[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glioma is the most common malignant primary brain tumor among adults, among which glioblastoma (GBM) exhibits the highest malignancy. Despite current standard chemoradiation, glioma is still invariably fatal. A further insight into the molecular background of glioma is required to improve patient outcomes.
Previous studies evaluated molecular genetic differences through comparing different grades of glioma. Here, we integrated DNA methylation, RNA sequencing and protein expression data sets of WHO grade II to IV gliomas, to screen for dysregulated genes in subtypes during malignant progression of glioma.
We propose a list of universal genes (UG) as novel glioma biomarkers: 977 up-regulated genes and 114 down-regulated genes, who involved in cell cycle, Wnt receptor signaling pathway and fatty acid metabolic process. Poorer survival was associated significantly with the high expression of 977 up-regulated genes and low expression of 114 down-regulated in UG (P <0.001).
To our knowledge, this was the first study that focused on subtypes to detect dysregulated genes that could contribute to malignant progression. Furthermore, the differentially expressed genes profile may lead to the identification of new therapeutic targets for glioma patients.
Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research 12/2015; 34(1). DOI:10.1186/s13046-015-0249-z · 4.43 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gliomas, the most common primary brain tumors, are characterized by isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 mutation (IDH1-M). High mutation frequency of IDH1 indicates it's promoting role in tumorgenesis. However, the observation that patients with IDH1-M have better survival comparing with patients with IDH1 wild-type (IDH1-W) suggests that this alteration has other significant beneficial features for patients. Currently, temozolomide (TMZ) is a standard of care for patients which play a major role in DNA methylation that is similar with the role of IDH1-M in genome-wide methylation. In this study, we collected 323 gliomas samples with genome-wide methylation microarray, 502 samples with genome-wide mRNA expression microarray and 295 samples with RNA-seq. By significance analysis of microarray (SAM), we identified 18 genes which are hypermethylation and low expression in samples with IDH1-M comparing with IDH1-W (FDR<0.01). Furthermore, 18 candidate genes were downregulated in TMZ-treated samples. Finally, we obtained two candidate genes, F3 and RBP1. Survival analysis showed that hypermethylation or low expression of the two genes indicated a favorable prognosis, which was consistent with IDH1-M and administration of TMZ in glioma patients. F3 and RBP1 were further validated by qPCR on an independent validation cohort containing 145 samples. Our data suggest that these candidate genes were suppressed by TMZ or IDH1-M induced hypermethylation, resulting in the favorable prognosis of patients with gliomas.
American Journal of Cancer Research 11/2015; 5(9):2745-2755. · 4.17 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDH) is a family of enzymes including 19 members. For now, ALDH activity had been wildly used as a marker of cancer stem cells (CSCs). But biological functions of relevant isoforms and their clinical applications are still controversial. Here, we investigate the clinical significance and potential function of ALDH1A3 in gliomas. By whole-genome transcriptome microarray and mRNA sequencing analysis, we compared the expression of ALDH1A3 in high- and low- grade gliomas as well as different molecular subtypes. Microarray analysis was performed to identify the correlated genes of ALDH1A3. We further used Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways analysis to explore the biological function of ALDH1A3. Finally, by mRNA knockdown we revealed the relationship between ALDH1A3 and the ability of tumor invasion. ALDH1A3 overexpression was significantly associated with high grade as well as the higher mortality of gliomas in survival analysis. ALDH1A3 was characteristically highly expressed in Mesenchymal (Mes) subtype gliomas. Moreover, we found that ALDH1A3 was most relevant to extracellular matrix organization and cell adhesion biological process, and the ability of tumor invasion was suppressed after ALDH1A3 knockdown in vitro. In conclusion, ALDH1A3 can serve as a novel marker of Mes phenotype in gliomas with potential clinical prognostic value. The expression of ALDH1A3 is associated with tumor cell invasion.
PLoS ONE 11/2015; 10(11):e0142856. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0142856 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
The relative contribution of isocitrate dehydrogenase mutations (mIDH) and O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase promoter methylation (methMGMT) as biomarkers in glioblastoma remain poorly understood.
We investigated the association between methMGMT and mIDH with progression free survival and overall survival in a prospectively collected molecular registry of 274 glioblastoma patients.
For glioblastoma patients who underwent Temozolomide and Radiation Therapy, OS and PFS was most favorable for those with tumors harboring both mIDH and methMGMT (median OS: 35.8 mo, median PFS: 27.5 mo); patients afflicted glioblastomas with either mIDH or methMGMT exhibited intermediate OS and PFS (mOS: 36 and 17.1 mo; mPFS: 12.2 mo and 9.9 mo, respectively); poorest OS and PFS was observed in wild type IDH1 (wtIDH1) glioblastomas that were MGMT promoter unmethylated (mOS: 15 mo, mPFS: 9.7 mo). For patients with wtIDH glioblastomas, TMZ+RT was associated with improved OS and PFS relative to patients treated with RT (OS: 15.4 mo v 9.6 mo, p < 0.001; PFS: 9.9 mo v 6.5 mo, p < 0.001). While TMZ+RT and RT treated mIDH patients exhibited improved overall survival relative to those with wtIDH, there were no differences between the TMZ+RT or RT group. These results suggest that mIDH1 conferred resistance to TMZ. Supporting this hypothesis, exogenous expression of mIDH1 in independent astrocytoma/glioblastoma lines resulted in a 3-10 fold increase in TMZ resistance after long-term passage.
Our study demonstrates IDH mutation and MGMT promoter methylation status independently associate with favorable outcome in TMZ+RT treated glioblastoma patients. However, these biomarkers differentially impact clinical TMZ response.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The clinical prognosis of patients with glioma is determined by tumor grades, but tumors of different subtypes with equal malignancy grade usually have different prognosis that is largely determined by genetic abnormalities. Oligodendrogliomas (ODs) are the second most common type of gliomas. In this study, integrative analyses found that distribution of TCGA transcriptomic subtypes was associated with grade progression in ODs. To identify critical gene(s) associated with tumor grades and TCGA subtypes, we analyzed 34 normal brain tissue (NBT), 146 WHO grade II and 130 grade III ODs by microarray and RNA sequencing, and identified a co-expression network of six genes (AURKA, NDC80, CENPK, KIAA0101, TIMELESS and MELK) that was associated with tumor grades and TCGA subtypes as well as Ki-67 expression. Validation of the six genes was performed by qPCR in additional 28 ODs. Importantly, these genes also were validated in four high-grade recurrent gliomas and the initial lower-grade gliomas resected from the same patients. Finally, the RNA data on two genes with the highest discrimination potential (AURKA and NDC80) and Ki-67 were validated on an independent cohort (5 NBTs and 86 ODs) by immunohistochemistry. Knockdown of AURKA and NDC80 by siRNAs suppressed Ki-67 expression and proliferation of gliomas cells. Survival analysis showed that high expression of the six genes corporately indicated a poor survival outcome. Correlation and protein interaction analysis provided further evidence for this co-expression network. These data suggest that the co-expression of the six mitosis-regulating genes was associated with malignant progression and prognosis in ODs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Resistance to temozolomide poses a major clinical challenge in glioblastoma multiforme treatment, and the mechanisms underlying the development of temozolomide resistance remain poorly understood. Enhanced DNA repair and mutagenesis can allow tumour cells to survive, contributing to resistance and tumour recurrence. Here, using recurrent temozolomide-refractory glioblastoma specimens, temozolomide-resistant cells, and resistant-xenograft models, we report that loss of miR-29c via c-Myc drives the acquisition of temozolomide resistance through enhancement of REV3L-mediated DNA repair and mutagenesis in glioblastoma. Importantly, disruption of c-Myc/miR-29c/REV3L signalling may have dual anticancer effects, sensitizing the resistant tumours to therapy as well as preventing the emergence of acquired temozolomide resistance. Our findings suggest a rationale for targeting the c-Myc/miR-29c/REV3L signalling pathway as a promising therapeutic approach for glioblastoma, even in recurrent, treatment-refractory settings.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The dengue virus (DENV) envelope protein domain III (ED3) has been suggested to contain receptor recognition sites and the critical neutralizing epitopes. Up to date, relatively little work has been done on fine mapping of neutralizing epitopes on ED3 for DENV4. In this study, a novel mouse type-specific neutralizing antibody 1G6 against DENV4 was obtained with both prophylactic and therapeutic effects. The epitope was mapped to residues 387-390 of DENV4 envelope protein. Furthermore, site-directed mutagenesis assay identified two critical residues (T388 and H390). The epitope is variable among different DENV serotypes but is highly conserved among four DENV4 genotypes. Affinity measurement showed that naturally occurring variations in ED3 outside the epitope region did not alter the binding of mAb 1G6. These findings expand our understanding of the interactions between neutralizing antibodies and the DENV4 and may be valuable for rational design of DENV vaccines and antiviral drugs.
PLoS ONE 10/2015; 10(10):e0139741. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0139741 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We recorded motor cortical activity using high- density electrocorticogram (ECoG) from three patients during awake craniotomy. Subjects repeatedly executed hand flexion/extension tasks according to auditory instructions. Clear event-related desynchronization (ERD) in beta band (8-32) Hz and event-related synchronization (ERS) in gamma band (60-200) Hz were observed. High frequency band (HFB: 60-200 Hz) activation was found to be more localized compared to low frequency band (LFB: 8-32 Hz) activation in all subjects. Local spatial correlation maps in LFB and HFB were constructed by computing the correlation between channels. Local spatial correlation dropped more in the ERD/ERS areas consistently in two subjects. The results indicate that ERD/ERS patterns are more spatially uncorrelated and denser ECoG electrode is necessary within these areas to map uncorrelated ‘sources’. High resolution electrodes might improve both clinical functional mapping and brain machine interface outcomes in the near future.
37TH ANNUAL INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE OF THE IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society; 08/2015
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The goal of this work was to explore the most effective miRNAs affecting glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) phenotype transition and malignant progression. We annotated 491 TCGA samples' miRNA expression profiles according to their mRNA-based subtypes and found that the mesenchymal tumors had significantly decreased miR-181 family expression compared with the other three subtypes while the proneural subtype harbored extremely high miR-181 family expression. Patients with high miR-181 family expression had longer overall survival (p = 0.0031). We also confirmed that NF-κB-targeting genes and the EMT (epithelial-mesenchymal transition) pathway were inversely correlated with miR-181 family expression and that the entire miR-181 family inhibited glioma cell invasion and proliferation; of these, miR-181b was the most effective suppressor. Furthermore, miR-181b was validated to suppress EMT by targeting KPNA4 and was associated with survival outcome in the TCGA and CGGA datasets and in another independent cohort. The EMT-inhibitory effect of miR-181b was lost after KPNA4 expression was restored. We also identified the antitumorigenic activity of miR-181b in vitro and in vivo. Our results showed that miR-181 family expression was closely correlated with TCGA subtypes and patients' overall survival, indicating that miR-181b, a tumor-suppressive miRNA, could be a novel therapeutic candidate for treating gliomas.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Isorhamnetin has been reported to have anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and anti-proliferative effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of isorhamnetin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in mice by inhibiting the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). The effects of isorhamnetin on LPS-induced lung pathological damage, wet/dry ratios and the total protein level in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), inflammatory cytokine release, myeloperoxidase (MPO) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities, and malondialdehyde (MDA) level were examined. In addition, the COX-2 activation in lung tissues was detected by Western blot. Isorhamnetin pretreatment improved the mice survival rates. Moreover, isorhamnetin pretreatment significantly attenuated edema and the pathological changes in the lung and inhibited protein extravasation in BALF. Isorhamnetin also significantly decreased the levels of inflammatory cytokines in BALF. In addition, isorhamnetin markedly prevented LPS-induced oxidative stress. Furthermore, isorhamnetin pretreatment significantly suppressed LPS-induced activation of COX-2. Isorhamnetin has been demonstrated to protect mice from LPS-induced ALI by inhibiting the expression of COX-2.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glioma is a most common type of primary brain tumors. Extracellular vesicles, in the form of exosomes, are known to mediate cell-cell communication by transporting cell-derived proteins and nucleic acids, including various microRNAs (miRNAs). Here we examined the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients with recurrent glioma for the levels of cancer-related miRNAs, and evaluated the values for prognosis by comparing the measures of CSF-, serum-, and exosome-contained miR-21 levels. Samples from seventy glioma patients following surgery were compared with those from brain trauma patients as a non-tumor control group. Exosomal miR-21 levels in the CSF of glioma patients were found significantly higher than in the controls; whereas no difference was detected in serum-derived exosomal miR-21 expression. The CSF-derived exosomal miR-21 levels correlated with tumor spinal/ventricle metastasis and the recurrence with anatomical site preference. From additional 198 glioma tissue samples, we verified that miR-21 levels associated with tumor grade of diagnosis and negatively correlated with the median values of patient overall survival time. We further used a lentiviral inhibitor to suppress miR-21 expression in U251 cells. The results showed that the levels of miR-21 target genes of PTEN, RECK and PDCD4 were up-regulated at protein levels. Therefore, we concluded that the exosomal miR-21 levels could be demonstrated as a promising indicator for glioma diagnosis and prognosis, particularly with values to predict tumor recurrence or metastasis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to cell death after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Cannabinoid CB1 receptor is expressed in neuronal mitochondrial membranes (mtCB1R) and involved in regulating mitochondrial functions under physiological conditions. However, whether mtCB1R affords neuroprotection against I/R injury remains unknown. We used mouse models of cerebral I/R, primary cultured hippocampal neurons exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) and Ca(2+)-induced injury in purified neuronal mitochondria to investigate the role of mtCB1R in neuroprotection. Our results showed selective cell-permeant CB1 receptor agonist, arachidonyl-2-chloroethylamide (ACEA), significantly up-regulated the expression of mtCB1R protein in hippocampal neurons and tissue. In vitro, ACEA restored cell viability, inhibited generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), decreased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and reduced apoptosis, improved mitochondrial function. In vivo, ACEA ameliorated neurological scores, diminished the number of TUNEL-positive neurons and decreased the expression of cleaved caspase-3. However, ACEA-induced benefits were blocked by the selective cell-permeant CB1 receptor antagonist AM251, but just partially by the selective cell-impermeant CB1 receptor antagonist hemopressin. In purified neuronal mitochondria, mtCB1R activation attenuated Ca(2+)-induced mitochondrial injury. In conclusion, mtCB1R is involved in ACEA-induced protective effects on neurons and mitochondrial functions, suggesting mtCB1R may be a potential novel target for the treatment of brain ischemic injury.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Effective annual influenza vaccination requires frequent changes in vaccine composition due to both antigenic shift for different subtype hemagglutinins (HAs) and antigenic drift in a particular HA. Here we present a broadly neutralizing human monoclonal antibody with an unusual binding modality. The antibody, designated CT149, was isolated from convalescent patients infected with pandemic H1N1 in 2009. CT149 is found to neutralize all tested group 2 and some group 1 influenza A viruses by inhibiting low pH-induced, HA-mediated membrane fusion. It promotes killing of infected cells by Fc-mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and complement-dependent cytotoxicity. X-ray crystallographic data reveal that CT149 binds primarily to the fusion domain in HA2, and the light chain is also largely involved in binding. The epitope recognized by this antibody comprises amino-acid residues from two adjacent protomers of HA. This binding characteristic of CT149 will provide more information to support the design of more potent influenza vaccines.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anaplastic gliomas are characterized by variable clinical and genetic features, but there are few studies focusing on the substratification of anaplastic gliomas. To identify a more objective and applicable classification of anaplastic gliomas, we analyzed whole genome mRNA expression profiling of four independent datasets. Univariate Cox regression, linear risk score formula and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve were applied to derive a gene signature with best prognostic performance. The corresponding clinical and molecular information were further analyzed for interpretation of the different prognosis and the independence of the signature. Gene ontology (GO), Gene Set Variation Analysis (GSVA) and Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) were performed for functional annotation of the differences. We found a three-gene signature, by applying which, the anaplastic gliomas could be divided into low risk and high risk groups. The two groups showed a high concordance with grade II and grade IV gliomas, respectively. The high risk group was more aggressive and complex. The three-gene signature showed diagnostic and prognostic value in anaplastic gliomas.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 gene mutations are found in most World Health Organization grade II and III gliomas and secondary glioblastomas. Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 mutations are known to have prognostic value in high-grade gliomas. However, their prognostic significance in low-grade gliomas remains controversial. We determined the predictive and prognostic value of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 status in low-grade gliomas. The association of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 status with clinicopathological and genetic factors was also evaluated. Clinical information and genetic data including isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 mutation, O 6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase promoter methylation, 1p/19q chromosome loss, and TP53 mutation of 417 low-grade gliomas were collected from the Chinese Glioma Genome Atlas database. Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were performed to evaluate the prognostic effect of clinical characteristics and molecular biomarkers. Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 mutation was identified as an independent prognostic factor for overall, but not progression-free, survival. Notably, isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 mutation was found to be a significant prognostic factor in patients with oligodendrogliomas, but not in patients with astrocytomas. Furthermore, O 6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase promoter methylation (p = 0.017) and TP53 mutation (p < 0.001), but not 1p/19q loss (p = 0.834), occurred at a higher frequency in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1-mutated tumors than in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 wild-type tumors. Younger patient age (p = 0.041) and frontal lobe location (p = 0.010) were significantly correlated with isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 mutation. Chemotherapy did not provide a survival benefit in patients with isocitrate dehydrogenase 1-mutated tumors. Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 mutation was an independent prognostic factor in low-grade gliomas, whereas it showed no predictive value for chemotherapy response. Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 mutation was highly associated with O 6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase promoter methylation and TP53 mutation.
PLoS ONE 06/2015; 10(6):e0130872. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0130872 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus is one of the greatest influenza pandemic threats since 2003. The association of the receptor binding domain (RBD) with the virulence of influenza virus is rarely addressed, particularly of H5N1 influenza viruses. In this study, BALB/c mice were intranasally infected with A/Vietnam/1194/2004 (VN1194, H5N1). The mouse lung-adapted variants were isolated and the mutation of E190G (H3 numbering) in the RBD was recognized. The recombinant virus, rVN-E190G carrying E190G in hemagglutinin (HA) was designed and rescued using reverse genetics techniques. The receptor binding activity, growth curve and pathogenicity in mice of the rVN-E190G were investigated. Results demonstrated that rVN-E190G virus increased the binding avidity to α2,6 SA (sialic acid) and reduced the affinity to α2,3 SA, meanwhile weakened the viral replication in vitro. Moreover, the virulence assessment demonstrated that rVN-E190G was attenuated in mice. These results indicated that the mutation E190G in HA decreases H5N1 viral replication in vitro and significantly attenuates virulence in vivo. These findings identify one of the determinants in RBD which can be associated with H5N1 virulence in mice. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Journal of Medical Virology 06/2015; 87(11). DOI:10.1002/jmv.24257 · 2.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Therapeutics targeting the Nogo-A signal pathway hold promise to promote recovery following brain injury. Based on the temporal characteristics of Nogo-A expression in the process of cerebral ischemia and reperfusion, we tested a novel asynchronous treatment, in which TAT-M9 was used in the early stage to decrease neuronal loss, and TAT-NEP1-40 was used in the delayed stage to promote neurite outgrowth after bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) in mice. Both TAT-M9 and TAT-NEP1-40 were efficiently delivered into the brains of mice by intraperitoneal injection. TAT-M9 treatment promoted neuron survival and inhibited neuronal apoptosis. Asynchronous therapy with TAT-M9 and TAT-NEP1-40 increased the expression of Tau, GAP43 and MAP-2 proteins, and enhanced short-term and long-term cognitive functions. In conclusion, the asynchronous treatment had a long-term neuroprotective effect, which reduced neurologic injury and apoptosis, promoted neurite outgrowth and enhanced functional recovery after ischemia. It suggests that this asynchronous treatment could be a promising therapy for cerebral ischemia in humans.
Journal of Drug Targeting 06/2015; DOI:10.3109/1061186X.2015.1052070 · 2.74 Impact Factor