[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Body weight is tightly regulated by food intake and energy dissipation, and obesity is related to decreased energy expenditure (EE). Herein, we show that nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodieseterase 2 (ENPP2, autotaxin) is an adipose-derived, secreted enzyme that controls adipose expansion, brown adipose tissue (BAT) function, and EE. In mice, Enpp2 was highly expressed in visceral white adipose tissue and BAT, and is downregulated in hypertrophied adipocytes/adipose tissue. Enpp2(+/-) mice and adipocyte-specific Enpp2 knockout mice fed a high-fat diet showed smaller body weight gains and less insulin resistance than control mice fed the same diet. BAT was functionally more active, and EE was increased in Enpp2-deficient mice. In humans, ENPP2 expression in subcutaneous fat and ENPP2 levels in serum were reduced in obese subjects. Taken together, our results establish ENPP2 as an adipose-derived, secreted enzyme that regulates adipose obesity and systemic metabolism. They also suggest ENPP2 could be a useful therapeutic target for the treatment of metabolic disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Current criteria for early diagnosis of coagulopathy in sepsis are limited. We postulated that coagulopathy is already complicated with sepsis in the initial phase, and severe coagulopathy or disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) becomes overt after progressive consumption of platelet and coagulation factors. To determine early diagnostic markers for severe coagulopathy, we evaluated plasma biomarkers for association with subsequent development of overt DIC in patients with sepsis.
A single-center, prospective observational study was conducted in an adult ICU at a university hospital. Plasma samples were obtained from patients with sepsis at ICU admission. Fourteen biomarkers including global markers (platelet count, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, fibrinogen and fibrin degradation product (FDP)); markers of thrombin generation (thrombin-antithrombin complex (TAT) and soluble fibrin); markers of anticoagulants (protein C (PC) and antithrombin); markers of fibrinolysis (plasminogen, alpha2-plasmin inhibitor (PI), plasmin-alpha2-PI complex, and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1); and a marker of endothelial activation (soluble E-selectin) were assayed. Patients who had overt DIC at baseline were excluded, and the remaining patients were followed for development of overt DIC in 5 days, and for mortality in 28 days.
A total of 77 patients were enrolled, and 37 developed overt DIC within the following 5 days. Most patients demonstrated hemostatic abnormalities at baseline with 98.7% TAT, 97.4% FDP and 88.3% PC. Most hemostatic biomarkers at baseline were significantly associated with subsequent development of overt DIC. Notably, TAT, PAI-1 and PC discriminated well between patients with and without developing overt DIC (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC), 0.77 (95% confidence interval, 0.64-0.86); 0.87 (0.78-0.92); 0.85 (0.76-0.91), respectively), and using the three together, significantly improved the AUROC up to 0.95 (vs. TAT, PAI-1, and PC). Among the significant diagnostic markers for overt DIC, TAT and PAI-1 were also good predictors of 28-day mortality (AUROC, 0.77 and 0.81, respectively).
Severe coagulation and fibrinolytic abnormalities on ICU admission were associated with subsequent development of overt DIC. A single measurement of TAT, PAI-1, and PC activity could identify patients with ongoing severe coagulopathy, early in the course of sepsis.
Critical care (London, England) 01/2014; 18(1):R13. DOI:10.1186/cc13190
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Paxillin is a LIM domain protein localized at integrin-mediated focal adhesions. Although paxillin is thought to modulate the functions of integrins, little is known about the contribution of paxillin to signaling pathways in platelets. Here, we studied the role of paxillin in platelet activation in vitro and in vivo.Methods and results: We generated paxillin knockdown (Pxn-KD) platelets in mice by transplanting bone marrow cells transduced with a lentiviral vector carrying a short hairpin RNA sequence, and confirmed that paxillin expression was significantly reduced in platelets derived from the transduced cells. Pxn-KD platelets showed a slight increased in size and augmented integrin alphaIIbbeta3 activation following stimulation of multiple receptors including glycoprotein VI and G protein-coupled receptors. Thromboxane A2 biosynthesis and the release of alpha-granules and dense granules in response to agonist stimulation were also enhanced in Pxn-KD platelets. However, Pxn-KD did not increase tyrosine phosphorylation or intracellular calcium mobilization. Intravital imaging confirmed that Pxn-KD enhanced thrombus formation in vivo.
Our findings suggest that paxillin negatively regulates several common platelet signaling pathways, resulting in the activation of integrin alphaIIbbeta3 and release reactions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The use of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) as an autologous cell source has shed new light on cell replacement therapy with respect to the treatment of numerous hereditary disorders. We focused on the use of iPSCs for cell-based therapy of haemophilia. We generated iPSCs from mesenchymal stem cells that had been isolated from C57BL/6 mice. The mouse iPSCs were generated through the induction of four transcription factor genes Oct3/4, Klf-4, Sox-2 and c-Myc. The derived iPSCs released functional coagulation factor VIII (FVIII) following transduction with a simian immunodeficiency virus vector. The subcutaneous transplantation of iPSCs expressing FVIII into nude mice resulted in teratoma formation, and significantly increased plasma levels of FVIII. The plasma concentration of FVIII was at levels appropriate for human therapy at 2-4 weeks post transplantation. Our data suggest that iPSCs could be an attractive and prospective autologous cell source for the production of coagulation factor, and that engineered iPSCs expressing coagulation factor might provide a cell-based therapeutic strategy appropriate for haemophilia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fibrin degradation products (FDP) are an important marker of coagulopathy. We assessed the reactivity of the monoclonal antibodies used in clinical laboratory testing (6 D-dimer reagents, D-dimer-1-6; 4 plasma FDP reagents, plasma FDP-1-4) to quantify FDP using in vitro-generated FDP as well as FDP in clinical samples. The monoclonal antibodies used in D-dimer-1, -2, -5, and -6 reacted poorly to the low molecular weight forms of in vitro-generated FDP. The monoclonal antibodies used in D-dimer-3 and -4 had better reactivity to the low molecular weight forms of in vitro-generated FDP. The monoclonal antibodies used in plasma FDP-2, -3, and -4 reacted well to the high and low molecular weight FDP forms, while the monoclonal antibody in plasma FDP-1 reacted poorly to the low molecular weight FDP forms. Analysis of clinical samples revealed deviations in FDP molecular weight forms in DIC samples. The reactivity of the monoclonal antibodies of laboratory FDP testing to FDP variants in clinical samples was similar to that of in vitro-generated FDP. In conclusion, the monoclonal antibodies used in clinical laboratories to detect FDP have distinct reactivity to the molecular variants of FDP generated in vitro as well as those present in clinical samples. Our findings support the consensus for the standardization of D-dimer and plasma FDP testing.
Thrombosis Research 08/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.thromres.2013.08.006 · 2.43 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Tissue type plasminogen activator (tPA) functions as a fibrinolytic factor in the blood and has unique roles in the nervous system. However, the role of tPA in the olfactory epithelium (OE) is still unclear. Generally, surgical ablation of the olfactory bulb (bulbectomy) triggers degeneration followed by regeneration of OE. In this experimental study, we investigated the role of tPA in OE regeneration. METHODS: Wild-type (WT) mice and tPA-knockout (tPA(-/-) ) mice were subjected to bulbectomy. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemical examination was done to detect tPA expression in the olfactory bulb and OE. Cellular proliferation and apoptosis was also monitored in the OE. RESULTS: Before bulbectomy, tPA was found to be expressed in the olfactory bulb and OE. OE degenerated to a similar extent in both strains between 0 and 3 days after bulbectomy. However, OE was thicker and contained more cells in tPA(-/-) mice than in WT mice at 7 days after bulbectomy. Moreover, the number of apoptotic bodies was reduced and the number of proliferating cells was increased in the OE of tPA(-/-) mice compared to WT mice, after bulbectomy. Transmission electron microscopy revealed continuous degeneration of the OE for up to 7 days after bulbectomy in WT mice. In contrast, we observed some intact olfactory vesicles and almost normal supporting cells in the OE of tPA(-/-) mice, at 7 days after bulbectomy. CONCLUSION: The current findings show that the tPA-plasmin system plays an inhibitory role in the regulation of regeneration in the OE.
International Forum of Allergy and Rhinology 06/2013; 3(6). DOI:10.1002/alr.21124 · 2.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A mixing test is useful for distinguishing between coagulation factor deficiency and the presence of inhibitor as the cause of coagulopathy. However, we experienced a patient with acquired factor V (FV) inhibitor whose mixing test showed a coagulation factor deficiency pattern. A 65-year-old man with a tendency for bleeding was referred to our center. The laboratory data showed remarkable prolongation of prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT). FV activity was less than 3%. A mixing test showed a coagulation factor deficiency pattern. However, neither the tendency for bleeding nor the coagulation tests were corrected by transfusion of fresh frozen plasma. A few days later, a positive test for FV inhibitor of 3 Bethesda units was obtained. Therefore, we started prednisolone and plasma exchange, and the coagulation test results normalized after 6 weeks. Although an incubation period is generally not considered necessary in a mixing test for FV inhibitor, we repeated mixing tests with various incubation periods and confirmed an incubation period-dependent prolongation of the APTT. Therefore, a mixing test with an incubation period is recommended for the detection of FV inhibitor, since a mixing test without an incubation period may show a coagulation factor deficiency pattern when the titer of FV inhibitor is low.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: The hemostatic biomarkers for early diagnosis of sepsis-associated coagulopathy have not been identified. The purpose of this study was to evaluate hemostatic biomarker abnormalities preceding a decrease in platelet count, which is a surrogate indicator of overt coagulopathy in sepsis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-five septic patients with a platelet count more than 80 × 10(3)/μL were retrospectively analyzed. Hemostatic biomarkers at intensive care unit admission were compared between patients with and patients without a subsequent decrease in platelet count (≥30% within 5 days), and the ability of biomarkers to predict a decrease in platelet count was evaluated. RESULTS: Forty-two patients (56.0%) developed a subsequent decrease in platelet count. Severity of illness, incidence of organ dysfunction, and 28-day mortality rate were higher in patients with a subsequent decrease in platelet count. There were significant differences between patients with and patients without a subsequent decrease in platelet count in prothrombin time-international normalized ratio, fibrinogen, thrombin-antithrombin complex, antithrombin, protein C (PC), plasminogen, and α2-plasmin inhibitor (α2-PI). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that PC (area under the curve, 0.869; 95% confidence interval, 0.699-0.951) and α2-PI (area under the curve, 0.885; 95% confidence interval, 0.714-0.959) were strong predictors of a subsequent decrease in platelet count. CONCLUSIONS: Decreased PC and α2-PI activity preceded a decrease in platelet count in intensive care unit patients with sepsis.
Journal of critical care 04/2013; 28(5). DOI:10.1016/j.jcrc.2012.10.069 · 2.19 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Factor VIII (FVIII) treatment for hemophilia A has difficulties in correcting bleeding diathesis in the presence of inhibitors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An adeno-associated virus type 8 (AAV8) vector containing the factor VII (FVII) gene or the activated factor VII (FVIIa) gene was used to investigate the therapeutic effect of FVII or FVIIa overexpression in FVIII-deficient mice with inhibitors. RESULTS: Following repeated human FVIII injection, FVIII-deficient mice developed anti-human FVIII antibodies that cross-reacted with mouse FVIII. High transgene expression of murine FVII or murine FVIIa was achieved using the AAV8 vector and resulted in increased blood FVII activity greater than 800% of normal murine FVII levels in vector-injected FVIII-deficient mice. Thromboelastography analysis showed significant improvements in clotting time, clot formation time, α angle, and mean clot firmness in AAV8 vector-injected FVIII-deficient mice with inhibitors. Overexpression of FVIIa ameliorated the bleeding phenotype of FVIII-deficient mice with inhibitors and significantly increased the survival rate after tail clipping. In addition, overexpression of FVII increased the survival rate of FVIII-deficient mice with inhibitors after tail clipping though it was not as efficient as FVIIa overexpression. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that FVII overexpression is an alternative strategy for the treatment of hemophilia A with inhibitors.
Thrombosis Research 04/2013; 131(5). DOI:10.1016/j.thromres.2013.03.007 · 2.43 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hemophilia is an X-linked bleeding disorder, and hemophilia patients are deficient in a biologically active coagulation factor. This study was designed to combine the efficiency of lentiviral vector transduction techniques with murine adipose tissue-derived stem/stromal cells (mADSCs) as a new method to produce secreted hFIX and treat hemophilia B. mADSCs were transduced with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-hFIX lentiviral vector at multiplicities of infection (MOIs) from 1 to 60, and the most effective dose was at MOI 10, as determined by hFIX production. The hFIX protein secretion persisted over the 28-day experimental period. Cell sheets composed of lentiviral vector-transduced mADSCs were engineered to further enhance the utility of these cells for future therapeutic applications in transplantation modalities. These experiments demonstrated that genetically transduced ADSCs may become a valuable cell source for establishing cell-based gene therapies for plasma protein deficiencies, such as hemophilia.
Human gene therapy 01/2013; DOI:10.1089/hum.2012.162 · 3.62 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) against adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) are known to interfere with AAV vector-mediated gene transfer by intravascular delivery. Evading the inhibitory effects of antibodies against AAV vectors is necessary for efficient transfer of therapeutic genes clinically. For this purpose, we tested the efficacy of saline flushing in order to avoid contact of vectors with NAbs present in blood. Direct injection of the AAV8 vector carrying the factor IX (FIX) gene into the portal vein of macaques using saline flushing achieved transgene-derived FIX expression (4.7 ± 2.10-10.1 ± 5.45% of normal human FIX concentration) in the presence of NAbs. Expression was as efficient as that (5.43 ± 2.59-12.68 ± 4.83%) in macaques lacking NAbs. We next tested the efficacy of saline flushing using less invasive balloon catheter-guided injection. This approach also resulted in efficient expression of transgene-derived FIX (2.5 ± 1.06-9.0 ± 2.37%) in the presence of NAbs (14-56× dilutions). NAbs at this range of titers reduced the efficiency of transduction in the macaque liver by 100-fold when the same vector was injected into mesenteric veins without balloon catheters. Our results suggest that portal vein-directed vector delivery strategies with flushing to remove blood are efficacious for minimizing the inhibitory effect of anti-AAV antibodies.Molecular Therapy (2012); doi:10.1038/mt.2012.258.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hemophilia A is a common X chromosome-linked genetic bleeding disorder caused by abnormalities in the coagulation factor VIII gene (F8). Hemophilia A patients suffer from a bleeding diathesis, such as life-threatening bleeding in the brain and harmful bleeding in joints and muscles. Because it could potentially be cured by gene therapy, subhuman animal models have been sought. Current mouse hemophilia A models generated by gene targeting of the F8 have difficulties to extrapolate human disease due to differences in the coagulation and immune systems between mice and humans. Here, we generated a porcine model of hemophilia A by nuclear transfer cloning from F8-targeted fibroblasts. The hemophilia A pigs showed a severe bleeding tendency upon birth, similar to human severe hemophiliacs, but in contrast to hemophilia A mice which rarely bleed under standard breed conditions. Infusion of human factor VIII was effective in stopping bleeding and reducing the bleeding frequency of a hemophilia A piglet but was blocked by the inhibitor against human factor VIII. These data suggest that the hemophilia A pig is a severe hemophilia A animal model for studying not only hemophilia A gene therapy but also the next generation recombinant coagulation factors, such as recombinant factor VIII variants with a slower clearance rate.
PLoS ONE 11/2012; 7(11):e49450. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0049450 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our aim was to examine the pathophysiology of sleep onset of acute coronary syndrome (ACS); in particular, we focused on the association of sleep onset of ACS, sleep-apnea syndrome (SAS), and diurnal variation of hemostasis and adipokine levels. Seventy-four patients (mean 60.0 years; 84% men) with ACS were cross-sectionally examined. They were examined by circulatory levels of hemostasis [plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), D-dimer, soluble fibrin] and adipokines (adiponectin, visfatin) before and after sleep, and cardiorespiratory function. The severity of SAS was defined as mild to no SAS [apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) <15/h, n = 30], moderate SAS (AHI 15-30/h, n = 26), and severe SAS (AHI >30/h, n = 18). Nineteen patients (26%) were diagnosed with sleep onset of ACS, and these patients had a greater extent of morning increase from the night-time levels of PAI-1 (median PAI-1 increase: +37.1 vs. +27.3 ng/ml; P = 0.01) and visfatin (median visfatin increase: +0.40 vs. +0.00 ng/ml; P = 0.08) than those who had daytime onset of ACS. Among patients who had sleep onset of ACS, 89% were diagnosed with moderate to severe SAS. According to the severity of SAS, the morning increase from the night-time levels of PAI-1 and visfatin became greater (median PAI-1 increase: +23.7 vs. +29.2 vs. +39.3 ng/ml; median visfatin increase: 0.00 vs. 0.00 vs. +0.45 ng/ml; both P < 0.05), and these differences remained unchanged even after adjustment for significant covariates (both P < 0.05). Patients who have sleep onset of ACS are likely to have high prevalence of SAS and abnormal diurnal variations of PAI-1 and visfatin levels.
Blood coagulation & fibrinolysis: an international journal in haemostasis and thrombosis 07/2012; 23(7):590-6. DOI:10.1097/MBC.0b013e328355e885 · 1.38 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transplantation of cells overexpressing a target protein represents a viable gene therapeutic approach for treating hemophilia. Here, we focused on the use of autologous mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) expressing coagulation factor for the treatment of coagulation factor VIII (FVIII) deficiency in mice.
Analysis of luciferase gene constructs driven by different promoters revealed that the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) gene promoter coupled with the cytomegalovirus promoter enhancer region was one of the most effective promoters for producing the target protein. MSCs transduced with the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) vector containing the FVIII gene driven by the PAI-1 promoter expressed FVIII for several months, and this expression was maintained after multiple mesenchymal lineage differentiation. Although intravenous injection of cell supernatant derived from MSCs transduced with an SIV vector containing the FVIII gene driven by the PAI-1 promoter significantly increased plasma FVIII levels, subcutaneous implantation of the MSCs resulted in a transient and weak increase in plasma FVIII levels in FVIII-deficient mice. Interestingly, intra-articular injection of the transduced MSCs significantly ameliorated the hemarthrosis and hemophilic arthropathy induced by knee joint needle puncture in FVIII-deficient mice. The therapeutic effects of a single intra-articular injection of transduced MSCs to inhibit joint bleeding persisted for at least 8 weeks after administration.
MSCs provide a promising autologous cell source for the production of coagulation factor. Intra-articular injection of MSCs expressing coagulation factor may offer an attractive treatment approach for hemophilic arthropathy.
Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis 07/2012; 10(9):1802-13. DOI:10.1111/j.1538-7836.2012.04851.x · 5.55 Impact Factor