologic examination of the primary and metastatic tumors revealed the existence of PTH immunohistochemically stained with anti-PTH antibodies, suggesting an ectopic-PTH-producing lung tumor. From these data, our patient was diagnosed with a rare case of lung cancer, which produced both ectopic PTH and PTHrP.
    Metabolism 08/2002; 51(7):871-5. DOI:10.1053/meta.2002.33341 · 3.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We studied the effects of cAMP on cytokine (interferon-gamma plus tumor necrosis factor-alpha)-induced stimulation of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) synthesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). The cytokine mixture caused a marked increase in the biosynthesis and release of BH4 by HUVEC. Dibutyryl-cAMP produced a dose-dependent inhibition of this cytokine-induced stimulation of synthesis and release of BH4 by these cells. 8-Bromo-cAMP also caused a significant inhibition, although the effects were less marked than those of dibutyryl-cAMP. Both forskolin and the stable analog of prostacyclin, iloprost, caused cAMP accumulation and a concomitant diminution of the cytokine-induced BH4 synthesis in HUVEC. Dibutyryl-cAMP and iloprost also significantly inhibited the cytokine-induced stimulation of GTP cyclohydrolase I (GCHI) activity and mRNA production. We concluded that the suppression by the cAMP messenger system of cytokine-induced stimulation of synthesis and release of BH4 by HUVEC can be attributed to the inhibition of the activity of GCHI, the rate-limiting enzyme in BH4 biosynthetic pathway, in HUVEC. The data also suggest that the cAMP-mediated reduction in the GCHI mRNA level may at least partially explain the decline in GCHI activity. It is reasoned that under inflammatory conditions, cAMP-elevating agents such as prostacyclin exert regulatory effects on circulation by inhibiting cytokine-induced synthesis and release of BH4 by HUVEC.
    Life Sciences 04/2002; 70(18):2187-98. DOI:10.1016/S0024-3205(02)01503-5 · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A high blood concentration of endothelin (ET)-1 may participate in the onset and progress of diabetic microangiopathy, resulting in neuropathy. We examined the therapeutic effects of prostaglandin E1 (PGE1), which possesses both a peripheral vasodilating action and inhibition of platelet aggregation, on diabetic microangiopathy. Increases in both skin temperature and peripheral never conduction velocity in diabetic patients were recorded four weeks after Lipo PGE1 administration. A quantitative decrease in urinary albumin concentration was also observed, suggesting its efficacy of action was on diabetic nephropathy. Lipo PGE1 administration reduced the elevated circulating plasma ET-1 levels in the diabetic patients. As an increase in ET-1 concentrations is thought to correlate with the onset and progress of diabetic microangiopathy, the reduction of plasma ET-1 concentration by Lipo PGE1 administration may be one reason for the improvement in diabetic neuropathy and nephropathy.
    Prostaglandins & other lipid mediators 11/2001; 66(3):221-34. DOI:10.1016/S0090-6980(01)00165-4 · 2.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have sequenced the insulin gene in 72 unrelated Japanese subjects (52 with type 2 diabetes mellitus and 20 with normal glucose tolerance). We identified 6 mutations and all were found at a low frequency (1% to 4%). Three mutations were new. These included a C-to-G substitution in the promoter region, a G-to-A substitution in codon-2 resulting in an Ala-to-Thr replacement in amino acid -2 of the signal peptide, and a G-to-A substitution in intron 2. We have no evidence that any of the mutations that we found are the cause of diabetes. Thus, mutations in the insulin gene do not appear to be an important genetic factor contributing to the development of diabetes in this population.
    Metabolism 07/2001; 50(6):631-4. DOI:10.1053/meta.2001.23283 · 3.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Recently, an endothelin (ET-1) with a potent vasoconstrictive activity and stimulative activity of vascular muscular cell growth was discovered and blood ET-1 levels were higher in diabetic patients than in healthy subjects, suggesting that high ET-1 levels assist development and progression of diabetic microangiography. Methods: We examined renal function, and serum and tissue ET-1 levels in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats treated with a prostaglandin (PG) I2 derivative to investigate the effect of PGI2 in diabetic vascular disturbance. Results: Renal weight, urinary albumin, urinary N-acetyl-β,D-glucosaminidase (NAG) and serum ET-1 levels increased in STZ-induced diabetic rats, and a tendency to increase in renal tissue ET-1 levels was observed. Furthermore, electron-microscopic findings in the kidneys showed mesangial cell proliferation and mesangial matrix expansion which might be caused by diabetic nephropathy. The PGI2 derivative reduced urinary albumin and NAG levels in STZ-induced rats. It was considered, therefore, that the PGI2 derivative is effective in diabetic nephropathy. As the PGI2 derivative also reduced renal tissue ET-1 levels, improvement of diabetic nephropathy partially was considered to result from the reduction of renal tissue ET-1 levels. Conclusion: In STZ-induced rats, increased serum ET-1 levels and a tendency to increase in renal tissue ET-1 levels were associated with increases in urinary albumin and NAG levels, and these levels were decreased by a PGI2 derivative. These findings suggested that increased ET-1 concentrations assist development and progression of diabetic nephropathy, especially diabetic microangiopathy, and the PGI2 derivative may be effective for inhibition of diabetic microangiopathy mediated by reduction of ET-1 concentrations.
    Hormone Research 01/2001; 56(5-6):165-171. DOI:10.1159/000048113 · 2.48 Impact Factor
  • Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 09/2000; 50:132-132. DOI:10.1016/S0168-8227(00)81907-5 · 2.54 Impact Factor
  • Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 09/2000; 50:173-173. DOI:10.1016/S0168-8227(00)82045-8 · 2.54 Impact Factor
  • Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 09/2000; 50:91-91. DOI:10.1016/S0168-8227(00)81766-0 · 2.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate whether the two free-radical scavengers, Cu, Zn- and Mn-superoxide dismutase (SOD), are changed in leukocytes of diabetic patients, and the alteration of these enzymes correlates with the diabetic state, we measured the activity and concentration of these enzymes in leukocytes from diabetic patients. Both Cu, Zn-SOD and Mn-SOD activities in neutrophils and lymphocytes were significantly lower in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus than in healthy controls. The concentrations of these enzymes in leukocytes from diabetic patients, however, did not differ from those in controls. Cu, Zn-SOD and Mn-SOD activities in neutrophils inversely correlated with HbA(1c) concentrations. Myeloperoxidase activity in leukocytes was significantly reduced in NIDDM patients. These findings suggest that changes in these enzymes may affect the susceptibility to infection and immunocompetence of patients with diabetes.
    Journal of Diabetes and its Complications 09/1999; 13(5-6):264-70. DOI:10.1016/S1056-8727(99)00053-7 · 1.93 Impact Factor