[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
C-reactive protein (CRP), a blood inflammatory biomarker, is associated with the development of Alzheimer disease. In animal models of Parkinson disease (PD), systemic inflammatory stimuli can promote neuroinflammation and accelerate dopaminergic neurodegeneration. However, the association between long-term systemic inflammations and neurodegeneration has not been assessed in PD patients.
To investigate the longitudinal effects of baseline CRP concentrations on motor prognosis in PD.
Design, setting, and participants:
Retrospective analysis of 375 patients (mean age, 69.3 years; mean PD duration, 6.6 years). Plasma concentrations of high-sensitivity CRP were measured in the absence of infections, and the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale Part III (UPDRS-III) scores were measured at five follow-up intervals (Days 1-90, 91-270, 271-450, 451-630, and 631-900).
Main outcome measure:
Change of UPDRS-III scores from baseline to each of the five follow-up periods.
Change in UPDRS-III scores was significantly greater in PD patients with CRP concentrations ≥0.7 mg/L than in those with CRP concentrations <0.7 mg/L, as determined by a generalized estimation equation model (P = 0.021) for the entire follow-up period and by a generalized regression model (P = 0.030) for the last follow-up interval (Days 631-900). The regression coefficients of baseline CRP for the two periods were 1.41 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.21-2.61) and 2.62 (95% CI 0.25-4.98), respectively, after adjusting for sex, age, baseline UPDRS-III score, dementia, and incremental L-dopa equivalent dose.
Baseline plasma CRP levels were associated with motor deterioration and predicted motor prognosis in patients with PD. These associations were independent of sex, age, PD severity, dementia, and anti-Parkinsonian agents, suggesting that subclinical systemic inflammations could accelerate neurodegeneration in PD.
PLoS ONE 08/2015; 10(8):e0136722. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0136722 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction:
Although aspiration pneumonia is the most common complication of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), the clinical impact of aspiration pneumonia on disease course and survival has not been fully estimated. Thus, we retrospectively analyzed the prognostic factors and clinical consequences of pneumonia in PSP.
The clinical course of patients with aspiration pneumonia was surveyed. The association between baseline clinical features (2 years from disease onset) and latency to the initial development of pneumonia was investigated using survival time and Cox regression analyses.
Ninety patients with a clinical diagnosis of PSP were observed for 5.1±3.8 years (mean±SD), and 22 had aspiration pneumonia. Subsequently, 20 patients (91%) had to discontinue oral feeding entirely and 13 (59%) died, whereas, of 68 patients without pneumonia, only three patients (4%) died. Time to initial development of pneumonia was strongly correlated with survival time (Spearman R = 0.92, P<0.001), with a mean latency of 2.3 years to death. Among baseline clinical features, early fall episodes and cognitive decline were significant predictors of pneumonia (P = 0.001 and P<0.001, respectively, log rank test). Cox regression analysis demonstrated that early fall episodes (adjusted hazard ratio: 3.9, 95% confidence interval: 1.2-12.5, P = 0.03) and cognitive decline (adjusted hazard ratio: 5.2, 95% confidence interval: 1.4-19.3, P = 0.02) independently predicted pneumonia. By contrast, dysphagia was not associated with pneumonia (P = 0.2, log rank test).
Initial development of pneumonia indicates an unfavorable clinical course and predicts survival time (mean survival time 2.3 years). Patients with early falls and cognitive decline were at high risk of early development of pneumonia.
PLoS ONE 08/2015; 10(8):e0135823. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0135823 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
C-reactive protein (CRP) is a biomarker of inflammation, and high levels of CRP correlate with vascular death. Chronic inflammation is considered to be involved in neurodegeneration, although there is no evidence linking it with the process of neurodegenerative diseases.
To determine the role of baseline CRP levels in the prognosis of patients with Parkinson disease (PD).
A cohort of 313 patients with a mean age of 69.1 and mean PD duration of 7.9 years was retrospectively followed for a mean observation time of 1,753 days. CRP was measured when patients were not diagnosed with any infections, and levels were repetitively measured to investigate a tendency of "regression to mean." The primary outcome measure was a survival time from study enrollment to death.
During the observation period 56 patients died. Baseline CRP was log-linearly associated with a risk of death in PD. Mean survival time was 3,149 (95% confidence interval; 3,009-3,289) days in patients with CRP ≤ 0.8mg/L (lower two thirds) and 2,620 (2,343-2,897) days in those with CRP > 0.8 mg/L (top third, p < 0.001, log-rank test). The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) per two-fold higher CRP concentration for all deaths was 1.29 (1.10-1.52), and after excluding PD-unrelated deaths, such as cancer or stroke, HR was 1.23 (1.01-1.49) (adjusted for age, sex, PD duration, modified Hohen-Yahr stages, MMSE scores, and serum albumin).
Baseline CRP concentrations were associated with the risk of death and predicted life prognosis of patients with PD. The associations were independent from PD duration, PD severity, cognitive function, ages, and nutritional conditions, suggesting the possibility that subclinical chronic inflammation is associated with a neurodegenerative process in PD.
PLoS ONE 07/2015; 10(7):e0134118. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0134118 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report a case of a 57-year-old woman with thymoma-associated generalized myasthenia gravis (MG) showing severe bulbar and respiratory symptoms, moderate weakness of the neck muscles, and mild weakness of extremity muscles. Corticosteroid treatment with various types of immunosuppressive agents, such as cyclosporine, tacrolimus, and azathioprine, did not improve her symptoms. Plasma exchange transiently improved her symptoms, and she was required to undergo plasmapheresis every 4 weeks. At first, cyclophosphamide pulse therapy was administered, which improved her symptoms transiently. Thereafter, rituximab (RTX) was administered. Six months after RTX administration, respiratory distress and dysphagia improved gradually, and reduction in the dosage of corticosteroids from 30 mg/day to 10 mg/day did not result in symptom deterioration. Therefore, the interval between successive plasmapheresis treatments was increased from 4 to 9 weeks 19 months after the first RTX administration. During a 26-month period from the first administration of RTX, the number of CD20+ B cells in peripheral blood decreased and remained at 0% to 26% of that before RTX treatment. The titer of anti-acetylcholine receptor antibodies did not change during the first course of treatment (0.6-0.9 nmol/l). The clinical symptom worsened with the increase of the number of CD20+ B cells in peripheral blood in the 27 month after 1st RTX administration. Therefore, RTX was administered a second time, after which the patient's clinical symptoms again improved gradually. The titer of anti-acetylcholine receptor antibodies came to be stable with 0.5-0.7 nmol and low level during the 2nd course. Corticosteroids could be discontinued in the 16th month. The findings suggest that RTX can be one of the choices for pharmacological therapy in patients with intractable MG accompanied by the presence of anti-acetylcholine receptor antibodies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transient myoclonic state with asterixis (TMA) is characterized by sudden onset generalized myoclonus and asterixis without consciousness impairment. Electrophysiological studies have revealed that myoclonus correlates with cortical hyperexcitability localized in the primary motor cortex during the symptomatic period. However, it is unclear whether this excitability remains in the asymptomatic period. Here, we report a 79-year-old Japanese man who presented with TMA. He had been diagnosed with progressive non-fluent aphasia (PNFA) and he suffered from rhythmic myoclonus; predominantly in the neck, shoulders and upper extremities. Asterixis was observed in the forearms. Brain 123I-iodoamphetamine single-photon emission computed tomography showed focal hyperperfusion in the bilateral precentral gyri even at 3 months after remission of the myoclonus. These data suggest that cortical hyperactivity was persistent without symptoms and led to TMA, which could have been due to the underlying neurodegenerative disorder of PNFA.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In Parkinson disease (PD), systemic inflammation caused by respiratory infections such as pneumonia frequently occurs, often resulting in delirium in the advanced stages of this disease. Delirium can lead to cognitive and functional decline, institutionalization, and mortality, especially in the elderly. Inflammation causes rapid worsening of PD motor symptoms and signs, sometimes irreversibly in some, but not all, patients.
PLoS ONE 06/2014; 9(6):e94944. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0094944 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Though infections are associated with psychotic symptoms, whether or not subclinical inflammation is associated with hallucinations is not known in Parkinson's disease (PD).
To investigate the association of illusions/hallucinations and plasma CRP levels in PD patients without symptomatic infections.
PD patients not diagnosed as having infections were assessed for illusions and hallucinations using the Parkinson Psychosis Questionnaire (PPQ). It comprises four-domain questions: PPQ-A for sleep problems, PPQ-B for hallucinations/illusions, PPQ-C for delusions, and PPQ-D for disorientation. Assigning patients with ≥1 points in the PPQ-B score to be cases and others as controls, the association of hallucinations/illusions and clinical features (age, sex, duration of PD, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale part 3 (UPDRS-3), Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score, sleep disturbance (PPQ-A score) as well as daily doses of L-Dopa, dopamine agonists, amantadine, and selegiline) were analyzed using a case-control design.
A total of 111 patients were examined and plasma CRP levels were <0.1-6.0 mg/L. Hallucinations or illusions were detected in 28 (25.2%). There were significant differences in age, UPDRS-3 score, MMSE score, PPQ-A, daily doses of L-Dopa and dopamine agonists and plasma CRP levels between cases and controls. A multivariate logistic regression model revealed that UPDRS-3 scores and plasma CRP levels were significantly associated with hallucinations/illusions with an adjusted odds ratio of 1.96 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.20-3.20) per 10 points and 1.57 (95% confidence interval 1.13-2.16) per two-fold, respectively. Dividing patients into thirds by CRP levels (≤0.2, 0.3-0.6, ≥0.7 mg/L), the prevalence of hallucinations/illusions was 13.2%, 21.6%, and 41.7%, in the bottom-, middle-, and top-thirds, respectively (for trend p = 0.012).
Subclinical elevation of plasma CRP levels was associated with hallucinations or illusions after adjustment for motor disability, suggesting that subclinical elevations of CRP levels might be an independent risk for hallucinations/illusions.
PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(1):e85886. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0085886 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abnormal posture (AP) is often seen in Parkinson's disease (PD), and marked forms known as dropped head syndrome and camptocormia encumber daily living activities. Unlike other motor disabilities such as bradykinesia or muscular rigidity, AP is not always improved but rather deteriorated by PD medication.
To clarify factors associated with neck and thoracolumbar AP.
Neck flexion (NF) and thoracolumbar (TL) angles were measured in 216 consecutive PD patients and 175 elderly healthy controls. The differences in NF and TL angles between PD patients and controls were designated as ΔNFA and ΔTLA, respectively. The association of ΔNFA or ΔTLA and predictable factors such as age, sex, duration of PD, Hoehn Yahr (H-Y) stage, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale Part 3 (UPDRS-3), daily dose of dopamine agonists, and comorbid orthopedic spinal lesions was investigated in PD patients. Patients were divided into quartiles according to ΔNFA or ΔTLA. The association between predictable factors and ΔNFA or ΔTLA was estimated as odds ratio (OR), comparing with the lowest quartile as the reference by multivariate regression analysis.
Compared with controls, distributions of all three posture angles were significantly shifted rightward in PD patients. Although there were no difference in UPDRS-3 scores in the quartiles of ΔNFA, the highest quartile was associated with H-Y stage ≥3 [OR 2.99, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.33-6.70, p = 0.008] after adjustment for age, sex and comorbid orthopedic spinal lesions. The highest quartile of ΔTLA was associated with comorbid orthopedic spinal lesions [OR 5.83 (1.42-23.8), p = 0.014], and UPDRS-3 score [OR 3.04 (1.80-5.15)/10 points, p<0.0001].
Thoraco-lumbar AP was associated with UPDRS-3 scores and orthopedic spinal lesions, and in contrast, neck AP was not associated with these factors, suggesting that they had different pathomechanisms.
PLoS ONE 12/2013; 8(9):e73547. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0073547 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Psychoses such as hallucinations are a frequent non-motor problem in patients with Parkinson disease (PD) and serious psychosis requires anti-psychotic medications that worsen Parkinsonism. Although psychosis could be associated with patient-related or biological factors such as cognition, age, and severity of PD, it can also be associated with medications.Therefore we aimed to investigate patient-related and medication-related risks of psychosis requiring anti-psychotic medications (serious psychosis).
A retrospective cohort of 331 PD patients was followed for 2 years. Patient-related factors associated with risk of psychosis were identified by a survival time analysis. In patients who developed psychosis, medications during the hazard period (1-14 days before psychosis) were contrasted with those during the control periods (1 and 3 months before psychosis) using a case--crossover analysis to identify medication-related risks of psychosis.
Serious psychosis was detected in 52 patients and the incidence was estimated to be 116 (95% confidence interval [CI], 85-148) per 1,000 person-years. Analyses of baseline characteristics revealed the risk to be higher in patients with a modified Hoehn--Yahr stage of >=4 (hazard ratio [HR], 2.22; 95% CI, 1.11-4.40), those with a longer duration of PD (HR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.00-1.55, per 5 years) and those with Mini-Mental State Examination scores of <=24 (HR, 2.66; 95% CI, 1.37-5.16). The case-crossover analysis revealed that anti-cholinergics use (HR, 19.7; 95% CI, 2.39-162) elevated the risk, while donepezil use reduced it (HR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.27-0.85).
Risk of psychosis was elevated by increasing severity of PD, cognitive dysfunction and duration of the disease. It was elevated by use of anti-cholinergic drugs and reduced by use of donepezil. The medication-related risk was higher in patients aged >= 70 years. In contrast, there was no significant medication-related risk in younger patients, suggesting different pathomechanisms between young and old patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Psychosis, including hallucinations and delusions, is one of the important non-motor problems in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and is possibly associated with cholinergic neuronal degeneration. The EDAP (Efficacy of Donepezil against Psychosis in PD) study will evaluate the efficacy of donepezil, a brain acetylcholine esterase inhibitor, for prevention of psychosis in PD.
Psychosis is assessed every 4 weeks using the Parkinson Psychosis Questionnaire (PPQ) and patients with PD whose PPQ-B score (hallucinations) and PPQ-C score (delusions) have been zero for 8 weeks before enrolment are randomised to two arms: patients receiving donepezil hydrochloride or patients receiving placebo. The patients are then followed for 96 weeks. The primary outcome measure is the time to the event, defined as getting 2 points or more on the PPQ-B score or PPQ-C score, which is assessed using a survival time analysis. The hypothesis being tested is that donepezil prevents psychosis in patients with PD. Efficacy will be tested statistically using the intention-to-treat analysis including a log-rank test or Cox proportional hazard models. Secondary outcomes, such as changes of PPQ scores and Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale scores from baseline will be assessed.
Ethics approval was received from the Central Review Board of the National Hospital Organization, Tokyo, Japan. The trial was declared and registered to the Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency(PMDA), Japan (No. 22-4018). All participants will receive a written informed consent that was approved by the Central Review. A completed written informed consent is required to enrol in the study. Severe adverse events will be monitored by investigators and in cases where a severe adverse event was previously unreported, it will be reported to the PMDA.
BMJ Open 09/2013; 3(9):e003533. DOI:10.1136/bmjopen-2013-003533 · 2.27 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is often hard to differentiate Parkinson's disease (PD) and parkinsonian variant of multiple system atrophy (MSA-P), especially in the early stages. Cardiac sympathetic denervation and putaminal rarefaction are specific findings for PD and MSA-P, respectively.
We investigated diagnostic accuracy of putaminal apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) test for MSA-P and (123)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigram for PD, especially in early-stage patients.
The referral standard diagnosis of PD and MSA-P were the diagnostic criteria of the United Kingdom Parkinson's Disease Society Brain Bank Criteria and the second consensus criteria, respectively. Based on the referral standard criteria, diagnostic accuracy [area under the receiver-operator characteristic curve (AUC), sensitivity and specificity] of the ADC and MIBG tests was estimated retrospectively. Diagnostic accuracy of these tests performed within 3 years of symptom onset was also investigated.
ADC and MIBG tests were performed on 138 patients (20 MSA and 118 PD). AUC was 0.95 and 0.83 for the ADC and MIBG tests, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity were 85.0% and 89.0% for MSA-P diagnosis by ADC test and 67.0% and 80.0% for PD diagnosis by MIBG test. When these tests were restricted to patients with disease duration ≤3 years, the sensitivity and specificity were 75.0% and 91.4% for the ADC test (MSA-P diagnosis) and 47.7% and 92.3% for the MIBG test (PD diagnosis).
Both tests were useful in differentiating between PD and MSA-P, even in the early stages. In early-stage patients, elevated putaminal ADC was a diagnostic marker for MSA-P. Despite high specificity of the MIBG test, careful neurological history and examinations were required for PD diagnosis because of possible false-negative results.
PLoS ONE 04/2013; 8(4):e61066. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0061066 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several genome-wide association studies and case-control studies have investigated the relationships between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the BST1 gene and Parkinson's disease (PD), but the results have been inconsistent. We examined the relationships between SNPs rs11931532, rs12645693, and rs11724635 and the risk of sporadic PD in Japan. Included were 229 cases within 6years of onset of PD as defined according to the UK PD Society Brain Bank clinical diagnostic criteria. Controls were 357 inpatients and outpatients without neurodegenerative disease. SNPs rs11931532 and rs12645693 were not significantly related to sporadic PD. Compared with a reference group of subjects with the CC genotype of SNP rs11724635, those with the AA genotype had a marginally significantly increased risk of sporadic PD: the adjusted OR was 1.57 (95% CI: 0.95-2.61, P=0.08). No significant interactions were found between BST1 SNP rs11724635 and smoking or caffeine intake with respect to sporadic PD. The current study failed to detect significant relationships between BST1 SNPs rs11931532, rs12645693, and rs11724635 and sporadic PD; however, the relationship between SNP rs11724635 and sporadic PD was of borderline significance. We do not find evidence for interactions between smoking or caffeine intake and SNP rs11724635 affecting sporadic PD.
Journal of the neurological sciences 09/2012; 323(1-2). DOI:10.1016/j.jns.2012.09.008 · 2.47 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It has been suggested that P-glycoprotein (P-gp), the product of multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1) gene, regulates the brain entry of various xenobiotics. Impaired function of P-gp may be associated with an increased risk of Parkinson's disease (PD). The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of a MDR1 C3435T polymorphism on PD risk alone or in combination with environmental factors. A total of 238 patients with PD and 368 controls were genotyped for the MDR1 C3435T polymorphism. Subjects with the TT genotype of the C3435T polymorphism showed a nonsignificantly increased risk of PD (odds ratio (OR) = 1.49, 95% confidence interval (CI) =0.85 - 2.25) compared with those with the CC genotype. A gene-environment interaction was suggested, with a combination of at least one T allele and ever drinking conferring significantly higher risk (OR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.07 - 3.15, P = 0.029), compared with the CC genotype and never drinking. No significant interaction of smoking or occupational pesticide use with the C3435T polymorphism was observed. Our results suggest that the C3435T polymorphism may not play an important role in PD susceptibility in Japanese. Evidence of an interaction between the C3435T polymorphism and alcohol consumption was suggested.
Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics 09/2012; 28(2). DOI:10.2133/dmpk.DMPK-12-RG-075 · 2.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
A recent meta-analysis on the UCHL1 S18Y variant and Parkinson’s disease (PD) showed a significant inverse association between the Y allele and PD; the individual studies included in that meta-analysis, however, have produced conflicting results. We examined the relationship between UCHL1 S18Y single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and sporadic PD in Japan.
Included were 229 cases within 6 years of onset of PD, defined according to the UK PD Society Brain Bank clinical diagnostic criteria. Controls were 357 inpatients and outpatients without neurodegenerative disease. Adjustment was made for sex, age, region of residence, smoking, and caffeine intake.
Compared with subjects with the CC or CA genotype of UCHL1 S18Y SNP, those with the AA genotype had a significantly increased risk of sporadic PD: the adjusted OR was 1.57 (95 % CI: 1.06 − 2.31). Compared with subjects with the CC or CA genotype of UCHL1 S18Y and the CC or CT genotype of SNCA SNP rs356220, those with the AA genotype of UCHL1 S18Y and the TT genotype of SNP rs356220 had a significantly increased risk of sporadic PD; the interaction, however, was not significant. Our previous investigation found significant inverse relationships between smoking and caffeine intake and PD in this population. There were no significant interactions between UCHL1 S18Y and smoking or caffeine intake affecting sporadic PD.
This study reveals that the UCHL1 S18Y variant is a risk factor for sporadic PD. We could not find evidence for interactions affecting sporadic PD between UCHL1 S18Y and SNCA SNP rs356220, smoking, or caffeine intake.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several case-control studies and genome-wide association studies have examined the relationships between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the SNCA gene and Parkinson's disease (PD), and have provided inconsistent results. We investigated the relationships between SNPs rs356229, rs356219, rs356220, rs7684318, and rs2736990 and the risk of sporadic PD in Japan using data from a multicenter hospital-based case-control study. Included were 229 cases within 6 years of onset of PD as defined according to the UK PD Society Brain Bank clinical diagnostic criteria. Controls were 357 inpatients and outpatients without neurodegenerative disease. Adjustment was made for sex, age, region of residence, and smoking. Based on the recessive model, compared with subjects with the CC or CT genotype of SNP rs356220, those with the TT genotype had a significantly increased risk of sporadic PD: the adjusted OR was 1.42 (95% CI: 1.002-2.02). In the additive model, SNP rs2736990 was significantly related to the risk of sporadic PD: the adjusted OR was 1.30 (95% CI: 1.002-1.68). There were no significant relationships between SNP rs356229, rs356219, or rs7684318 and the risk of sporadic PD in any genetic model. The additive interactions between SNPs rs356219 and rs356220 and smoking with respect to sporadic PD were significant although the multiplicative interactions were not significant. This study suggests that SNCA SNPs rs356220 and rs2736990 are significantly associated with the risk of sporadic PD in Japanese. We also present new evidence for biological interactions between SNPs rs356219 and rs356220 and smoking that affect sporadic PD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nearly all epidemiologic studies examining the association between the risk of Parkinson's disease (PD) and diet have focused on single foods and specific nutrients. However, epidemiologic evidence for the association of dietary pattern with PD, namely the measurement of overall diet by considering the cumulative effects of nutrients is extremely limited. We conducted a hospital-based case-control study in Japan to examine the relationship between dietary patterns and the risk of PD.
Patients with PD diagnosed using the UK PD Society Brain Bank criteria (n = 249) and controls without neurodegenerative diseases (n = 368) were recruited. At the time of recruitment, dietary intake during the preceding 1 month was assessed using a validated, self-administered diet history questionnaire. Dietary patterns from 33 predefined food groups (energy-adjusted food g/day) were extracted by factor analysis.
Three dietary patterns were identified: 'Healthy', 'Western' and 'Light meal' patterns. After adjustment for potential non-dietary confounding factors, the Healthy pattern, characterized by a high intake of vegetables, seaweed, pulses, mushrooms, fruits and fish, was inversely associated with the risk of PD with a border-line significance (P for trend = 0.06). Multivariate Odds ratio (95% confidence intervals) for PD in the highest quartile of the Healthy pattern was 0.54 (0.32-0.92) compared with the lowest quartile. No associations with PD were detected for the other two dietary patterns.
In this case-control study in Japan, a dietary pattern consisting of high intakes of vegetables, fruits and fish may be associated with a decreased risk of PD.
European Journal of Neurology 12/2011; 19(5):681-8. DOI:10.1111/j.1468-1331.2011.03600.x · 4.06 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by alterations in dopaminergic neurotransmission. Genetic polymorphisms involved in dopaminergic neurotransmission may influence susceptibility to PD.
We investigated the relationship of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), monoamine oxidase B (MAOB), dopamine receptor (DR) D2 and DRD4 polymorphisms and PD risk with special attention to the interaction with cigarette smoking among 238 patients with PD and 369 controls in a Japanese population.
Subjects with the AA genotype of MAOB rs1799836 showed a significantly increased risk of PD (odds ratio (OR) = 1.70, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.12 - 2.58) compared with the AG and GG genotypes combined. The AA genotype of COMT rs4680 was marginally associated with an increased risk of PD (OR = 1.86, 95% CI = 0.98 - 3.50) compared with the GG genotype. The DRD2 rs1800497 and DRD4 rs1800955 polymorphisms showed no association with PD. A COMT -smoking interaction was suggested, with the combined GA and AA genotypes of rs4680 and non-smoking conferring significantly higher risk (OR = 3.97, 95% CI = 2.13 - 7.41) than the AA genotype and a history of smoking (P for interaction = 0.061). No interactions of smoking with other polymorphisms were observed.
The COMT rs4680 and MAOB rs1799836 polymorphisms may increase susceptibility to PD risk among Japanese. Future studies involving larger control and case populations and better pesticide exposure histories will undoubtedly lead to a more thorough understanding of the role of the polymorphisms involved in the dopamine pathway in PD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Metals are involved in several important functions in the nervous system. Zinc and iron are increased and copper is decreased in the substantia nigra in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, epidemiological evidence for the association of dietary intake of metals with the risk of PD is limited. We investigated the relationship between metal consumption and the risk of PD in Japan using data from a multicenter hospital-based case-control study. Included were 249 cases within 6 years of onset of PD based on the UK PD Society Brain Bank clinical diagnostic criteria. Controls were 368 inpatients and outpatients without a neurodegenerative disease. Information on dietary factors was collected using a self-administered diet history questionnaire. Higher intake of iron, magnesium, and zinc was independently associated with a reduced risk of PD: the adjusted OR in the highest quartile was 0.24 (95% CI: 0.10-0.57, P for trend=0.0003) for iron, 0.33 (95% CI: 0.13-0.81, P for trend=0.007) for magnesium and 0.50 (95% CI: 0.26-0.95, P for trend=0.055) for zinc. There were no relationships between the intake of copper or manganese and the risk of PD. Higher intake of iron, magnesium, and zinc may be protective against PD.
Journal of the neurological sciences 07/2011; 306(1-2):98-102. DOI:10.1016/j.jns.2011.03.035 · 2.47 Impact Factor