Suthat Fucharoen

Mahidol University, Krung Thep, Bangkok, Thailand

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Publications (172)470.24 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The liver and heart are the major target organs for iron accumulation and iron toxicity in β-thalassemia. To mimic the phenomenon of heavy iron overload resulting from repeated blood transfusions, a total of 180mg of iron dextran was intraperitoneally injected into C57BL/6J mice (WT) and heterozygous β-globin knockout mice ((mu)β(th-3/+), BKO). The effects of deferiprone and deferoxamine in this model were investigated. The iron was distributed homogenously throughout the 4 liver lobes (left, caudate, right and median) and was present in hepatocytes, Kupffer cells and the sinusoidal space. Iron accumulation in phagocytic macrophages, recruitment of hepatic lymphocytes and nucleus membrane degeneration were observed as a result of iron overload in the WT and BKO mice. However, the expansion of hepatic extramedullary hematopoiesis was observed only in the BKO mice with iron overload. In the heart, the iron accumulated in the cardiac interstitium and myocytes, and moderate hypertrophy of the myocardial fibers and cardiac myocyte degeneration were observed. Although the total liver iron was not significantly altered by iron chelation therapy, image analysis demonstrated a difference in the efficacies of two iron chelators. The major site of chelation was the extracellular compartment, but treatment with deferiprone also resulted in intracellular iron chelation. Interestingly, iron chelators reversed the pathological changes resulting from iron overload in WT and BKO mice despite being used for only a short treatment period. We suggest that some of these effects may be secondary to the anti-inflammatory activity of the chelators.
    Experimental and toxicologic pathology: official journal of the Gesellschaft fur Toxikologische Pathologie 06/2014; · 1.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Immunotherapy has been developed to treat cancers. There are many signaling pathways involved in cytokine induced apoptosis of many cancers but their role remains unclear in some cancers such as leukemia.
    Asian Pacific journal of allergy and immunology / launched by the Allergy and Immunology Society of Thailand 06/2014; 32(2):133-139. · 0.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Expression of fetal γ-globin in adulthood ameliorates symptoms of β-hemoglobinopathies by compensating for the mutant β-globin. Reactivation of the silenced γ-globin gene is therefore of substantial clinical interest. To study the regulation of γ-globin expression, we created the GG mice, which carry an intact 183-kb human β-globin locus modified to express enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) from the Gγ-globin promoter. GG embryos express eGFP first in the yolk sac blood islands and then in the aorta-gonad mesonephros and the fetal liver, the sites of normal embryonic hematopoiesis. eGFP expression in erythroid cells peaks at E9.5 and then is rapidly silenced (>95%) and maintained at low levels into adulthood, demonstrating appropriate developmental regulation of the human β-globin locus. In vitro knockdown of the epigenetic regulator DNA methyltransferase-1 in GG primary erythroid cells increases the proportion of eGFP(+) cells in culture from 41.9 to 74.1%. Furthermore, eGFP fluorescence is induced >3-fold after treatment of erythroid precursors with epigenetic drugs known to induce γ-globin expression, demonstrating the suitability of the Gγ-globin eGFP reporter for evaluation of γ-globin inducers. The GG mouse model is therefore a valuable model system for genetic and pharmacologic studies of the regulation of the β-globin locus and for discovery of novel therapies for the β-hemoglobinopathies.-McColl, B., Kao, B. R., Lourthai, P. Chan, K., Wardan, H., Roosjen, M., Delagneau, O. Gearing, L. J., Blewitt, M. E, Svasti, S., Fucharoen, S., Vadolas, J. An in vivo model for analysis of developmental erythropoiesis and globin gene regulation.
    The FASEB Journal 01/2014; · 5.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The liver and heart are the major target organs for iron accumulation and iron toxicity in β-thalassemia. To mimic the phenomenon of heavy iron overload resulting from repeated blood transfusions, a total of 180 mg of iron dextran was intraperitoneally injected into C57BL/6J mice (WT) and heterozygous β-globin knockout mice (muβth-3/+, BKO). The effects of deferiprone and deferoxamine in this model were investigated. The iron was distributed homogenously throughout the 4 liver lobes (left, caudate, right and median) and was present in hepatocytes, Kupffer cells and the sinusoidal space. Iron accumulation in phagocytic macrophages, recruitment of hepatic lymphocytes and nucleus membrane degeneration were observed as a result of iron overload in the WT and BKO mice. However, the expansion of hepatic extramedullary hematopoiesis was observed only in the BKO mice with iron overload. In the heart, the iron accumulated in the cardiac interstitium and myocytes, and moderate hypertrophy of the myocardial fibers and cardiac myocyte degeneration were observed. Although the total liver iron was not significantly altered by iron chelation therapy, image analysis demonstrated a difference in the efficacies of two iron chelators. The major site of chelation was the extracellular compartment, but treatment with deferiprone also resulted in intracellular iron chelation. Interestingly, iron chelators reversed the pathological changes resulting from iron overload in WT and BKO mice despite being used for only a short treatment period. We suggest that some of these effects may be secondary to the anti-inflammatory activity of the chelators.
    Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology. 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Crohn's disease is an inflammatory bowel disease. Because of strong heritability, it is possible to deploy the pattern of DNA variations, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), to accurately predict the state of this disease. However, there are many possible SNP subsets, which make finding a best set of SNPs to achieve the highest prediction accuracy impossible in one patient's lifetime. In this paper, a new technique is proposed that relies on chromosomes of various lengths with significant order feature selection, a new cross-over approach, and new mutation operations. Our method can find a chromosome of appropriate length with useful features. The Crohn's disease data that were gathered from case–control association studies were used to demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed algorithm. In terms of the prediction accuracy, the proposed SNP prediction framework outperformed previously proposed techniques, including the optimum random forest (ORF), the univariate marginal distribution algorithm and support vector machine (USVM), the complimentary greedy search-based prediction algorithm (CGSP), the combinatorial search-based prediction algorithm (CSP), and discretized network flow (DNF). The performance of our framework, when tested against this real data set with a 5-fold cross-validation, was 90.4% accuracy with 87.5% sensitivity and 92.2% specificity.
    Computers in biology and medicine 01/2014; 44:57–65. · 1.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nitric oxide (NO), a small gas molecule, has long been known to be a potent inhibitor of platelet function but the physiological and pathological implications of platelet inhibition by NO have not been well clarified. We recently showed that the addition of nitrite to platelet-rich plasma in the presence of erythrocytes could inhibit platelet aggregation and this inhibitory effect of nitrite + erythrocytes was enhanced by deoxygenation of erythrocytes as measured by P-selectin expression and cGMP production. In order to study the nitrite effect on platelets at different oxygen levels, we used the flow cytometric assays to detect platelet membrane surface markers upon activation. The P-selectin and activated gpIIb/IIIa expression on platelet membranes in response to ADP, collagen and thrombin stimulation was measured at various hematocrit and oxygen levels. Nitrite (0.1 to 1.0 μM) significantly decreased the percentage of these surface markers on the platelet membrane at the hematocrit values above 23% and oxygen levels lower than 49 mmHg. The inhibitory effect of nitrite was augmented by increasing hematocrit values and decreasing oxygen saturation. C-PTIO (an NO scavenger) prevented the platelet inhibition by nitrite + erythrocytes whereas the inhibitors of NO synthase and xanthine oxidoreductase had no effect. These results support the proposal that circulating nitrite decreases platelet reactivity in the presence of partially deoxygenated erythrocytes through its reduction to NO, which may also explain certain differences between arterial and venous thrombosis and support directly the role of deoxyhemoglobin in this process. We believe that our flow cytometric assays offer a possibility to identify the individual molecular process involved in these effects.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(3):e92435. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: HbH and HbH-constant spring (HbH-CS) are the most common forms of α-thalassemia detected in the Thai population. The accumulation of excess β globin chains in these diseases results in increased red cell hemolysis, and patients with HbH-CS normally have a more severe clinical presentation than patients with HbH disease. This study aimed to detect alterations in the expression of plasma proteins of HbH and HbH-CS patients as compared to normal plasma. Platelet poor plasma was separated from HbH and HbH-CS and normal subjects and differential plasma proteins were detected using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and identified using LC/MS/MS. A total of 14 differentially expressed proteins were detected of which 5 proteins were upregulated and 9 were downregulated. Most of the differentially expressed proteins are liver secreted proteins involved in hemolysis, oxidative stress response, and hemoglobin degradation. Seven proteins were found to be differentially expressed between HbH and HbH-CS. Levels of haptoglobin, a hemoglobin scavenging protein, were significantly increased in HbH patients as compared to HbH-CS patients. The identification of differentially expressed proteins may lead to a better understanding of the biological events underlying the clinical presentation of HbH and HbH-CS patients and can have application as hemolytic markers or severity predictors.
    Disease markers. 01/2014; 2014:340214.
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    ABSTRACT: A major clinical feature of patients with thalassemia is growth retardation due to anemia, therefore, the hematological parameters, weanling weight and post-weanling weight of pups obtained from vitrifiedwarmed embryo transfers were studied for the first time in this report. Two-cell embryos of four transgenic (TG) thalassemic mouse lines (BKO, 654, E2, and E4) were produced by breeding four lines of TG thalassemic males to wild-type (WT) females (C57BL/6J) and were cryopreserved by vitrification in straws using 35% ethylene glycol. After transfer of vitrified-warmed embryos, hematological parameters, spleen index, weanling and post-weanling weight were determined in TG and WT viable pups. In the BKO and 654 mice significantly abnormal hematological parameters and spleen index were observed compared to WT, E2 and E4 mice. The weanling and post-weanling weights of BKO and 654 pups were significantly less than that of the age-matched WT pups. However, no significant differences in weanling and post-weanling weight were found between WT and E2-TG or E4-TG pups. In conclusion, the four transgenic mice lines produced from cryopreserved embryo transfer retain the phenotype of the natural breeding mice indicating that these banked embryos are appropriate for thalassemia model productions.
    Acta Biologica Hungarica 12/2013; 64(4):453-61. · 0.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: β-thalassaemia is a hereditary anaemia resulting from the absence or reduction in β-globin chain production. Heart complications related to iron overload are the most serious cause of death in these patients. In this report cardiac pathology of β-thalassaemic mice was evaluated by light and electron microscopy. The study was carried out in thalassaemic mice carrying human β-thalassaemia mutation, IVSII-654 (654), transgenic mice carrying human β(E) -globin transgene insertion (E4), thalassaemic mice with human β(E) -globin transgene insertion (654/E4) and homozygous thalassaemic mice rescued by the human β(E) -globin transgene (R), which is generated by cross-breeding between the 654 and E4 mice. Histology showed iron deposition in cardiac myocytes of 654 and R mice, but the ultrastructural damage was observed only in the R mice when compared with the wild type, 654, E4 and 654/E4 mice. Histopathological changes in the cardiomyocytes of the R mice included mitochondrial swelling, loss of myofilaments and the presence of lipofuscin, related to the increased level of tissue iron content. The progressive ultrastructural pathology in R mice cardiomyocytes is consistent with the ultrastructural pathology previously studied in patients with thalassaemia. Thus, this R thalassaemic mouse model is suitable for in vivo pathophysiological study of thalassaemic heart.
    International Journal of Experimental Pathology 10/2013; 94(5):336-42. · 2.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Myocardial siderosis is known as the major cause of death in thalassemia major (TM) patients since it can lead to iron overload cardiomyopathy. Although this condition can be prevented if timely effective intensive chelation is given to patients, the mortality rate of iron overload cardiomyopathy still remains high due to late detection of this condition. Various direct and indirect methods of iron assessment, including serum ferritin level, echocardiogram, non-transferrin-bound iron, cardiac magnetic resonance T2*, heart rate variability, and liver biopsy and myocardial biopsy, have been proposed for early detection of cardiac iron overload in TM patients. However, controversial evidence and limitations of their use in clinical practice exist. In this review article, all of these iron assessment methods that have been proposed or used to directly or indirectly determine the cardiac iron status in TM reported from both basic and clinical studies are comprehensively summarized and presented. Since there has been growing evidence in the past decades that cardiac magnetic resonance imaging as well as cardiac autonomic status known as the heart rate variability can provide early detection of cardiac involvement in TM patients, these two methods are also presented and discussed. The existing controversy regarding the assessment of cardiac involvement in thalassemia is also discussed.
    World journal of cardiology. 08/2013; 5(8):270-279.
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    ABSTRACT: A patient with β(β) /β(0) -thalassemia major was converted to transfusion-independence 4.5 years ago by lentiviral gene transfer in hematopoietic stem cells while showing a myeloid-biased cell clone. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSCs) are a potential alternative source of hematopoietic stem cells. If fetal to adult globin class switching does not occur in vivo in iPSC-derived erythroid cells, β-globin gene transfer would be unnecessary. To investigate both vector integration skewing and the potential use of iPSCs for the treatment of thalassemia, we derived iPSCs from the thalassemia gene therapy patient and compared iPSC-derived hematopoietic cells to their natural isogenic somatic counterparts. In NSG mice, embryonic to fetal and a partial fetal to adult globin class switching were observed, indicating that gene transfer is likely necessary for iPSC-based therapy of the β-hemoglobinopathies. Lentivector integration occurred in regions of low and high genotoxicity. Surprisingly, common integration sites (CIS) were identified across those iPSCs and cells retrieved from isogenic and non-isogenic gene therapy patients with β-thalassemia and adrenoleukodystrophy, respectively. This suggests that CIS observed in the absence of overt tumorigenesis result from non-random lentiviral integration rather than oncogenic in vivo selection. These findings bring the use of iPSCs closer to practicality and further clarify our interpretation of genome-wide lentivector integration.
    Stem Cells 05/2013; · 7.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nitrite anion is bioactive nitric oxide (NO) species circulating in blood, and represents the NO bioavailability and endothelial function. In this study, we aimed to investigate the nitrite levels and the correlation with hemolysis and severity in β-thalassemia/hemoglobin E (β-thal/HbE). 38 children (12.0 ± 1.9 years of age) with a diagnosis of mild, moderate and severe β-thalassemia were enrolled in the study. The blood nitrite levels and potential plasma NO consumption were measured by the chemiluminescence method. The nitrite levels in whole blood and erythrocytes of the severe thalassemia subjects were lower than those of the control subjects. At day 7 after transfusion of packed erythrocytes, the nitrite levels in erythrocytes increased. The plasma hemoglobin and NO consumption increased in the severe thalassemia subjects. The nitrite levels in erythrocytes inversely correlated with plasma hemoglobin, lactate dehydrogenase activity, potential NO consumption, and lipid peroxidation. Our studies demonstrate the decreased NO bioavailability in thalassemia, which could result from endothelial dysfunction, the increased potential NO consumption in plasma by cell-free hemoglobin and oxidative stress.
    Nitric Oxide 05/2013; · 3.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Erythropoiesis, a process of erythroid production, is controlled by several factors including oxygen level. In this study, the effect of oxygen tension on erythropoiesis was investigated in K562 erythroleukemic cell line and erythroid progenitor cells derived from normal and β-thalassemia/hemoglobin (Hb) E individuals. The enhanced erythroid differentiation specific markers including increased levels of α-, β- and γ-globin gene expressions, numbers of HbF positive cells and the presence of glycophorin A surface marker were observed during cell culture under hypoxic atmosphere. The result also showed that miR-210, one of the hypoxia-induced miRNAs, was up-regulated in K562 and β-thalassemia/HbE progenitor cells cultured under hypoxic condition. Inhibition of miR-210 expression leads to reduction of the globin gene expression and delayed maturation in K562 and erythroid progenitor cells. This indicated that miR-210 contributes to hypoxia-induced erythroid differentiation in both K562 cells and β-thalassemia/HbE erythroid progenitor cells.
    Blood Cells Molecules and Diseases 04/2013; · 2.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: β-thalassaemia intermedia (BTI) syndromes cause haemolytic anaemia, ineffective erythropoiesis, and widespread complications. Higher fetal globin expression within genotypes reduces globin imbalance and ameliorates anaemia. Sodium 2,2 dimethylbutyrate (HQK-1001), an orally bioavailable short-chain fatty acid derivative, induces γ-globin expression experimentally and is well-tolerated in normal subjects. Accordingly, a randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled, Phase I/II trial was performed in 21 adult BTI patients (14 with HbE/β(0) thalassaemia and seven with β(+) /β(0) thalassaemia intermedia, to determine effective doses for fetal globin induction, safety, and tolerability. HQK-1001 or placebo were administered once daily for 8 weeks at four dose levels (10, 20, 30, or 40 mg/kg per day), and subjects were monitored for laboratory and clinical events. Pharmacokinetic profiles demonstrated a t1/2 of 10-12 h. Adverse events with HQK-1001 treatment were not significantly different from placebo treatment. The 20 mg/kg treatment doses increased median HbF above baseline levels by 6·6% and 4·4 g/l (P < 0·01) in 8/9 subjects; total haemoglobin (Hb) increased by a mean of 11 g/l in 4/9 subjects. These findings identified a safe oral therapeutic which induces fetal globin in BTI. Further investigation of HQK-1001 with longer dosing to definitively evaluate its haematological potential appears warranted.
    British Journal of Haematology 03/2013; · 4.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: β -thalassemia/Hb E is known to cause oxidative stress induced by iron overload. The glutathione system is the major endogenous antioxidant that protects animal cells from oxidative damage. This study aimed to determine the effect of disease state and splenectomy on redox status expressed by whole blood glutathione (GSH)/glutathione disulfide (GSSG) and also to evaluate glutathione-related responses to oxidation in β -thalassemia/Hb E patients. Twenty-seven normal subjects and 25 β -thalassemia/Hb E patients were recruited and blood was collected. The GSH/GSSG ratio, activities of glutathione-related enzymes, hematological parameters, and serum ferritin levels were determined in individuals. Patients had high iron-induced oxidative stress, shown as significantly increased serum ferritin, a decreased GSH/GSSG ratio, and increased activities of glutathione-related enzymes. Splenectomy increased serum ferritin levels and decreased GSH levels concomitant with unchanged glutathione-related enzyme activities. The redox ratio had a positive correlation with hemoglobin levels and negative correlation with levels of serum ferritin. The glutathione system may be the body's first-line defense used against oxidative stress and to maintain redox homeostasis in thalassemic patients based on the significant correlations between the GSH/GSSH ratio and degree of anemia or body iron stores.
    The Scientific World Journal 01/2013; 2013:543973. · 1.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is considerable ethno-linguistic and genetic variation among human populations in Asia, although tracing the origins of this diversity is complicated by migration events. Thailand is at the center of Mainland Southeast Asia (MSEA), a region within Asia that has not been extensively studied. Genetic substructure may exist in the Thai population, since waves of migration from southern China throughout its recent history may have contributed to substantial gene flow. Autosomal SNP data were collated for 438,503 markers from 992 Thai individuals. Using the available self-reported regional origin, four Thai subpopulations genetically distinct from each other and from other Asian populations were resolved by Neighbor-Joining analysis using a 41,569 marker subset. Using an independent Principal Components-based unsupervised clustering approach, four major MSEA subpopulations were resolved in which regional bias was apparent. A major ancestry component was common to these MSEA subpopulations and distinguishes them from other Asian subpopulations. On the other hand, these MSEA subpopulations were admixed with other ancestries, in particular one shared with Chinese. Subpopulation clustering using only Thai individuals and the complete marker set resolved four subpopulations, which are distributed differently across Thailand. A Sino-Thai subpopulation was concentrated in the Central region of Thailand, although this constituted a minority in an otherwise diverse region. Among the most highly differentiated markers which distinguish the Thai subpopulations, several map to regions known to affect phenotypic traits such as skin pigmentation and susceptibility to common diseases. The subpopulation patterns elucidated have important implications for evolutionary and medical genetics. The subpopulation structure within Thailand may reflect the contributions of different migrants throughout the history of MSEA. The information will also be important for genetic association studies to account for population-structure confounding effects.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(11):e79522. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The severity of thalassemia is currently classified based on clinical manifestations and multiple tests. In the present study, we performed a plasma proteome analysis to identify differentially expressed proteins compared between normal subjects and patients with mild and severe forms of β-thalassemia/hemoglobin E (Hb E). Plasma samples were collected from patients with mild (n = 8) and severe (n = 12) forms as well as healthy normal individuals (n = 12). Clinical chemistry revealed that several parameters, i.e., hematological indices, oxidative stress markers, antioxidant enzymes, and erythropoietic activity, had significant differences among these three groups. After removal of seven major abundant proteins, the plasma proteome profiles were compared using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Spot matching, quantitative intensity analysis, and statistics revealed differential levels of 32 and 9 proteins when comparing normal vs. patients and mild vs. severe forms, respectively. These proteins were successfully identified by quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry and/or tandem mass spectrometry. The decreased level of ADP-ribosylation factor guanine nucleotide-exchange factor 2 in β-thalassemia/Hb E patients compared to healthy individuals and the decreased level of endothelin-converting enzyme 2 in severe form compared to the mild form of the disease were validated by Western blot analysis. Our data provide a number of proteins that may lead to better understanding of the pathophysiology of thalassemia or for novel biomarkers which can be used to simply differentiate mild and severe forms of β-thalassemia/Hb E without any need for multiple tests.
    Annals of Hematology 11/2012; · 2.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Malignant transformation is a multistep process requiring oncogenic activation, promoting cellular proliferation, frequently coupled to inhibition of terminal differentiation. Consequently, forcing the reengagement of terminal differentiation of transformed cells coupled or not with an inhibition of their proliferation is a putative therapeutic approach to counteracting tumorigenicity. UT7 is a human leukemic cell line able to grow in the presence of IL3, GM-CSF and Epo. This cell line has been widely used to study Epo-R/Epo signaling pathways but is a poor model for erythroid differentiation. We used the BET bromodomain inhibition drug JQ1 to target gene expression, including that of c-Myc. We shown that only two days of JQ1 treatment was required to transitory inhibit Epo-induced UT7 proliferation and to restore terminal erythroid differentiation. This study highlights the importance of a cellular erythroid cycle break mediated by c-Myc inhibition before initiation of the erythropoiesis program and describes a new model for BET bromodomain inhibitor drug application.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 11/2012; · 2.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Thalassemia is an inherited disorder of hemoglobin molecules that is characterized by an imbalance of α- and β-globin chain synthesis. Accumulation of unbound α-globin chains in erythroid cells is the major cause of pathology in β-thalassemia. Stimulation of γ-globin production can ameliorate disease severity as it combines with the α-globin to form fetal hemoglobin. We examined γ-globin-inducing effect of curcuminoids extracted from Curcuma longa L. and their metabolite reduced forms in erythroid leukemia K562 and human primary erythroid precursor cells. The results showed that curcuminoid compounds, especially bisdemethoxycurcumin are potential γ-globin enhancers. We also demonstrated that its reduced analog, hexahydrobisdemethoxycurcumin (HHBDMC), is most effective and leads to induction of γ-globin mRNA and HbF in primary erythroid precursor cells for 3.6 ± 0.4- and 2.0 ± 0.4-folds, respectively. This suggested that HHBDMC is the potential agent to be developed as a new therapeutic drug for β-thalassemia and related β-hemoglobinopathies.
    Annals of Hematology 10/2012; · 2.87 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
470.24 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1992–2014
    • Mahidol University
      • • Institute of Molecular Biosciences
      • • Department of Clinical Microscopy
      • • Department of Pharmacology
      Krung Thep, Bangkok, Thailand
  • 2012–2013
    • Ramathibodi Hospital
      Krung Thep, Bangkok, Thailand
  • 2006–2013
    • Chiang Mai University
      • • Department of Physiology
      • • Faculty of Medicine
      • • Department of Biochemistry
      Amphoe Muang Chiang Mai, Chiang Mai, Thailand
    • Chulalongkorn University
      • • Department of Mathematics and Computer Science
      • • Department of Pharmacology
      Krung Thep, Bangkok, Thailand
    • Srinakharinwirot University
      • Department of Biochemistry
      Bangkok, Bangkok, Thailand
  • 2010
    • Prince of Songkla University
      • Faculty of Medicine
      Songkhla, Changwat Songkhla, Thailand
    • Boston University
      • Department of Medicine
      Boston, MA, United States
  • 2002–2009
    • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
      • • Department of Pharmacology
      • • Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center
      Chapel Hill, NC, United States
  • 2008
    • Phramongkutklao Hostpital
      Krung Thep, Bangkok, Thailand
    • Hebrew University of Jerusalem
      Yerushalayim, Jerusalem District, Israel
  • 2003–2006
    • Murdoch Childrens Research Institute
      • • Research Group for Cell & Gene Therapy
      • • Research Group for Heart Research
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  • 2005
    • University of Melbourne
      • Department of Paediatrics
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  • 2002–2005
    • Chulabhorn Research Institute
      • Laboratory of Biochemistry
      Krung Thep, Bangkok, Thailand