Toshio Inaba

Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai, Ōsaka, Japan

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Publications (118)185.26 Total impact

  • Theriogenology 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.theriogenology.2015.07.039 · 1.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although Lepidium meyenii (maca), a plant growing in Peru's central Andes, has been traditionally used for enhancing fertility and reproductive performance in domestic animals and human beings, effects of maca on reproductive organs are still unclear. This study examined whether feeding the hydroalcoholic extract powder of maca for 6 weeks affects weight of the reproductive organs, serum concentrations of testosterone and luteinising hormone (LH), number and cytoplasmic area of immunohistochemically stained Leydig cells, and steroidogenesis of cultured Leydig cells in 8-week-old male rats. Feeding the extract powder increased weight of seminal vesicles, serum testosterone level and cytoplasmic area of Leydig cells when compared with controls. Weight of prostate gland, serum LH concentration and number of Leydig cells were not affected by the maca treatment. The testosterone production by Leydig cells significantly increased when cultured with 22R-hydroxycholesterol or pregnenolone and tended to increase when cultured with hCG by feeding the extract powder. The results show that feeding the hydroalcoholic extract powder of maca for 6 weeks increases serum testosterone concentration associated with seminal vesicle stimulation in male rats, and this increase in testosterone level may be related to the enhanced ability of testosterone production by Leydig cells especially in the metabolic process following cholesterol. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
    Andrologia 07/2015; DOI:10.1111/and.12453 · 1.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Insulin-like peptide 3 (INSL3) plays a key role in testicular descent in rodents, whereas in domestic animals, many aspects of the roles of INSL3 in reproductive organs after puberty are still unknown. This study was undertaken to (1) determine the quantitative changes of gene expression of testicular INSL3, its receptor (RXFP2), LH receptor, and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase during and after puberty in normal male dogs; (2) compare the expressions of these substances in normal and cryptorchid dogs; and (3) localize the cells expressing INSL3 in normal and retained canine testes. Testes were obtained from small-breed normal male dogs (n = 56) and cryptorchid dogs (n = 22). Normal scrotal testes from the normal dogs (normal testes), retained testes from both the unilateral and bilateral cryptorchid dogs (retained testes), and scrotal testes of the unilateral cryptorchid dogs (cryptorchid scrotal testes) were used. We measured the concentrations of these testicular messenger RNAs (mRNAs) by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and an enzyme immunoassay was used for measuring INSL3 peptide. Immunohistochemistry for INSL3 peptide was done in paraformaldehyde-fixed frozen testicular tissue. In the normal dogs, total amount of INSL3 mRNA per testis tended to decrease (P = 0.05) from pubertal (6-12 months) to postpubertal (1-5 years) and decreased (P < 0.01) to middle age (5-10 years), but total amount of INSL3 peptide per testis did not change among age groups. Concentrations of INSL3 mRNA were higher (P < 0.01) in retained testes than those in the normal testes and cryptorchid scrotal testes, and similar differences were observed for INSL3 peptide. Reversely, total amounts of INSL3 mRNA and peptide per retained testis were lower (P < 0.01) than those per normal testis because of smaller weight of retained testes. Concentrations and total amount of RXFP2 mRNA in the retained testes were almost nil and lower (P < 0.01) than those in the normal testes and in the cryptorchid scrotal testes. Total amount of LH receptor mRNA per retained testis was lower (P < 0.01) than that per normal testis. The immunohistochemical analysis revealed that INSL3 was expressed only in Leydig cells of both the normal and retained canine testes. These results suggest that INSL3 in retained testes of cryptorchid dogs is substantially expressed per unit-weight basis but may be produced with lower amount as a whole testis. Also, this study provides findings that RXFP2 gene is expressed scarcely in the retained testes but normally in cryptorchid scrotal testes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Theriogenology 07/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.theriogenology.2015.06.021 · 1.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previously, we reported that ovarian hormones affect the immune response against E. coli isolated from the dogs affected with pyometra. In order to investigate mechanisms underlying the immune modulation, we examined the effects of ovarian hormones on the generation of dendritic cells (DCs), the most potent antigen presenting cell. DCs were differentiated from peripheral blood monocytes (PBMOs) using a cytokine cocktail. Both estrogen receptor and progesterone receptors were expressed by the PBMOs and immature DCs. When various ovarian hormones were added to the culture for the DC differentiation, progesterone significantly decreased the expression of DC maturation markers, such as CD1a, CD80 and CD86, on mature DCs. Conversely, the addition of estrogen to the cultures increased the expression of CD86, but not other maturation makers. Furthermore, DCs differentiated in the presence of progesterone did not stimulate allogeneic mononuclear cells in PB. Taken together, these results indicate that progesterone diminishes the maturation of DCs, leading to decreased immune responses against invading pathogens.
    Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 02/2015; DOI:10.1292/jvms.14-0558 · 0.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Materials used for the past 30 years as immunoadjuvants induce suboptimal antitumor immune responses and often cause undesirable local inflammation. Some bacterial lipopeptides that act as Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 ligands activate immune cells as immunoadjuvants and induce antitumor effects. Here, we developed a new dendritic cell (DC)-targeting lipopeptide, h11c (P2C-ATPEDNGRSFS), which uses the CD11c-binding sequence of intracellular adhesion molecule-1 to selectively and efficiently activate DCs but not other immune cells. Although the h11c lipopeptide activated DCs similarly to an artificial lipopeptide, P2C-SKKKK (P2CSK4), via TLR2 in vitro, h11c induced more effective tumor inhibition than P2CSK4 at low doses in vivo with tumor antigens. Even without tumor antigens, h11c lipopeptide significantly inhibited tumor growth and induced tumor-specific cytotoxic T cells. P2CSK4 was retained subcutaneously at the vaccination site and induced severe local inflammation in in vivo experiments. In contrast, h11c was not retained at the vaccination site and was transported into the tumor within 24 h. The recruitment of DCs into the tumor was induced by h11c more effectively, while P2CSK4 induced the accumulation of neutrophils leading to severe inflammation at the vaccination site. Because CD11b+ cells, but not CD11c+ cells, produced neutrophil chemotactic factors such as macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2 in response to stimulation with TLR2 ligands, the DC-targeting lipopeptide h11c induced less MIP-2 production by splenocytes than P2CSK4. In this study, we succeeded in developing a novel immunoadjuvant, h11c, which effectively induces antitumor activity without adverse effects such as local inflammation via the selective activation of DCs. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    International Journal of Cancer 12/2014; 135(12). DOI:10.1002/ijc.28939 · 5.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The existence of Th1 responses in a tumor microenvironment elicits a better prognosis for the patients. Transfection of Th1 polarizing cytokines, such as IFNγ, into tumor cells is an effective way to set up an appropriate microenvironment. Using a novel type synthetic vector composed of polyamidoamine dendrons, we transfected canine IFNγ gene into canine tumor cell lines, and examined direct and indirect effects of dendritic cells (DCs) against tumor growth in vitro. A cloned canine IFNγ gene expressed functional protein that induces maturation of DCs. When the canine IFNγ gene was transfected into canine tumor cell lines using the synthetic vector, most cells secreted canine IFNγ. Secretion of IFNγ reduced with time, but was maintained for 48 hours. DCs incubated with the IFNγ-transfected tumor cells exhibited greater suppressive activity and induced significantly higher cytotoxic activity against the tumor cells, relative to those incubated with untransfected tumor cells and comparable dose of IFNγ. Successful transfection of IFNγ by the synthetic vector efficiently enhanced the anti-tumor immune function of DCs, and sets up a suitable microenvironment for improvement in tumor therapy.
    Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 09/2014; 162(1-2). DOI:10.1016/j.vetimm.2014.08.016 · 1.75 Impact Factor
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    9th Biennial Meeting of Association for Applied Animal Andrology, Newcastle City Hall, Australia; 08/2014
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate whether pNF-H is a prognostic biomarker of spinal cord injury (SCI) in paraplegic dogs with thoracolumbar intervertebral disc herniation (IVDH). Prospective, case-control clinical study ANIMALS: Dogs (n = 60) with SCI from IVDH and 6 healthy dogs. Serum from 60 thoracolumbar IVDH dogs (Grade 4: 22 dogs; Grade 5: 38 dogs) collected 1-3 days after injury, and 6 control dogs, was analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) against a phosphorylated form of the high-molecular-weight neurofilament subunit NF-H (pNF-H). Serum pNF-H levels were compared between different IVDH grades and their prognostic value was investigated. pNF-H levels were significantly greater in Grade 5 than Grade 4 dogs. There were significant differences in pNF-H levels between dogs that regained voluntarily ambulation and those that did not. All 8 dogs that had high pNF-H levels 1-3 days after injury did not regain the ability to walk after surgery. Serum pNF-H levels might be a biomarker for predicting prognosis of canine SCI.
    Veterinary Surgery 01/2014; 43(3). DOI:10.1111/j.1532-950X.2014.12144.x · 0.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: CD40 ligand (CD40L) expressed by activated T cells is shown to induce maturation of immature dendritic cells (DCs) and this maturation is a vital part in DC based tumor immunotherapy. We constructed an expression vector by cloning the extracellular domain of canine CD40L fused to the signal sequence of canine IL-12p40. When PBMCs were incubated with canine granulocyte-macrophage (GM) -CSF and IL-4, expression of CD86 was significantly elevated, but the majority of cells displayed the morphology of immature DCs. Following addition of the expressed canine soluble CD40L (csCD40L) to the DC-inducing culture, the cell morphology shifted to that of mature DCs, and expression of CD80, CD86, MHC class II and CD1a was significantly enhanced. This morphological change and enhancement of expression was observed even when the csCD40L was present only in the second half period of the culture. Furthermore, the csCD40L caused a significant increase in IL-12 production from DCs. These results show that the csCD40L significantly promotes the maturation and activation of canine monocyte derived DCs.
    Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 09/2013; 156(1-2). DOI:10.1016/j.vetimm.2013.09.016 · 1.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract This study examined two female offspring of a somatic cell cloned Holstein cow that had reproduction problems and milk production performance issues. The two offspring heifers, which showed healthy appearances and normal reproductive characteristics, calved on two separate occasions. The mean milk yields of the heifers in the first lactation period were 9,037 kg and 7,228 kg. The relative mean milk yields of these cows were 111.2% and 88.9%, respectively, when compared with that of the control group. No particular clinical abnormalities were revealed in milk yields and milk composition rate [e.g., fat, protein and solids-not-fat (SNF)], and reproductive characteristics of the offspring of the somatic cell cloned Holstein cow suggested that the cloned offspring had normal milk production.
    Journal of Reproduction and Development 08/2013; 59(6). DOI:10.1262/jrd.2013-025 · 1.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Feeding rumen bypass polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) affects the reproduction of Japanese Black cows, though its influence on superovulatory response in donor cows and conception in recipient cattle has not been well studied. Here we investigated the effects of PUFA to Japanese Black cows on blood biochemistry, the numbers of ova and embryos or transferable embryos, and pregnancy rate following embryo transfer (ET) to recipient Holstein heifers. PUFA (40% linoleic acid) was fed at 300 g/day in the experimental group since the last estrus day until day of artificial insemination for superovulatory treatment. Blood was collected on the first day of follicle-stimulating hormone administration. Total cholesterol level was significantly higher in the 15 to 19 days feeding group (117.4 mg/dl) than in the control group (95.0 mg/dl). The numbers of ova and embryos or transferable embryos were significantly higher in the 15 to 19 days feeding group than in the control group. The numbers of transferable embryos in the 15 to 19 days feeding group was significantly higher than in the 10 to 14 days feeding group. The pregnancy rate at Day 60 was significantly higher in the experimental group (66.7 and 57.1%) than in the control group (51.1 and 44.0%) after transfer of fresh and frozen-thawed embryos, respectively. In conclusion, the numbers of ova and embryos or transferable embryos after superovulatory treatment increased and pregnancy rate after ET was higher in Japanese Black cows fed PUFA than in the control group.
    Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 07/2013; 75(11). DOI:10.1292/jvms.12-0235 · 0.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Effect of Insulin-like Peptide 3 on Testosterone Secretion and cAMP Release in Mouse Leydig Cells Indunil Pathirana1,2,*, Masahiro Takahashi2, Shingo Hatoya2, Toshio Inaba2, Hiromichi Tamada2 and Noritoshi Kawate2 Insulin-like peptide 3 (INSL3) has recently been identified as an exclusive product of testicular Leydig cells. The role of INSL3 during fetal and neonatal period is well elucidated, but very little is known about the role of INSL3 in developing and adult males. Recently, it was shown that INSL3 is potentially involved in the prevention of germ cell apoptosis and in proliferation of osteoblasts in adults. However, regardless of the localization of its receptor (RXFP2) in Leydig cells of several mammalian species, i.e., humans, mice and dogs, the effects of INSL3 on endocrine function Leydig cells are totally unknown.The objectives of the present study were to examine the effects of INSL3 on: (1) testosterone secretion; and (2) cAMP release in mouse Leydig cells. Purified Leydig cells were isolated from testicular interstitial cells obtained from 8-week-old male mice, using a 3-step discontinuous gradient (specific gravities: 1.05, 1.06 and 1.08) of Percoll. Cells were then plated in the presence or absence of mouse, human, canine or bovine INSL3 (0–100 ng/ml) for 18 h in multiwell-plates (96 wells) in different cell densities (2500, 5000, 10,000 or 20,000 cells per well). The effects of bovine INSL3 (100 ng/ml) on testosterone secretion by Leydig cells were examined in the presence or absence of an adenylate cyclase inhibitor, SQ 22536 (1 μM) or INSL3 antagonist (bovine and human; 100 ng/ml). Testosterone and cAMP in spent medium were measured by enzyme immunoassay. All INSL3 species stimulated (P<0.0001) the testosterone secretion in Leydig cells, and the maximum stimulation (nearly twofold; P<0.05) was observed with 100 ng/ml bovine INSL3 at the lowest Leydig cell density (2500 cells per well). Moreover, bovine INSL3 (100 ng/ml) stimulated (P<0.0001) the cAMP production from Leydig cells maximally at 1 h, and remained elevated (P<0.0001) even at 18 h. SQ 22536 and INSL3 antagonists (bovine and human) reduced (P<0.0001) INSL3-stimulated testosterone secretion from Leydig cells. In conclusion, the observed stimulatory effects of INSL3 on testosterone secretion in Leydig cells are exerted via the activation of cAMP, suggesting a new autocrine function of INSL3 in males. Keywords: autocrine, cAMP, INSL3, Leydig cell, Testis, Testosterone
    Conference on Japan Sri Lanka Collaborative Research; 03/2013
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    ABSTRACT: Thrombocytopenia (TTP) is a blood disease common to canines and human beings. Currently there is no valid therapy for this disease except blood transfusion. In this study, we report the generation of canine induced pluripotent stem cells (ciPSCs) from canine embryonic fibroblasts, and a novel protocol for creating mature megakaryocytes (MKs) and functional platelets from ciPSCs. The ciPSCs were generated using lentiviral vectors, and differentiated into MKs and platelets on OP9 stromal cells supplemented with growth factors. Our ciPSCs presented in a tightly domed shape and showed expression of a critical pluripotency marker, REX1 and normal karyotype. Additionally, ciPSCs differentiated into cells derived from three germ layers via the formation of an embryoid body. The MKs derived from ciPSCs had hyperploidy and transformed into proplatelets. The proplatelets released platelets early on that expressed specific megakaryocyte and platelet marker CD41/61. Interestingly, these platelets, when activated with adenosine diphosphate (ADP) or thrombin, bound to fibrinogen. Moreover, electron microscopy showed that the platelets had the same ultrastructure as peripheral platelets. Thus, we have demonstrated for the first time the generation of ciPSCs that are capable of differentiating into megakaryocytes and release functional platelets in vitro. Our system for differentiating ciPSCs into MKs and platelets promises a critical therapy for canine TTP and appears to be extensible in principle to resolve human TTP.
    Stem cells and development 02/2013; DOI:10.1089/scd.2012.0701 · 4.20 Impact Factor
  • 01/2013; 66(3):190-193. DOI:10.12935/jvma.66.190
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    ABSTRACT: Objective-To compare methods for harvesting canine bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) and determine the biological properties of canine BMSCs at successive passages in vitro. Sample-BMSCs collected from the femurs of 9 Beagles. Procedures-A fibroblast assay was performed to compare 2 methods for harvesting BMSCs: the aspiration and perfusion method. Flow cytometric analysis was performed to evaluate the cell surface markers. Changes in proliferative activity were analyzed by examining radioactivity of hydrogen 3-thymidine. Cell senescence was studied via senescence-associated β-galactosidase staining, and differentiation properties (osteogenesis and adipogenesis) were estimated in association with passage. Results-The aspiration method yielded significantly more fibroblasts than the perfusion method. The cells harvested by both methods gave positive results for CD44 and CD90 and negative results for CD34 and CD45. After induction, the cells had osteogenic and adipogenic phenotypes. The biological properties of BMSCs harvested by the aspiration method were estimated in association with passage. With increasing number of passages, the proliferative activity was reduced and the proportion of cells with senescence-associated β-galactosidase staining was increased. The capacity of differentiation was reduced at passage 3. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-The aspiration method was superior for collection of BMSCs. In early passages, canine BMSCs had the proliferative activity and potential of osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation, but this decreased with increased number of passages. Consideration of passage will be important to the success of any strategy that seeks to regenerate tissue though the use of BMSCs.
    American Journal of Veterinary Research 11/2012; 73(11):1832-40. DOI:10.2460/ajvr.73.11.1832 · 1.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Testicular Leydig cells secrete insulin-like peptide 3 (INSL3) and express its receptor, RXFP2. However, the effects of INSL3 on endocrine function of Leydig cells are unknown. The present study examines the effects of INSL3 on mouse Leydig cells taking testosterone and cAMP secretions as endpoints. Leydig cells were isolated from testicular interstitial cells obtained from 8-week-old male mice. Cells were then plated in the presence or absence of mouse, human, canine or bovine INSL3 (0-100 ng/ml) for 18 h in multiwell-plates (96 wells) in different cell densities (2500, 5000, 10,000 or 20,000 cells per well). The effects of bovine INSL3 (100 ng/ml) on testosterone secretion by Leydig cells were examined in the presence or absence of, an adenylate cyclase inhibitor, SQ 22536 (1μM) or INSL3 antagonist (bovine and human; 100 ng/ml). Testosterone and cAMP in spent medium were measured by enzyme immunoassay. All INSL3 species tested significantly stimulated the testosterone secretion in Leydig cells, and the maximum stimulation was observed with 100 ng/ml bovine INSL3 at the lowest Leydig cell density (2500 cells per well). Moreover, bovine INSL3 (100 ng/ml) significantly stimulated the cAMP production from Leydig cells maximally at 1h, and remained significantly elevated even at 18 h. SQ 22536 and INSL3 antagonists (bovine and human) significantly reduced INSL3-stimulated testosterone secretion from Leydig cells. Taken together, stimulatory effects of INSL3 on testosterone secretion in Leydig cells are exerted via the activation of cAMP, suggesting a new autocrine function of INSL3 in males.
    Regulatory Peptides 07/2012; 178(1-3):102-6. DOI:10.1016/j.regpep.2012.07.003 · 2.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study was undertaken to develop a simple and practical method to control the time of ovulation in cynomolgus monkeys. Diets containing a synthetic gestagen, levonorgestrel (LNG) were given daily to normally cycling female monkeys for 2 weeks, and plasma concentrations of estradiol-17β and progesterone were determined by EIA in order to estimate the time of ovulation. Doses of LNG (0, 3.2, 8, 20, 50, or 125 µg) were given from Day 2 (Day 0 = the first day of menstruation) through Day 15. The numbers of days from the last administration of LNG to the estimated ovulation in the groups treated with LNG at 20 µg and above were significantly greater than those in the controls, and the values in the group treated with LNG at 50 µg were within a narrow range. In a second experiment, LNG was administered at 50 µg in different phases of the menstrual cycle (Days 9-22, 16-29, and 23-36), and the results indicated that ovulation occurred more than 12 days after the last administration in all monkeys, and the number of days from the last administration of LNG to the estimated ovulation in the group treated on Days 16-29 (luteal phase) was significantly greater than that in the group treated on Days 23-36. These results indicate that daily provision of a diet containing 50 µg LNG could be applicable for delaying ovulation, and suggest that the total level of (exogenous and endogenous) progestins is critical for determining the length of ovulation delay in cynomolgus monkeys.
    Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 07/2012; 74(11). DOI:10.1292/jvms.12-0023 · 0.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study examined factors involved in the patency of uterine cervices in the bitch with pyometra. The uterine cervices were obtained from the bitches with pyometra at the time of ovariohysterectomy. Cervical patency was measured by inserting the stainless steel rods with different diameter into cervical canals. Collagen concentration and collagenase activity (for type I collagen) in the tissue were determined and the number of neutrophils, which contain the enzymes related to collagen metabolism, and morphological changes in collagenous fibers were studied by histological examination. Levels of mRNA expressions for hormonal factors, estrogen receptor-α (ER-α), progesterone receptor (PR), relaxin (Rlx) and an attractant of neutrophils, interleukin-8 (IL-8), were determined by semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In the statistical analysis, the cervical patency positively correlated with the collagenase activity, and negative correlation was found between the cervical patency and collagen concentration. Histological examination indicated distinct positive correlation between the cervical patency and the number of neutrophils in the cervical stroma and that the collagenous fiber in the uterine cervix became thinner and degraded with increase of the cervical patency. Although there was no relationship between the cervical patency and the level of mRNA for ER-α, PR or Rlx, IL-8 mRNA level has significant positive correlation with the cervical patency and the number of neutrophils in the cervical stroma. These results suggest that the increased number of neutrophils in the uterine cervix, which could be related to the local expression of IL-8, may be involved in collagen degradation and connective tissue remodeling to increase cervical patency in the bitch with pyometra.
    Research in Veterinary Science 06/2012; 93(3):1203-10. DOI:10.1016/j.rvsc.2012.05.012 · 1.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the feasibility and safety of transplantation of autologous bone marrow stromal cell (BMSC) in dogs with acute spinal cord injury (SCI). An open-label single-arm trial. Dogs (n = 7) with severe SCI from T6 to L5, caused by vertebral fracture and luxation. Decompressive and stabilization surgery was performed on dogs with severe SCI caused by vertebral fracture and luxation. Autologous BMSCs were obtained from each dog's femur, cultured, and then injected into the lesion in the acute stage. Adverse events and motor and sensory function were observed for >1 year after SCI. Follow-up was 29-62 months after SCI. No complications (eg, infection, neuropathic pain, worsening of neurologic function) were observed. Two dogs walked without support, but none of the 7 dogs had any change in sensory function. Autologous BMSC transplantation is feasible and safe in dogs with acute SCI. Further studies are needed to determine the efficacy of this therapy.
    Veterinary Surgery 04/2012; 41(4):437-42. DOI:10.1111/j.1532-950X.2011.00959.x · 0.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Progressive ataxia and paralysis in three Miniature Dachshunds were found to be caused by idiopathic sterile pyogranulomatous inflammation of epidural fat between T5 and L4. All dogs were managed by hemilaminectomy and removal of epidural compressive material. Surgical findings and histopathological evaluation were necessary to diagnose epidural pyogranulomatous inflammation. A dog did not regain motor and sensor function after the surgery. Two dogs had exhibited improved neurological function after the surgery, but they recurred. Oral cyclosporine treatment was useful for their long remission. Idiopathic sterile pyogranulomatous inflammation of epidural fat can be considered to be a cause of thoracolumbar myelopathy in dogs.
    Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 04/2012; 74(8):1071-4. DOI:10.1292/jvms.12-0028 · 0.88 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

847 Citations
185.26 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1987–2015
    • Osaka Prefecture University
      • Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences
      Sakai, Ōsaka, Japan
  • 1988–1989
    • Meiji University
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
    • Washington University in St. Louis
      • Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
      San Luis, Missouri, United States