[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Smads are signal mediators for the members of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily. Upon phosphorylation by the TGF-beta receptors, Smad3 translocates into the nucleus, recruits transcriptional coactivators and corepressors, and regulates transcription of target genes. Here, we show that Smad3 activated by TGF-beta is degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Smad3 interacts with a RING finger protein, ROC1, through its C-terminal MH2 domain in a ligand-dependent manner. An E3 ubiquitin ligase complex ROC1-SCF(Fbw1a) consisting of ROC1, Skp1, Cullin1, and Fbw1a (also termed betaTrCP1) induces ubiquitination of Smad3. Recruitment of a transcriptional coactivator, p300, to nuclear Smad3 facilitates the interaction with the E3 ligase complex and triggers the degradation process of Smad3. Smad3 bound to ROC1-SCF(Fbw1a) is then exported from the nucleus to the cytoplasm for proteasomal degradation. TGF-beta/Smad3 signaling is thus irreversibly terminated by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway.
Molecular Biology of the Cell 06/2001; 12(5):1431-43. · 4.60 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The biological effects of type I serine/threonine kinase receptors and Smad proteins were examined using an adenovirus-based vector system. Constitutively active forms of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) type I receptors (BMPR-IA and BMPR-IB; BMPR-I group) and those of activin receptor-like kinase (ALK)-1 and ALK-2 (ALK-1 group) induced alkaline phosphatase activity in C2C12 cells. Receptor-regulated Smads (R-Smads) that act in the BMP pathways, such as Smad1 and Smad5, also induced the alkaline phosphatase activity in C2C12 cells. BMP-6 dramatically enhanced alkaline phosphatase activity induced by Smad1 or Smad5, probably because of the nuclear translocation of R-Smads triggered by the ligand. Inhibitory Smads, i.e., Smad6 and Smad7, repressed the alkaline phosphatase activity induced by BMP-6 or the type I receptors. Chondrogenic differentiation of ATDC5 cells was induced by the receptors of the BMPR-I group but not by those of the ALK-1 group. However, kinase-inactive forms of the receptors of the ALK-1 and BMPR-I groups blocked chondrogenic differentiation. Although R-Smads failed to induce cartilage nodule formation, inhibitory Smads blocked it. Osteoblast differentiation induced by BMPs is thus mediated mainly via the Smad-signaling pathway, whereas chondrogenic differentiation may be transmitted by Smad-dependent and independent pathways.
Molecular Biology of the Cell 12/1999; 10(11):3801-13. · 4.60 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Smad proteins are signal transducers for the members of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily. Here we show that, in the absence TGF-beta stimulation, Smads exist as monomers in vivo. Smad2 and Smad3 form homo-oligomers upon phosphorylation by the constitutively active TGF-beta type I receptor, and this oligomerization does not require Smad4. Major portions of Smad4, Smad6 and Smad7 are also present as monomers in vivo. Analysis using a cross-linking reagent suggested that the Smad2 oligomer induced by receptor activation is a trimer. Studies by gel chromatography demonstrated that the Smad2-Smad4 heteromer is not larger than the Smad2 homomer. Moreover, overexpression of Smad4 prevented Smad2 from forming a homo-oligomer. These findings suggest that Smad2 may form a homotrimer, or heterotrimers with Smad4, which are probably composed of two and one, or one and two molecules of Smad2 and Smad4, respectively, depending on the amount of each protein. Gel-mobility shift assay revealed that the Smad3 homomer and Smad3-Smad4 heteromer constitute DNA-binding complexes. Transition of the Smad proteins from monomers to oligomers is thus a critical event in the signal transduction of the TGF-beta superfamily members.
The EMBO Journal 08/1998; 17(14):4056-65. · 9.82 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are multifunctional cytokines, which are members of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily. Activities of BMPs are extracellularly regulated by BMP-binding proteins, Noggin and Chordin. BMPs bind to two different types of serine-threonine kinase receptors, type I and type II. Two BMP type I receptors and a BMP type II receptor have been identified in mammals. Intracellular signals are transduced by Smad proteins. Smad1, Smad5 and probably MADH6, are activated by BMP receptors, form heteromeric complexes with Smad4, and translocate into the nucleus where they may activate transcription of various genes. Smad6 and Smad7 are inhibitory Smads, and may act as autocrine switch-off signals. In Drosophila melanogaster, Decapentaplegic (Dpp) is a homologue of mammalian BMPs. In this review, mechanism of action of Dpp will be discussed in comparison with that of BMPs.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Members of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily transduce signals via Smad proteins. Smad2 and Smad3 mediate TGF-beta signaling, whereas Smad1 and Smad5 transduce bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signals. Smad4 is a common mediator required for both pathways. Smad6 and Smad7 are recently identified members in the Smad family; they inhibit the signaling activity of the other Smad proteins. Here we show that expression of the Smad6 mRNA is dramatically induced by BMP-2 or osteogenic protein-1 (OP-1)/BMP-7 in various cells. BMP-2 induced expression of Smad7 in one cell type, although much less potently than that of Smad6. Smad6 message was induced by TGF-beta 1 in TGF-beta 1-responsive Mv1Lu cells, but the induction was transient in contrast to the induction by BMPs. These results indicate that Smad6 may form a feedback loop to regulate the signaling activity of BMPs.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 03/1998; 244(1):26-9. · 2.41 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Activin A is a multifunctional protein, which is a member of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily. Smad proteins have recently been shown to transduce signals for the TGF-beta superfamily of proteins, and Smad2 was implicated in activin signalling in Xenopus embryos.
We identified the receptors and Smad proteins activated by activin A in a human epidermal keratinocyte cell line, HaCaT. The major activin receptors expressed on HaCaT cells were activin type II receptor (ActR-II) and activin type IB receptor (ActR-IB). We have also shown that in HaCaT cells, activin A induced the phosphorylation of Smad3 and, to a lesser extent, of Smad2. On the other hand, TGF-beta induced an efficient phosphorylation of both Smad2 and Smad3. Activin A preferentially induced the nuclear translocation of Smad3 in HaCaT cells, whereas TGF-beta strongly induced the nuclear translocation of Smad2, as well as other Smads. Moreover, a constitutively active form of ActR-IB efficiently stimulated the formation of a heteromeric complex between Smad3 and Smad4 in COS cells transfected with Smad cDNAs.
These results suggest that activin A binds to a receptor complex of ActR-II and ActR-IB, and preferentially activates Smad3 in HaCaT human keratinocytes.
Genes to Cells 03/1998; 3(2):125-34. · 2.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: SMAD proteins have been identified as signalling mediators of the TGF-beta superfamily, which is involved in a range of biological activities including cell growth, morphogenesis, development and immune responses. Smad1, Smad2, Smad3 and Smad5 are ligand-specific: Smadl and Smad5 transduce signals from bone morphogenetic proteins, and Smad2 and Smad3 mediate signalling by TGF-beta and activin, whereas Smad4 acts as a common signalling component. For example, Smad2 is phosphorylated by the TGF-beta type I receptor upon ligand binding, forms a heteromer with Smad4, and then translocates into the nucleus where it activates transcription. Here we report the isolation of Smad6 in the mouse. Smad6 is quite different in structure from the other SMAD proteins, and forms stable associations with type I receptors. Smad6 interferes with the phosphorylation of Smad2 and the subsequent heteromerization with Smad4, but does not inhibit the activity of Smad3. Smad6 also inhibits the phosphorylation of Smad1 that is induced by the bone morphogenetic protein type IB receptor. These data indicate that signals of the TGF-beta superfamily are regulated both positively and negatively by members of the SMAD family.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) is the prototype of a large family of molecules that regulate a variety of biological processes. The type I (T beta R-I) and type II (T beta R-II) receptors for TGF-beta 1 are transmembrane serine/threonine kinases, forming a heteromeric signaling complex. Recent studies have shown that T beta R-II is a constitutively active kinase and phosphorylates T beta R-I upon ligand binding, suggesting that T beta R-I is the effector subunit of the receptor complex, which transduces signals to intracellular targets. This model has been further confirmed by the identification of constitutively active T beta R-I that mediates TGF-beta 1-specific cellular responses in the absence of ligand and T beta R-II. To investigate signaling by TGF-beta 1, we have sought to isolate proteins that interact with the cytoplasmic region of T beta R-I. One of the proteins identified was the alpha subunit of farnesyl-protein transferase (FT alpha) that modifies a series of peptides including Ras. T beta R-I specifically interacts with FT alpha in the yeast two-hybrid system. Glutathione S-transferase-T beta R-I fusion proteins bind FT alpha translated in vitro. T beta R-I also phosphorylates FT alpha. We further show that the constitutively active T beta R-I interacted with FT alpha very strongly whereas an inactive form of T beta R-I did not. These results suggest that FT alpha may be one of the substrates of the activated T beta R-I kinase.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 01/1996; 270(50):29628-31. · 4.65 Impact Factor