Suthat Fucharoen

Mahidol University, Krung Thep, Bangkok, Thailand

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Publications (208)673.45 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Objectives Desferrioxamine (DFO), deferiprone (DFP) and deferasirox (DFX) are iron chelators currently in clinical use for the treatment of iron overload. Due to difficulties with administration and associated side effects with these three molecules, the search continues for an efficient nontoxic orally active iron chelator. This communication describes the properties of one such candidate, 1-(N-acetyl-6-aminohexyl)-3-hydroxy-2-methylpyridin-4-one (CM1).Methods Physicochemical characterisation techniques, including partition coefficient, pKa values and logK values for iron(III). Iron scavenging assays, from iron citrate, nontransferrin bound iron and iron-loaded rats. Cytotoxicity studies using white cells, hepatocytes and cardiomyocytes.Key findingsCM1 possesses high affinity and selectivity for iron(III) and a suitable partition coefficient to permeate membranes. CM1 forms a neutral 3 : 1 iron(III) complex under physiological conditions and so, it is predicted to be capable of entry into mammalian cells to scavenge excess intracellular iron and to efflux from cells as the neutral 3 : 1 complex. CM1 is demonstrated to be orally active and to possess a higher efficacy than DFP in rats. CM1 displays no toxicity to a range of cell types.Conclusion The above promising studies will be extended to monitor the pharmacokinetics and metabolism of CM1. CM1 is an excellent candidate for phase 1 clinical trials.
    02/2015; DOI:10.1111/jphp.12373
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    ABSTRACT: Decreased hemoglobinization of red cells resulting in hypochromia and microcytosis are the main features of thalassemia syndromes, and also of iron deficiency anemia (IDA). A simple and reliable method is required to distinguish the two conditions in the routine laboratories. In this study we analyzed the red cell and reticulocyte parameters from 414 samples of various types of thalassemias and IDA and discovered a variety of discriminating criteria including a discrimination index (DI) which should be useful for differential diagnosis.
    Blood Cells Molecules and Diseases 01/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.bcmd.2015.01.010 · 2.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: β-Thalassemia/HbE disease is caused by a defective β-globin synthesis that leads to accumulation of excess unbound α-globins, and consequently oxidative stress, ineffective erythropoiesis and chronic anemia. Cell replication and oxidative stress are factors contributing to erosion of telomeres responsible for maintaining genomic stability and cell replication capability. In this study, the rate of telomere shortening in β-thalassemia/HbE patients was compared to the rate of telomere shortening in normal individuals. Telomere length was determined from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 43 β-thalassemia/HbE patients and 22 normal controls using Flow-FISH analysis. The telomere length was shown to be age-dependent in normal group (rs = 0.715, P = 0.002), whereas severity-dependent telomere shortening was observed in the patients. The telomere length of patients who had severe clinical symptoms (10.07 ± 2.15%) was shorter than that of patients who showed mild symptoms (15.59 ± 2.27%), moderate symptoms (14.50 ± 1.41%) and those in the normal group (14.75 ± 3.11%, P < 0.05). Additionally, reticulocyte count and oxidative stress were correlated with telomere length. This indicates that increased oxidative stress and markedly enhanced erythropoiesis in β-thalassemia/HbE patients leads to accelerated telomere erosion in clinically severe patients.
    Blood Cells Molecules and Diseases 01/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.bcmd.2015.01.003 · 2.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Furin is a proprotein convertase enzyme. In the liver, it cleaves prohepcidin to form active hepcidin-25, which regulates systemic iron homeostasis. Hepcidin deficiency is a component of several iron overload disorders, including β-thalassemia. Several studies have identified factors that repress hepcidin gene transcription in iron overload. However, the effect of iron overload on furin, a post-translational regulator of hepcidin, has never been evaluated. The present study aimed to investigate the changes in furin and related factors in parenteral iron-overloaded mice, including those with β-thalassemia. Wild-type (WT) and β-thalassemia intermedia (th3/+) C57BL/6 mice were intraperitoneally injected with 9 doses of iron dextran (1 g iron/kg body weight) over 2 weeks. In the iron overload condition, our data demonstrated a significant Furin mRNA reduction in WT and th3/+ mice. In addition, the liver furin protein level in iron-overloaded WT mice was significantly reduced by 70% compared to control WT mice. However, the liver furin protein in iron-overloaded th3/+ mice did not show a significant reduction compared to control th3/+ mice. The hepcidin gene (hepcidin antimicrobial peptide gene, Hamp1) expression was increased in iron-overloaded WT and th3/+ mice. Surprisingly, the liver hepcidin protein level and total serum hepcidin were not increased in both WT and th3/+ mice with iron overload, regardless of the increase in Hamp1 mRNA. In conclusion, we demonstrate furin downregulation in conjunction with Hamp1 mRNA-unrelated pattern of hepcidin protein expression in iron-overloaded mice, particularly the WT mice, suggesting that, not only the amount of hepcidin but also the furin-mediated physiological activity may be decreased in severe iron overload condition.
    Toxicology Reports 01/2015; 2:415-422. DOI:10.1016/j.toxrep.2015.01.004
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    ABSTRACT: Dengue is the most significant arthropod borne viral disease worldwide, and infection with the dengue virus causes a wide range of symptoms in humans, including bone marrow suppression. While the target cells of the virus remain poorly characterized, cells of the myeloid lineage have been shown to be important mediators of the disease. This study sought to determine whether erythroid precursor cells were susceptible to dengue virus infection, and whether erythroid cells from thalassemia trait carriers showed any protection against infection. Infection with a laboratory adapted high passage DENV-2 resulted in high levels of infection during certain stages of differentiation, and cells derived from thalassemia trait carriers showed significantly reduced susceptibility to dengue virus infection. Infection with low passage isolates resulted in only scattered cells showing evidence of infection, but high bystander apoptosis that was reduced by both a caspase 8 inhibitor and anti-tumor necrosis factor 1 receptor antibodies.
    Virology 12/2014; 471. DOI:10.1016/j.virol.2014.10.004 · 3.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Serum EPO concentration is related primarily to the rate of erythrocyte production and, under the stimulation of hypoxia, increases exponentially as hemoglobin (Hb) decreased. The level of EPO was determined in 141 subjects including 43 normal, 44 thalassemic patients and 54 thalassemic trait subjects. The EPO level was significantly higher in the thalassemic patients (54.8mU/ml in HbH disease [α thal1/α thal2;], 78.1mU/ml in HbH with Hb CS [α thal 1/CS]; 95.6mU/ml in β-thal/HbE splenectomized [BE(S)]; and 114.8mU/ml in β-thal/HbE non-splenectomized [BE(NS)]as compared with 12.0mU/ml in normal subjects. No significant differences were detected in thalassemic trait subjects. In addition, the levels of EPO in thalassemic patients is correlated significantly with the number of reticulocytes and the reticulocyte fractions especially the fraction of immature reticulocytes. Interestingly, the highest level of EPO/% retic ratio as indicated for EPO non-responder was detected in BE(NS) patients. However, the impaired reticulocytes maturation was found to be related significantly with the levels of TNF-α,IFN-γ,IL-10, and VEGF. Since, TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-10 and VEGF are reported as the cytokines with erythropoietic inhibitory mediators, the variation of these cytokines in thalassemic environments may be associated to the anemic crisis in these patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Blood Cells Molecules and Diseases 11/2014; 54(2). DOI:10.1016/j.bcmd.2014.11.007 · 2.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: α(0)-Thalassemia occurs from a deletion of 2 linked α-globin genes and interaction of these defective genes leads to hemoglobin (Hb) Bart's hydrops fetalis, the most severe and lethal thalassemia syndrome. Identification of α(0)-thalassemia carriers is thus essential for the prevention and control program. An immunochromatographic (IC) strip test was developed for rapid screening of α(0)-thalassemia by testing for Hb Bart's in the blood samples using a specific monoclonal antibody against Hb Bart's. To evaluate its sensitivity and specificity, the IC strip test was assessed in a cohort with various thalassemia genotypes from 4 different laboratories in Thailand and Australia. The result showed 97% sensitivity in α-thalassemia carriers with 2 α-globin genes deletion and Hb H disease. This is, in particular, the useful rapid screening test for regions where β-thalassemia and homozygous Hb E are also common. Similar hematologic and Hb data make it impossible to address the concomitant inheritance of α(0)-thalassemia in these samples without polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based techniques, leading to misdiagnosis of the risk of having Hb Bart's hydrops fetalis. However, α-globin genotyping should be carried out in samples with positive IC strip as positive reactivity was also observed in homozygous α(+)-thalassemia carriers who have 2 trans α-globin gene deletions. These results indicate that in combination with red blood cell indices, the IC strip test could rule out mass populations for further α(0)-thalassemia detection by PCR-based analysis. The Alpha Thal IC strip also has the potential to replace testing for Hb H inclusion bodies, as it appears to be more sensitive, specific, and less labor intensive. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Translational Research 11/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.trsl.2014.10.013 · 4.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a life-threatening complication in thalassemia characterized by elevated pulmonary arterial pressure. Increased platelet activation is associated with this complication; however, its role remains unclear. Platelet activation in splenectomized β-thalassemia/hemoglobin E (Hb E) patients was measured using flow cytometric determination of P-selectin and activated glycoprotein (aGP) IIb/IIIa expression, and platelet-leukocyte aggregates (platelet-neutrophil, platelet-monocyte and platelet-lymphocyte aggregates). Tricuspid regurgitant velocity (TRV) was measured and used as an indicator of pulmonary arterial pressure. Plasma hemoglobin served as markers of hemolysis. Fifteen of 27 patients had elevated TRV (>2.5m/s). Platelet expression of P-selectin and aGPIIb/IIIa, and platelet-leukocyte aggregates were higher in thalassemia patients with elevated TRV than healthy control. Platelet-neutrophil aggregates increased in thalassemia patients with elevated TRV compared to patients with normal TRV. The increase in P-selectin and aGPIIb/IIIa expression induced by adenosine diphosphate (ADP) was higher in patients with elevated TRV than those with normal TRV. Platelet P-selectin expression and platelet-neutrophil aggregates correlated positively with TRV. Plasma hemoglobin levels in patients with elevated TRV were higher than those of the control subjects, and correlated with TRV. Thalassemia patients with elevated TRV have a further increase in platelet activation that correlates with hemolysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Thrombosis Research 10/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.thromres.2014.10.010 · 2.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Infection is one of the most common causes of death in β-thalassemia patients. This may be due in part to an underlying immunological abnormality. During the past decade, a subset of CD3+ T cells that express both CD4+CD8+ (DP) T-cells were discovered and have been described in several pathological conditions. However, phenotypic characterization of this unique T-lymphocyte subset in patients with β-thalassemia has not yet been investigated.
    Asian Pacific journal of allergy and immunology / launched by the Allergy and Immunology Society of Thailand 09/2014; 32(3):261-269. DOI:10.12932/AP0426.32.3.2014 · 1.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate efficacy and toxicity of a novel orally active bidentate iron chelator, 1-(N-acetyl-6-aminohexyl)-3-hydroxy-2-methylpyridin-4-one (CM1) in mice under normal and iron overload conditions.
    Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine 09/2014; 7S1:S155-61. DOI:10.1016/S1995-7645(14)60223-6 · 0.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background The assessment of myocardial iron using T2* cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) has been validated and calibrated, and is in clinical use. However, there is very limited data assessing the relaxation parameters T1 and T2 for measurement of human myocardial iron. Methods Twelve hearts were examined from transfusion-dependent patients: 11 with end-stage heart failure, either following death (n = 7) or cardiac transplantation (n = 4), and 1 heart from a patient who died from a stroke with no cardiac iron loading. Ex-vivo R1 and R2 measurements (R1 = 1/T1 and R2 = 1/T2) at 1.5 Tesla were compared with myocardial iron concentration measured using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Results From a single myocardial slice in formalin which was repeatedly examined, a modest decrease in T2 was observed with time, from mean (±SD) 23.7 ± 0.93 ms at baseline (13 days after death and formalin fixation) to 18.5 ± 1.41 ms at day 566 (p < 0.001). Raw T2 values were therefore adjusted to correct for this fall over time. Myocardial R2 was correlated with iron concentration [Fe] (R2 0.566, p < 0.001), but the correlation was stronger between LnR2 and Ln[Fe] (R2 0.790, p < 0.001). The relation was [Fe] = 5081•(T2)-2.22 between T2 (ms) and myocardial iron (mg/g dry weight). Analysis of T1 proved challenging with a dichotomous distribution of T1, with very short T1 (mean 72.3 ± 25.8 ms) that was independent of iron concentration in all hearts stored in formalin for greater than 12 months. In the remaining hearts stored for <10 weeks prior to scanning, LnR1 and iron concentration were correlated but with marked scatter (R2 0.517, p < 0.001). A linear relationship was present between T1 and T2 in the hearts stored for a short period (R2 0.657, p < 0.001). Conclusion Myocardial T2 correlates well with myocardial iron concentration, which raises the possibility that T2 may provide additive information to T2* for patients with myocardial siderosis. However, ex-vivo T1 measurements are less reliable due to the severe chemical effects of formalin on T1 shortening, and therefore T1 calibration may only be practical from in-vivo human studies.
    Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance 08/2014; 16(1-1):62. DOI:10.1186/s12968-014-0062-4 · 5.11 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance 08/2014; · 5.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the iron-chelating properties and free-radical scavenging activities of 1-(N-acetyl-6-aminohexyl)-3-hydroxy-2-methylpyridin-4-one (CM1) treatment in chronic iron-loaded β-thalassemic (BKO) mice.
    Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine 08/2014; 4(8):663-8. DOI:10.12980/APJTB.4.2014APJTB-2014-0155
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    ABSTRACT: HbH and HbH-constant spring (HbH-CS) are the most common forms of α-thalassemia detected in the Thai population. The accumulation of excess β globin chains in these diseases results in increased red cell hemolysis, and patients with HbH-CS normally have a more severe clinical presentation than patients with HbH disease. This study aimed to detect alterations in the expression of plasma proteins of HbH and HbH-CS patients as compared to normal plasma. Platelet poor plasma was separated from HbH and HbH-CS and normal subjects and differential plasma proteins were detected using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and identified using LC/MS/MS. A total of 14 differentially expressed proteins were detected of which 5 proteins were upregulated and 9 were downregulated. Most of the differentially expressed proteins are liver secreted proteins involved in hemolysis, oxidative stress response, and hemoglobin degradation. Seven proteins were found to be differentially expressed between HbH and HbH-CS. Levels of haptoglobin, a hemoglobin scavenging protein, were significantly increased in HbH patients as compared to HbH-CS patients. The identification of differentially expressed proteins may lead to a better understanding of the biological events underlying the clinical presentation of HbH and HbH-CS patients and can have application as hemolytic markers or severity predictors.
    Disease markers 06/2014; 2014:340214. DOI:10.1155/2014/340214 · 2.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The liver and heart are the major target organs for iron accumulation and iron toxicity in β-thalassemia. To mimic the phenomenon of heavy iron overload resulting from repeated blood transfusions, a total of 180mg of iron dextran was intraperitoneally injected into C57BL/6J mice (WT) and heterozygous β-globin knockout mice ((mu)β(th-3/+), BKO). The effects of deferiprone and deferoxamine in this model were investigated. The iron was distributed homogenously throughout the 4 liver lobes (left, caudate, right and median) and was present in hepatocytes, Kupffer cells and the sinusoidal space. Iron accumulation in phagocytic macrophages, recruitment of hepatic lymphocytes and nucleus membrane degeneration were observed as a result of iron overload in the WT and BKO mice. However, the expansion of hepatic extramedullary hematopoiesis was observed only in the BKO mice with iron overload. In the heart, the iron accumulated in the cardiac interstitium and myocytes, and moderate hypertrophy of the myocardial fibers and cardiac myocyte degeneration were observed. Although the total liver iron was not significantly altered by iron chelation therapy, image analysis demonstrated a difference in the efficacies of two iron chelators. The major site of chelation was the extracellular compartment, but treatment with deferiprone also resulted in intracellular iron chelation. Interestingly, iron chelators reversed the pathological changes resulting from iron overload in WT and BKO mice despite being used for only a short treatment period. We suggest that some of these effects may be secondary to the anti-inflammatory activity of the chelators.
    Experimental and toxicologic pathology: official journal of the Gesellschaft fur Toxikologische Pathologie 06/2014; 66(7). DOI:10.1016/j.etp.2014.03.002 · 2.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Immunotherapy has been developed to treat cancers. There are many signaling pathways involved in cytokine induced apoptosis of many cancers but their role remains unclear in some cancers such as leukemia.
    Asian Pacific journal of allergy and immunology / launched by the Allergy and Immunology Society of Thailand 06/2014; 32(2):133-139. DOI:10.12932/AP0378.32.2.2013 · 1.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nitric oxide (NO), a small gas molecule, has long been known to be a potent inhibitor of platelet function but the physiological and pathological implications of platelet inhibition by NO have not been well clarified. We recently showed that the addition of nitrite to platelet-rich plasma in the presence of erythrocytes could inhibit platelet aggregation and this inhibitory effect of nitrite + erythrocytes was enhanced by deoxygenation of erythrocytes as measured by P-selectin expression and cGMP production. In order to study the nitrite effect on platelets at different oxygen levels, we used the flow cytometric assays to detect platelet membrane surface markers upon activation. The P-selectin and activated gpIIb/IIIa expression on platelet membranes in response to ADP, collagen and thrombin stimulation was measured at various hematocrit and oxygen levels. Nitrite (0.1 to 1.0 μM) significantly decreased the percentage of these surface markers on the platelet membrane at the hematocrit values above 23% and oxygen levels lower than 49 mmHg. The inhibitory effect of nitrite was augmented by increasing hematocrit values and decreasing oxygen saturation. C-PTIO (an NO scavenger) prevented the platelet inhibition by nitrite + erythrocytes whereas the inhibitors of NO synthase and xanthine oxidoreductase had no effect. These results support the proposal that circulating nitrite decreases platelet reactivity in the presence of partially deoxygenated erythrocytes through its reduction to NO, which may also explain certain differences between arterial and venous thrombosis and support directly the role of deoxyhemoglobin in this process. We believe that our flow cytometric assays offer a possibility to identify the individual molecular process involved in these effects.
    PLoS ONE 03/2014; 9(3):e92435. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0092435 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Expression of fetal γ-globin in adulthood ameliorates symptoms of β-hemoglobinopathies by compensating for the mutant β-globin. Reactivation of the silenced γ-globin gene is therefore of substantial clinical interest. To study the regulation of γ-globin expression, we created the GG mice, which carry an intact 183-kb human β-globin locus modified to express enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) from the Gγ-globin promoter. GG embryos express eGFP first in the yolk sac blood islands and then in the aorta-gonad mesonephros and the fetal liver, the sites of normal embryonic hematopoiesis. eGFP expression in erythroid cells peaks at E9.5 and then is rapidly silenced (>95%) and maintained at low levels into adulthood, demonstrating appropriate developmental regulation of the human β-globin locus. In vitro knockdown of the epigenetic regulator DNA methyltransferase-1 in GG primary erythroid cells increases the proportion of eGFP(+) cells in culture from 41.9 to 74.1%. Furthermore, eGFP fluorescence is induced >3-fold after treatment of erythroid precursors with epigenetic drugs known to induce γ-globin expression, demonstrating the suitability of the Gγ-globin eGFP reporter for evaluation of γ-globin inducers. The GG mouse model is therefore a valuable model system for genetic and pharmacologic studies of the regulation of the β-globin locus and for discovery of novel therapies for the β-hemoglobinopathies.-McColl, B., Kao, B. R., Lourthai, P. Chan, K., Wardan, H., Roosjen, M., Delagneau, O. Gearing, L. J., Blewitt, M. E, Svasti, S., Fucharoen, S., Vadolas, J. An in vivo model for analysis of developmental erythropoiesis and globin gene regulation.
    The FASEB Journal 01/2014; 28(5). DOI:10.1096/fj.13-246637 · 5.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Crohn's disease is an inflammatory bowel disease. Because of strong heritability, it is possible to deploy the pattern of DNA variations, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), to accurately predict the state of this disease. However, there are many possible SNP subsets, which make finding a best set of SNPs to achieve the highest prediction accuracy impossible in one patient's lifetime. In this paper, a new technique is proposed that relies on chromosomes of various lengths with significant order feature selection, a new cross-over approach, and new mutation operations. Our method can find a chromosome of appropriate length with useful features. The Crohn's disease data that were gathered from case–control association studies were used to demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed algorithm. In terms of the prediction accuracy, the proposed SNP prediction framework outperformed previously proposed techniques, including the optimum random forest (ORF), the univariate marginal distribution algorithm and support vector machine (USVM), the complimentary greedy search-based prediction algorithm (CGSP), the combinatorial search-based prediction algorithm (CSP), and discretized network flow (DNF). The performance of our framework, when tested against this real data set with a 5-fold cross-validation, was 90.4% accuracy with 87.5% sensitivity and 92.2% specificity.
    Computers in biology and medicine 01/2014; 44:57–65. DOI:10.1016/j.compbiomed.2013.09.017 · 1.48 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
673.45 Total Impact Points


  • 1981–2015
    • Mahidol University
      • • Institute of Molecular Biosciences
      • • Department of Clinical Microscopy
      • • Department of Pharmacology
      • • Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital
      • • Department of Pathobiology
      • • Department of Microbiology
      • • Faculty of Graduate Studies
      Krung Thep, Bangkok, Thailand
    • University of London
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2009–2013
    • Chiang Mai University
      • • Department of Physiology
      • • Faculty of Medicine
      Amphoe Muang Chiang Mai, Chiang Mai, Thailand
  • 2002–2008
    • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
      • • Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center
      • • Department of Medicine
      North Carolina, United States
  • 2006
    • Chulalongkorn University
      • Department of Pharmacology
      Bangkok, Bangkok, Thailand
  • 2002–2004
    • Chulabhorn Research Institute
      • Laboratory of Biochemistry
      Krung Thep, Bangkok, Thailand
  • 2003
    • Murdoch Childrens Research Institute
      • Research Group for Heart Research
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia