[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This article evaluates the behaviour of lithium-ion cells of several chemistries and one nickel-metal hydride cell for automotive applications like (plug-in) hybrid vehicles and battery electric vehicles. The evaluation is based on an enhanced test methodology that enables the comparison of cell behaviour. Tests for high power and high energy application have been integrated. The characterisation tests exist of four test methods. The tests make large differences visible between the cell species. The 5 C efficiency for example is between 75 and 90% while the cell temperature varies from 29 to 52 °C. The power density is 80 W/kg for the NiMH cell and lies between 330 and 3100 W/kg for the lithium-ion cells. The cell results have been brought into relation to the material properties, the shape, referring to existing literature. The test plan made it possible to make an initial division in the cells. It appears that the manufacturer's knowhow is more important than the general electrode classification to produce outstanding cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper represents a comprehensive comparison of three battery chemistries for use in plug-in battery electric vehicles: lithium iron phosphate oxide, lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide and nickel cobalt aluminum oxide anodes. The battery characteristics at different temperature conditions have been investigated, using test procedures as defined in the standard IEC 62660-1/2 and introducing new load profiles. Main focus key parameters are the energy density, power capabilities, rate performances during charge and discharge as well as the energy efficiency, thermal behaviour and life cycle. The results indicate that the lithium iron phosphate based cells have good performances at low temperatures (such as down to -18° C). However, the situation regarding the nickel cobalt aluminum oxide and nickel manganese cobalt oxide anodes demonstrates less favorable performances, especially at low temperatures where the power and energy capabilities are considerably poor. In addition, the cycle life properties are discussed in order to evaluate the long-term performances, and battery parameters such as cost and thermal behaviors are compared. Finally, this study contains a new definition for the well-known Peukert relationship during the discharge phase. Furthermore, an adapted equation during the charge phase is presented based on the charge characteristics of the proposed batteries at different environmental conditions.
Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference (VPPC), 2011 IEEE; 10/2011
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this paper is to assess the capabilities of commercial lithium-ion batteries for use in battery electric vehicles (BEV's). The evaluation criteria are based on a newly developed experimental methodology which describes the performance characteristics of different batteries of various chemistries. This methodology primarily permits the user to obtain the most important battery characteristics for charging and discharging, internal resistance, efficiency, Peukert constant, thermal stability during charge and discharge phases.
Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference (VPPC), 2010 IEEE; 10/2010