Tao Zhang

Third Military Medical University, Ch’ung-ch’ing-shih, Chongqing Shi, China

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Publications (113)277.9 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Although levels of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in human blood are well documented, information on elimination of these chemicals is limited. In this study, PFOS and PFOA were analyzed in 81 whole blood-urine paired samples from general adults and pregnant women in Tianjin, China. PFOS and PFOA were detected in 48 and 76 % of adult urine (AU) samples, with geometric mean (GM) concentrations of 0.011 and 0.008 ng/mL, respectively; whereas relatively low PFOS and PFOA concentrations were found in maternal urine (MU) samples, with GM concentrations of 0.006 and 0.003 ng/mL, respectively. For PFOA, the coefficients of Pearson's correlation between whole blood concentrations and creatinine-adjusted and creatinine-unadjusted urinary concentrations were 0.348 (p = 0.013) and 0.417 (p = 0.002), respectively. The GM urinary elimination rates of PFOS (PFOSUER) and PFOA (PFOAUER) were 16 and 25 %, respectively, for adults. These results indicate that urine is an important pathway of excretion of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). The partitioning ratios of PFAS concentration between urine and whole blood (PFASU/B) in pregnant women (PFOSU/B, 0.0004; PFOAU/B, 0.0011) were significantly lower (p = 0.025 for PFOSU/B, p = 0.017 for PFOAU/B) than the ratios found in non-pregnant women (PFOSU/B, 0.0013; PFOAU/B, 0.0028). Furthermore, our results suggest a clear gender difference in the urinary elimination of PFOA, with male adults (31 %) having significantly higher PFOAUER than that of female adults (19 %). PFOSUER was significantly inversely correlated with age (r = -0.334, p = 0.015); these findings suggest that urinary elimination of PFOS is faster in young adults than in the elderly.
    Environmental science and pollution research international. 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies suggest that genetic factors contribute to the pathogenesis of sporadic Alzheimer's disease (sAD). Glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (GSK 3β) is an important molecule which regulates tau phosphorylation and neurofibrillary tangles formation. GSK 3β gene may be a potential candidate gene for the risk of sAD. To investigate the association of the polymorphisms in GSK 3β gene with sAD, we conducted a case-control study in a southern Chinese Han cohort including 302 sAD patients and 315 control participants. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs3732361, rs56728675, rs60393216, and rs334558) within the promoter region of GSK 3β gene were selected and genotyped with a polymerase chain reaction-ligase detection (PCR-LDR) method. Logistic regression was used to analyze the association between target SNPs and the risk of sAD. After adjusting for age, sex, and APOE ε4 status, no association was revealed between these SNPs and sAD (P > 0.05). The SNPs in the selected regions of GSK 3β gene are unlikely to confer the susceptibility of sAD in southern Chinese Han population. Further studies with a larger sample size and different ethnic populations are needed to reveal the role of SNPs of GSK 3β gene in the pathogenesis of sAD.
    Neurotoxicity Research 08/2014; · 2.87 Impact Factor
  • Lei An, Tao Zhang
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    ABSTRACT: Our previous studies showed that chronic melamine exposure could affect hippocampal synaptic plasticity and impair learning and memory on adult rats. In this study, we investigated whether prenatal melamine exposure (PME) induced cognitive deficits and impairment of synaptic plasticity in postnatal offspring. An animal model was produced by melamine exposure throughout gestational period with 400mg/kg/day, while male offspring rats were employed. Rats' performance in Morris water maze (MWM) was tested to evaluate learning and memory. To examine the variations of paired-pulse facilitation (PPF) and synaptic plasticity, field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) were recorded in hippocampal CA1 by stimulating Schaffer collaterals path. The result showed that PME probably impaired spatial learning and memory. The fEPSPs amplitudes of LTP were much lower and the PPF ratio was significantly higher in PME group than controls. These data suggested that PME impaired hippocampal synaptic function, which was partly involved in spatial cognition impairments.
    Reproductive toxicology (Elmsford, N.Y.). 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Per- and poly-fluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have been widely detected in the hydrosphere. The knowledge on the distribution and composition patterns of PFAS analogues with different chain length significantly contribute to their source analysis. In the present study, a regional scale investigation of PFASs in surface river waters and adjacent ground waters was carried out in two cities of China with potential contamination, Tianjin and Weifang. A total of 31 water samples were collected, and 20 PFASs therein were measured by a high-performance liquid chromatograph-tandem mass spectrometer (HPLC-MS/MS). The possible sources of PFASs in the aquatic environment were assessed primarily by concentration patterns as well as hierarchical cluster analysis. In all 4 rivers investigated in the two cities, perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) were the dominant compounds contributing over 70% of the PFASs detected. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was the dominant PFCA with a concentration range of 8.58-20.3ng/L in Tianjin and 6.37-25.9ng/L in Weifang, respectively. On the average, the highest concentration was observed in samples from Dagu Drainage Canal (Dagu) in Tianjin and those short-chain PFASs (C4-C6) was detected with a comparable level of the longer-chain PFASs (>C6). Specifically, perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) was dominant in the short-chain analogues. This indicates that a remarkably increasing input of short-chain PFASs might be related to wastewater treatment plant effluent or industrial discharges, which could be possibly due to the switch of manufacturing to short-chain products. In Weifang, precipitation and subsequent surface runoff as non-point sources could be significant inputs of PFASs into surface water while groundwater was possibly subjected to severe point sources with ∑PFASs concentration up to ~100ng/L. The inconsistent distribution patterns in groundwater suggest complicated pathways of contamination.
    Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 08/2014; 108C:318-328. · 2.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The incidence of cardiac damage is high during acute cerebral hemorrhage. The animal data on the relationship between cerebral apoplexy and cardiac damage are lacking. Thus, the aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of cerebral hemorrhage on plasma concentrations of monoamine transmitter noradrenalin (NA), creatine kinase muscle and brain (CK-MB) isoenzyme fraction, and cardiomyocyte changes in the rat model. In this study, 140 Wistar rats were randomly and equally divided into experimental and control groups, and collagenase was injected into the right caudate nucleus to induce cerebral hemorrhage in the experimental group. Plasma NA was analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection and serum CK-MB was measured by enzyme reaction rate method. We found that both NA and CK-MB were elevated (p < 0.05) at 6 h after cerebral hematoma formation; the levels were 2.46 ± 0.05 μg/L and 3.51 ± 0.23 μkat/L, respectively. NA and CK-MB concentrations reached peak levels at 24 h which were found to be 3.52 ± 0.06 μg/L and 5.47 ± 0.49 μkat/L, respectively. Thereafter, NA and CK-MB concentrations decreased gradually. Plasma NA declined to the preoperative level (1.66 ± 0.03 μg/L) at 72 h, while CK-MB level (2.71 ± 0.17 μkat/L) was found to be still higher than its preoperative level. It was, therefore, concluded that plasma NA might be involved in the induction and development of cardiomyocytes damage during cerebral hemorrhage.
    Cell biochemistry and biophysics. 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of the study was to investigate the neurotoxic effect of multi - walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on the properties of glutamatergic synaptic transmission in rat's hippocampal slices using whole - cell patch clamp technique. The amplitude and frequency of excitatory postsynaptic current (EPSC) were accessed on the hippocampal pyramidal neurons. The alterations of glutamatergic synaptic transmission in CA3 - CA1 were examined by measuring both the amplitude of evoked excitatory postsynaptic current (eEPSC) and paired - pulse ratio (PPR). The data showed that the amplitude of either spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic current (sEPSC) or miniature excitatory postsynaptic current (mEPSC) was significantly inhibited by 1μg/ml MWCNTs. However, it was found that there was a trend of different change on the frequency index. When 1μg/ml MWCNTs was applied, there were a decreased frequency of mEPSC and an increased frequency of sEPSC, which might be due to the effect of action potential. Furthermore, the amplitudes of eEPSC at CA3 - CA1 synapses were remarkably decreased. And the mean amplitude of AMPAR - mediated eEPSC was significantly reduced as well. Meanwhile, a majority of PPRs data were greater than one. There were no significant differences of PPRs between control and MWCNTs states, but an increased trend of paired - pulse facilitation was found. These results suggested that MWCNT markedly inhibited hippocampal CA1 glutamatergic synaptic transmission in vitro, which provided new insights into the MWCNT toxicology on CNS at cellular level.
    Toxicology Letters 07/2014; · 3.15 Impact Factor
  • Lei An, Tao Zhang
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    ABSTRACT: Albeit the pathogenesis of cognitive impairment after exposure to melamine has not been fully elucidated, factors such as oxidative stress is thought to play potential roles. In the present study, we investigated the effect of treatment with vitamin C (150mg/kg) and vitamin E (200mg/kg) on the impairment induced by melamine. Three-week old male Wistar rats were submitted to oral gavage with 300mg/kg melamine in 1% carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) for 28 days (MEL-SAL group). After treatment with melamine, animals received administration of a combination of vitamin C and vitamin E once a day for 7 days (MEL-VIT group). Both control (CT-SAL) group and pair-fed (CT-VIT) group received the same dosage of CMC and vitamin complex, respectively. Melamine-treated rats presented a marked decrease in learning and memory in the Morris water maze (MWM) as well as a reduced efficiency to find the platform in the reversal learning task. The rats treated with vitamins E and C had part of the above effects rescued in MWM tests, with mitigating the melamine-induced deficit in the learning and memory but slightly improving the reversal learning ability. The vitamins C plus E regimen mitigated melamine-induced impairment of hippocampal synaptic plasticity. It showed that the modulation of oxidative stress with vitamins E and C reduced melamine-induced damage. The data suggested that there was a novel therapeutic strategy to the cognitive dysfunction observed in melamine-induced neuropathy.
    NeuroToxicology 06/2014; · 2.65 Impact Factor
  • Tao Zhang, Xiaolei Qin
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, we estimated the body burden (BB) of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in a fetus at the time of delivery, and elimination of PFASs in female adults during pregnancy; and explored the isomer branching pattern-related placental transfer of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). The mean BB of PFASs were 3980 ng for PFOS and 2320 ng for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), therefore, the average daily exposure doses via placental transfer were estimated to be 13.7 and 8.32 ng per day for PFOS and PFOA, respectively, by dividing the BB of PFASs by gestational age. The total daily elimination of PFOS and PFOA in female adults through pregnancy was 30.1 and 11.4 ng per day, which indicates that pregnancy and child birth may reduce the PFASs levels in female adults. Further, branched PFOS was more readily transferred through the placenta than linear PFOS.
    Environmental science. Processes & impacts. 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: This study has identified a gene mutation in a Chinese family with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Family members were screened by a set of medical examinations and neuropsychological tests. Their DNA was extracted from blood cells and sequenced for gene mutation in the amyloid precursor protein (APP), the presenilin 1 (PS1) and the presenilin 2 (PS2) genes. Genetic analysis showed that the AD patients in the family harbored a T to G missense mutation at the position 314 in exon 4 of the PS1 gene, resulting in a change of F105C in amino acid sequence. Clinical manifestation of these patients included memory loss, counting difficulty, personality change, disorientation, dyscalculia, agnosia, aphasia, and apraxia, which was similar to that of the familial AD (FAD) patients harboring other PS1 mutations. We intend to add a novel mutation F105C of the PS1 gene to the pool of FAD mutations. With the current available genetic data, mutations of the PS1 gene account for the majority of gene mutations in Chinese FAD.
    Neurotoxicity Research 04/2014; · 2.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the angiographic characteristics and clinical features in patients with suspected extra-intracranial atherosclerosis in a large cohort of Chinese population. On the basis of digital subtraction angiography characteristics, pathological morphology of extra-intracranial atherosclerosis was divided into tortuosity, kinking, coiling, and stenosis in 2,218 individuals aged 45-89 years. The degree of stenosis was further divided into low-grade (<30 %), intermediate-grade (30-69 %), and high-grade stenosis (≥70 %). Clinical manifestations were divided into transient ischemic attack, cerebral infarction and cerebral hemorrhage. The prevalence of tortuosity and stenosis were significantly higher in the extracranial arterial system than that of intracranial arterial system. The prevalence of tortuosity and kinking were significantly higher on the left side than the right side. The prevalence of mild and moderate stenosis in the internal carotid artery was significantly higher in the left side than the right side. The incidence of cerebral infarction was significantly higher in the internal carotid arterial (ICA) system than the vertebrobasilar arterial (VBA) system. Tortuosity is a common carotid abnormality in the Chinese population. The prevalence of ICA tortuosity is higher than that of VBA. The incidence of cerebral infarction in each atherosclerosis group was significantly higher in ICA than that of VBA. The prevalence of stroke is higher in the ICA system than the VBA system. Kinkings and coilings may not have a clinical significance if these lesions are not associated with atheromatous plaques or carotid stenosis.
    Cell biochemistry and biophysics 02/2014; · 3.34 Impact Factor
  • Xichao Mi, Ning Cheng, Tao Zhang
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    ABSTRACT: Background General partial directed coherence (gPDC) and permutation conditional mutual information (PCMI) have been widely used to analyse neural activities. These two algorithms are representative of linear and nonlinear methods, respectively. However, there is little known about the difference between their performances in measurements of neural information flow (NIF). New Method Comparison of these two approaches was effectively performed based on the neural mass model (NMM) and real local field potentials. Results The results showed that the sensitivity of PCMI was more robust than that of gPDC. The coupling strengths calculated by PCMI were closer to theoretical values in the bidirectional mode of NMM. Furthermore, there was a small Coefficient of Variance (C.V.) for the PCMI results. The gPDC was more sensitive to alterations in the directionality index or the coupling strength of NMM; the gPDC method was more likely to detect a difference between two distinct types of coupling strengths compared to that of PCMI, and gPDC performed well in the identification of the coupling strength in the unidirectional mode. Comparison to Existing Method(s) A comparison between gPDC and PCMI was performed and the advantages of the approaches are discussed. Conclusions The performance of the PCMI is better than that of gPDC in measuring the characteristics of connectivity between neural populations. However, gPDC is recommended to distinguish the differences in connectivity between two states in the same pathway or to detect the coupling strength of the unidirectional mode, such as the hippocampal CA3–CA1 pathway.
    Journal of neuroscience methods 01/2014; · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although China is the largest producer of fireworks (perchlorate-containing products) in the world, the pathways through which perchlorate enters the environment have not been characterized completely in this country. In this study, perchlorate, iodide and thiocyanate were measured in 101 water samples, including waste water, surface water, sea water and paired samples of rain water and surface runoff collected in Tianjin, China. The concentrations of the target anions were generally on the order of rain>surface water≈waste water treatment plant (WWTP) influent>WWTP effluent. High concentrations of perchlorate, iodide and thiocyanate were detected in rain samples, ranging from 0.35 to 27.3 (median: 4.05), 0.51 to 8.33 (2.92), and 1.31 to 107 (5.62) ngmL(-)(1), respectively. Furthermore, the concentrations of the target anions in rain samples were significantly (r=0.596-0.750, p<0.01) positively correlated with the concentrations obtained in the paired surface runoff samples. The anions tested showed a clear spatial distribution, and higher concentrations were observed in the upper reaches of rivers, sea waters near the coast, and rain-surface runoff pairs sampled in urban areas. Our results revealed that precipitation may act as an important source of perchlorate, iodide and thiocyanate in surface water. Moreover, iodide concentrations in the Haihe River and Dagu Drainage Canal showed a good correlation with an ideal marker (acesulfame) of domestic waste water, indicating that input from domestic waste water was an important source of iodide in the surface waters of Tianjin.
    Chemosphere 01/2014; 111:201–208. · 3.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has recently been proved to be a potential therapeutic drug in ischemic disorders depending on the dose, route and time of administration, especially in focal cerebral ischemia. Whether VEGF could exert protection in a long-term total cerebral ischemic model is still uncertain, and the cellular mechanism has not been clarified so far. In order to answer the above issue, an experiment was performed in non-invasively giving exogenous VEGF to a total cerebral ischemic model rats and examining their spatial cognitive function by performing Morris water maze and long-term potential test. Moreover, we performed in vitro experiment to explore the cellular mechanism of VEGF protection effect. In an in vitro ischemia model oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD), whole-cell patch-clamp recording was employed to examine neuronal function. Additionally, hematoxylin-eosin and propidium iodide staining were applied in vivo and in vitro in the neuropathological and viability study, separately. Our results showed that intranasal administration of VEGF could improve the cognitive function, synaptic plasticity and damaged hippocampal neurons in a global cerebral ischemia model. In addition, VEGF could retain the membrane potential, neuronal excitability and spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents in the early stage of ischemia, which further demonstrated that there was an acute effect of VEGF in OGD-induced pyramidal neurons. Simultaneously, it was also found that the death of CA1 pyramidal neuronal was significantly reduced by VEGF, but there was no similar effect in VEGF coexists with SU5416 group. These results indicated that VEGF could ameliorate cognitive impairment and synaptic plasticity via improving neuronal viability and function through acting on VEGFR-2.
    Neuromolecular medicine 12/2013; · 5.00 Impact Factor
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    Lei An, Zhigui Li, Tao Zhang
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Due to its high nitrogen content, melamine was deliberately added to raw milk for increasing the apparent protein content. Previous studies showed that melamine induced apoptosis and oxidative damage on PC12 cells and rats' hippocampus. Several evidences suggested that vitamin antioxidant reduced oxidative stress and improved organic function. Whether treatments with antioxidant vitamins C or E, otherwise combination of them can attenuate oxidative stress after melamine administration remains to be elucidated. In this study, the reversible effects of vitamin antioxidants was investigated on melamine-induced neurotoxicity in cultured PC12 cells, an in vitro model of neuronal cells. Comparison of vitamin C or E, the combination of both vitamin C and E was statistically increased PC12 cells viability. The results further showed that vitamin complex was effectively reduced the formation of reaction oxygen species (ROS), decreased the level of MDA and elevated the activities of antioxidative enzymes. Hoechst 33342 staining and flow cytometric analysis of apoptosis showed that vitamin combination treatment effectively prevented PC12 cells from this melamine-induced apoptosis. It revealed the apoptotic nuclear features of the melamine-induced cell death. Additionally, a combination treatment of vitamins effectively inhibited apoptosis via blocking the increased activation of caspase-3. In summary, the vitamin E and C combination treatment could rescue PC12 cells from the injury induced by melamine through the down-regulation of oxidative stress and prevention of melamine-induced apoptosis.
    Free Radical Research 11/2013; · 3.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The infection of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is closely associated with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), in which HBV X protein (HBx) plays crucial roles. MicroRNAs are involved in diverse biologic functions and in carcinogenesis by regulating gene expression. In the present study, we aim to investigate the underlying mechanism by which HBx enhances hepatocarcinogenesis. We found that miR-205 was downregulated in 33 clinical HCC tissues in comparison with adjacent noncancerous hepatic tissues. The expression levels of miR-205 were inversely correlated with those of HBx in abovementioned tissues. Then, we demonstrated that HBx was able to suppress miR-205 expression in hepatoma and liver cells. We validated that miR-205 directly targeted HBx mRNA. Ectopic expression of miR-205 downregulated HBx, whereas depletion of endogenous miR-205 upregulated HBx in hepatoma cells. Notably, our data revealed that HBx downregulated miR-205 through inducing hypermethylation of miR-205 promoter in the cells. In terms of function, the forced miR-205 expression remarkably inhibited the HBx-enhanced proliferation of hepatoma cells in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that miR-205 is a potential tumor-suppressive gene in HCC. HBx-transgenic mice showed that miR-205 was downregulated in the liver. Importantly, HBx was able to abrogate the effect of miR-205 on tumor suppression in carcinogenesis. Therefore, we conclude that HBx is able to inhibit tumor suppressor miR-205 to enhance hepatocarcinogenesis through inducing hypermethylation of miR-205 promoter during their interaction. Therapeutically, miR-205 may be useful in the treatment of HCC.
    Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.) 11/2013; 15(11):1282-91. · 5.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the effects of diammonium glycyrrhizinate (Gly) on portal hypertension (PHT) in isolated portal perfused rat liver (IPPRL) with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced chronic hepatitis. PHT model was replicated with CCl4 in rats for 84 d. Model was identified by measuring the ascetic amounts, hepatic function, portal pressure in vivo, splenic index, and pathological alterations. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in liver was assessed by immunohistochemistry. IPPRLs were performed at d0, d28, d56, and d84. After phenylephrine-induced constriction, Gly was geometrically used to reduce PHT. Gly action was expressed as median effective concentration (EC50) and area under the curve (AUC). Underlying mechanism was exploited by linear correlation between AUC values of Gly and existed iNOS in portal triads. PHT model was confirmed with ascites, splenomegaly, serum biomarkers of hepatic injury, and elevated portal pressure. Pathological findings had shown normal hepatic structure at d0, degenerations at d28, fibrosis at d56, cirrhosis at d84 in PHT rats. Pseudo lobule ratios decreased and collagen ratios increased progressively along with PHT development. Gly does dose-dependently reduce PHT in IPPRLs with CCl4-induced chronic hepatitis. Gly potencies were increased gradually along with PHT development, characterized with its EC50 at 2.80 × 10(-10), 3.03 × 10(-11), 3.77 × 10(-11) and 4.65×10(-11) mol/L at d0, d28, d56 and d84, respectively. Existed iNOS was located at hepatocyte at d0, stellate cells at d28, stellate cells and macrophages at d56, and macrophages in portal triads at d84. Macrophages infiltrated more into portal triads and expressed more iNOS along with PHT development. AUC values of Gly were positively correlated with existed iNOS levels in portal triads. Gly reduces indirectly PHT in IPPRL with CCl4-induced chronic hepatitis. The underlying mechanisms may relate to rescue NO bioavailability from macrophage-derived peroxynitrite in portal triads.
    World Journal of Gastroenterology 09/2013; 19(36):6069-6076. · 2.55 Impact Factor
  • Lei An, Tao Zhang
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    ABSTRACT: Prenatal ethanol exposure can lead to long-lasting impairments in the ability of rats to process spatial information, as well as produce long-lasting deficits in long-term potentiation (LTP), a biological model of learning and memory processing. The present study aimed to examine the sexually dimorphic effects of chronic prenatal ethanol exposure (CPEE) on behavior cognition and synaptic plasticity balance (SPB), and tried to understand a possible mechanism by evaluating the alternation of SPB. The animal model was produced by ethanol exposure throughout gestational period with 4g/kg bodyweight. Offspring of both male and female were selected and studied on postnatal days 36. Subsequently, the data showed that chronic ethanol exposure resulted in birth weight reduction, losing bodyweight gain, microcephaly and hippocampus weight retardation. In Morris water maze (MWM) test, escape latencies were significantly higher in CPEE-treated rats than that in control ones. They also spent much less time in the target quadrant compared to that of control animals in the probe phase. In addition, it was found that there was a more severe impairment in females than that in males after CPEE treatment. Electrophysiological studies showed that CPEE considerably inhibited hippocampal LTP and facilitated depotentiation in males, while significantly enhanced LTP and suppressed depotentiation in females. A novel index, developed by us, showed that the action of CPEE on SPB was more sensitive in females than that in males, suggesting that it might be an effective index to distinguish the difference of SPB impairment between males and females.
    Behavioural brain research 09/2013; · 3.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Carotid artery atherosclerosis may cause increased intima-media thickness (IMT), plaque formation, and vessel stenosis or occlusion. However, the association between carotid artery atherosclerosis and cognitive impairment remains uncertain. This study explored the effects of IMT and carotid artery stenosis on cognitive function in an elderly Chinese non-stroke population. A total of 2015 patients were recruited. The IMT of carotid arteries and the presence of plaques and stenosis in carotid arteries were assessed with B-mode ultrasound examination. Cognitive performance was evaluated with neuropsychological tests. The cross-sectional relationships between cognitive performance and carotid wall characteristics were analyzed. Carotid artery atherosclerosis (IMT>1.0) and stenosis were found in 86% and 51% of patients, respectively. Cognitive impairment was found in 356 (17.7%) patients. After adjustment for possible confounders, IMT (odds ratio [OR]=1.96; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.23-3.16) and hyperdense plaque (OR=4.72; 95% CI 2.56-11.2) were associated with poor cognitive performance. Patients with severe (⩾70%) carotid artery stenosis had a lower Mini-Mental State Examination score compared with the mild to modest (40-70%) carotid artery stenosis group. Cognitive performance differed between patients with left and right carotid artery stenosis, but no differences were observed between patients with severe left and right carotid artery stenosis. This study indicates that carotid artery atherosclerosis is correlated with cognitive impairment in the elderly Chinese population. A larger sample size across multiple centers and a longitudinal study are required to further explore the impact of carotid artery atherosclerosis on cognition in the elderly population.
    Journal of Clinical Neuroscience 08/2013; · 1.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although levels of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in human maternal and neonatal blood have been widely reported in the literature, maternal-fetal transmission of PFASs with carbon chain length is presently not well understood. In this study, 11 PFASs were analyzed in matched samples, including not only maternal blood (MB, n = 31) and cord blood (CB, n = 30), but also placenta (n = 29), and amniotic fluid (AF, n = 29). Except for perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), the detection frequencies of PFASs were similar among placenta, MB, and CB (> 80% for 8 PFASs, non-detectable for 2 PFASs). Though only perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was frequently detected (> 90%) in AF, with a median concentration of 0.043 ng/mL, other 5 PFASs were also detectable in AF samples with low concentrations (mean: 0.013 to 0.191 ng/mL). This suggests that in addition to blood borne in utero exposure, the fetus is also exposed to low levels of PFASs through AF. Concentrations of PFOA in AF were positively correlated with those in MB (r = 0.738, p < 0.01) and CB (r = 0.683, p < 0.001), suggesting that AF concentration could reflect fetal PFOA exposure during pregnancy and can be used as a biomarker. To clarify the effects of carbon chain length on maternal transfer of PFASs, we calculated maternal transfer efficiencies of PFASs from MB to CB (TMB-CB). A U-shaped trend in TMB-CB of C7-C12 perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) with increasing carbon chain length was found in this study for the first time. The U-shaped TMB-CB of PFCAs with carbon chain length is an integrated result of opposite trend of the ratios between MB/placenta and placenta/CB based on carbon chain length. This is the first study to report the occurrence of PFASs in human placenta. The results reported here enabled better understanding of the maternal-fetal transmission of PFASs.
    Environmental Science & Technology 06/2013; · 5.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Limited information exists on the exposure of benzophenone (BP)-type UV filters (i.e., sunscreen compounds) in children, adults, and pregnant women in China. In this study, we determined the concentrations of five BP derivatives, BP-1, BP-2, BP-3, BP-8, and 4OH-BP in urine (n=101) as well as paired specimens of blood and urine (n=24 pairs) collected from adults; in matched maternal and fetal cord blood (n=20 pairs) collected from pregnant women; and in blood collected from children (n=10). 4OH-BP, BP-1, and BP-3 were found in 61%, 57%, and 25%, respectively, of the urine samples analyzed. 4OH-BP was found in all blood samples; BP-3 was found more frequently in the blood of adults (83%), followed, in decreasing order, by pregnant women (35%) and children (30%). Among all adults, urinary BP-3 concentrations were significantly (p<0.001) positively correlated with urinary BP-1 concentrations. Nevertheless, no significant correlations were found between urinary concentrations of BP-3 (or BP-1) and 4OH-BP. Our results suggest that human exposure to BP-3 and BP-1 is related, whereas 4OH-BP originates from a discrete source. Females had higher urinary concentrations of BP-3, BP-1 and 4OH-BP than males. The distribution profiles of BP-1 and its parent compound (i.e., BP-3) in urine decreased with increasing age of donors (p<0.05). The ratio of concentrations of BP-3 between blood and urine was 0.21 in adults, which was significantly lower than that for 4OH-BP (0.36). The concentration ratio of BPs between cord blood and maternal blood was higher for 4OH-BP (0.61) than that for BP-3 (0.48), which suggested greater trans-placental transfer potential of 4OH-BP. This is the first study to document the occurrence of BPs in paired urine and blood, and in matched maternal and fetal cord blood.
    Science of The Total Environment 05/2013; 461-462C:49-55. · 3.16 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

826 Citations
277.90 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2014
    • Third Military Medical University
      Ch’ung-ch’ing-shih, Chongqing Shi, China
    • Sun Yat-Sen University
      • School of Environmental Science and Engineering
      Shengcheng, Guangdong, China
  • 2005–2014
    • Nankai University
      • • College of Life Sciences
      • • School of Medicine
      • • Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials
      T’ien-ching-shih, Tianjin Shi, China
  • 2013
    • Tianjin University
      T’ien-ching-shih, Tianjin Shi, China
  • 2010–2012
    • Peking Union Medical College Hospital
      Peping, Beijing, China
    • New York State Department of Health
      • Wadsworth Center
      New York City, NY, United States
  • 2009
    • University at Albany, The State University of New York
      New York City, New York, United States
    • Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro
      Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
  • 2007
    • University of Birmingham
      • Group of Medical Science and Education
      Birmingham, ENG, United Kingdom