[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Evidences arising from epidemiological studies as well as from detailed experimental investigations have indicated that there is strong relationship between certain feed ingredients and incidence of bacterial infections. A total of two hundred and thirty nine (239) Poultry feed samples comprising of two hundred and four (204) commercially prepared feed and thirty five (35) self compounded feed were collected from seventy six (76) identified poultry farms in Sokoto metropolis over a period of 12 months for assessing their microbiological (bacterial) quality. Of the total 80 questionnaires administered, 76 (95.00%) were responded to. Of the respondents, 53 (69.74%) indicated using commercially prepared feed while 23 (30.26%)
compounded the feed by themselves. Similarly, 30.57% of the farms visited store their feed either within the
poultry pen or in an open space. Out of total (n=239), commercially prepared (n=204) and Self compounded
(n=35) feed samples, 217 (90.79%) samples yielded positive bacterial growth. Based on culture and
identification, 263 bacterial species/genus were identified which include the following: Corynebacterium
pyogenes (9; 3.42%), Bacillus subtilis (60; 22.81%), Enterobacter arrogenes (6; 2.28%), Escherichia coli (57;
21.67%), Listeria monocytogenes (19; 7.22%), Coagulase-negative staphylococcus (8; 3.04%), Pasturella
multocida (3; 1.14%), Pseudomona aerogenosa (7; 2.66%), Proteus mirabilis (1; 0.38%), Proteus vulgaris (17; 6.46%), Salmonella spp. (10; 3.80%), Staphylococcu aureus (44; 16.73%), Streptococcus pyogenes (17; 6.46%), Yersinia enterocolitica (3; 1.14%) and (2; 0.76%) unidentified bacterial species. The presence of the above bacteria in all the feed samples calls for attention in the storage methods employed by the poultry and other livestock farmers, the warehouse condition, distributors and the sellers. This result could be used as a baseline data in setting public health standard for poultry feeds to achieve food security concern issues.
International Journal of Applied Biology and Pharmaceutical Technology 03/2012; 3(1):345-250. · 0.99 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Serum samples were collected from goats slaughtered at the Sokoto metropolis abattoir and werescreened using Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT), the Serum Agglutination Test (SAT) and the Competitive Elisa(complisa) for brucellosis. A seroprevalence of 22.93% was recorded. The female had more prevalence(28.35%) than the male while the age band of 13-24 months had the highest prevalence of 22.46% Sokoto redwas the breed with the highest prevalence of 34.12% while the hot season had the highest prevalence of28.57%. Due to the zoonotic implications of the disease, there is the urgent need to consider the vaccinationof small ruminants against brucellosis in addition to other recommendations suggested.
Current Research Journal of Biological Sciences. 01/2010;
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was conducted in north-western Nigeria to investigate the role of cats and dogs as potential reservoirs of thermophilic Campylobacter species. Faecal samples were analysed from 104 cats and 141 dogs between March 2007 and March 2009. The samples were collected from animals in households, those presented to veterinary premises and feline colonies. Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 39 (27.7%) and 19 (18.3%) dogs and cats, respectively. There was no significant difference in isolation rate observed between dogs (27.7%) and cats (18.3%) and there was also no significance difference between younger and older dogs; 23.1% (young) compared to 30.3% (older) dogs, but a significant difference was seen between young (4.3%) and older (29.3%) cats. Campylobacter upsaliensis predominated in the isolates, accounting for 89.5% and 74.4% of the positive samples in cats and dogs, respectively, C. jejuni constituted 21.1% and 23.1% of the positive samples from cats and dogs, respectively. This finding is an indication that dogs and cats frequently shed thermophilic Campylobacter spp. which could be of public health importance. To establish the zoonotic significance of canine and feline Campylobacter, isolates need to be further characterised and compared. This is the first study on the prevalence of campylobacter in cats and dogs in the region.
Veterinaria italiana 01/2010; 46(4):425-30. · 0.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A total of 1312 rectal swabs (feacal) samples were collected from apparently healthy goats across Sokoto state and processed for Campylobacter organisms. 264 (20.1%) of the samples were positive and yielded 272 Campylobacter species. Campylobacter species isolated in this study were Campylobacter jejuni 169(62.1%), Campylobacter coli 58(21.3%), Campylobacter lari 24(8.8%), Campylobacter upsaliensis 13(4.8%) and Campylobacter sputorum 8(3.0%). Biotyping of the isolates indicated that C. jejuni biotype I (52.6%) and C. coli biotype II (82.8%) were the most common biotypes while all the C. lari isolates were biotype I. The isolation of Campylobacter organisms and the identification of C. jejuni biotype I and C. coli biotype II from goats in this study is a clear indication of the presence of Campylobacter in goats in Sokoto state. Campylobacter organisms must be considered as potential agent of enteritis and abortion in goats as well as a serious public health problem.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A questionnaire survey to analyse the current milk production and pricing was conducted among 273 small and large-scale dairy farms in Sokoto State of north-western Nigeria. On breeds of cattle kept, based on farm numbers, it was found that 69.07% kept Sokoto Gudali, 18.32% kept White Fulani and 12.61% kept others. Both the husbandry system and milking method were 100% semi-intensive and hand milking, respectively. Out of the total cow number of 3967 (64.59%), there were 2175 (35.41%) milking cows. Data on milk production showed the average length of lactation as 10.26+1.86months, the average milk yield per day as 23.78+24.03 litres, the average milk yield per lactation as 7815.30+8442.01 litres, and the average calving interval of 11.80+2.67 months. On the milk sell, 266 (97.44%) farms sell milk, whereas only 7(2.56%) did not. Out of these, 57.67% sell milk at home, and 42.33% sell milk at local market. The pattern of milk consumption showed that 39.25% of farms analysed consume <2 litres, 49.81% consume 2-4 litres, and 10.94% consume >4 litres. 100% of farms could not quantify the amount of milk offered to calves. The products made from milk and data for each included Nono (45.45%), Manshanu (42.36%) and Kindirmo (12.19%). On the responses for production/processing constraints, 68.33% showed no facilities, 25.42% showed no knowledge, 6.25% showed not cultural/traditional, 79.39% showed inadequate feed/water, 7.09% showed inefficient milking methods, 9.12% showed lack of efficient marketing system, 4.05% showed lack of static milk pricing and 0.34% showed power failure.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A herd of cattle, flock of sheep and goats and Prison inmates in Sokoto Prison farm were investigated for evidence of brucellosis. Serum samples obtained from cattle, sheep, goats and humans were serologically assessed using Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) Serum tube Agglutination Test (SAT) and competitive Elisa (compelisa). Similarly, Milk Ring Test (MRT) was carried out using Milk sample. Twenty-eight Prison inmates were tested for Brucella antibodies. An overall prevalence of 32.20% was recorded in the herds. 16 out (40%) of the 40 cows were positive while 2(20%) of the 10 bulls tested were positive and 1(2%) out of the 3 females calves was founds to be positive. Sokoto Gudali was the breed with the highest prevalence (37.58%), while white Fulani recorded a prevalence of 25%. None of the 3 Azuwarq breed was positive to Milk Ring Test. An overall prevalence of 22.35% was recorded in sheep while an overall prevalence of 30.76% was recorded in goats. Two (7.14%) out of the 28 Prison inmates were found to be positive. It is recommended that milk and milk product from seropositive animals should not be consumed. Extra hygiene measures are also recommended among others.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A study to determine the seroprevalence of brucellosis in local chickens in Sokoto State of Northwestern Nigeria was carried out. A total of one thousand serum samples were collected over a period of six months. The serum samples were subjected to Rose Bengal Plate test, serum agglutination test (SAT), Elisa (Compelisa) using both Brucella arbortus and B. melitensis antigens. Results indicated that 30 (3.0%) 28 (2.8%) and 26 (2.6%) were positive for melitensis using compelisa and RBPT while 24 (2.4%) for SAT. It is recommended that rearing method employed where cattle, sheep and other animals are housed together with chickens should be discouraged. Public education and enlightenment campaign to poultry owners and handlers on the dangers of brucellosis should be intensified and future surveillance and control programmes on brucellosis should include local poultry.
International Journal of Poultry Science. 01/2006;
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Serum samples from sheep collected from the Sokoto city abattoir were tested for brucellosis using the Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT), the Serum Agglutination Test (SAT) and the Competitive ELISA ( Compelisa ). A sero prevalence rate of 23.61% was recorded. The prevalence was higher among the females (26.71%) than males (15.30%) and also in those within the age band of 12-24 months (26.19%). Out of the three breeds of Udah, Yankassa and Balami, Udah was observed to have the highest prevalence of 30.76%. It is recommended that a large monitoring of the disease in small ruminants as well as mass vaccination should be embarked upon in the State.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was undertaken to determine the type and estimate the prevalence of bacterial organisms on contact surfaces of five close-to-patient facilities in three veterinary health care settings within the Sokoto metropolis of north-western Nigeria. A total of 30 samples (10 from each setting) were collected and analysed using culture, microscopy and biochemical testing. Bacterial species isolated from samples in this study included the following: Bacillus sp. (27.3%), Staphylococcus aureus (15.9%), Listeria sp. (13.6%), Streptococcus sp. (11.4%), Salmonella sp. (6.8%), Escherichia coli (4.5%), Staphylococcus epidermidis (4.5%), Citrobacter sp. (2.3%), Klebsiella sp. (2.3%), Lactobacillus sp. (2.3%), Micrococcus sp. (2.3%), Pasteurella sp. (2.3%), Proteus sp. (2.3%), and Yersinia sp. (2.3%). A higher percentage (64.3%) of the total bacterial isolates were zoonotic in nature and hence of public health significance. Some pathogens have the potential of nosocomial spread. In this study, we seek to establish the first evidence of bacterial presence in the major veterinary health care settings in the Sokoto region of north-western Nigeria. Of particular interest is the hypothesis, which has not previously been formally tested, that nosocomial infections are especially likely to be implicated in both animals and occupational diseases in Nigeria. It was suggested that some of these isolates were associated with the risk of nosocomial and zoonotic infections and hence draws attention to the need to rigorously employ standard veterinary precautions as part of the hospital's infection control programme in an attempt to protect both patients and staff from infections.
Veterinaria italiana 45(2):235-41. · 0.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in cattle in Sokoto State, Nigeria, was determined. The number of samples collected totalled 976, of which 126 (12.9%) yielded Campylobacter spp. The species of Campylobacter isolates from this study were as follows: C. jejuni (65.1%), C. coli (23.0%), C. lari (7.9%), C. hyointestinalis (3.2%) and C. fetus (0.8%). A total of 172 strains of Campylobacter spp. were identified from the positive samples due to identification of more than a single strain (spp.) from a single sample. The strains identified were C. jejuni (62.8%), C. coli (25.0%), C. lari (8.1%), C. hyointestinalis (2.9%) and C. fetus (1.2%). More than one species of Campylobacter was identified in 36.5% of the positive samples. The biotyping in this study revealed C. jejuni biotype I (34.3%) as the most common C. jejuni biotype, while C. jejuni biotype IV (15.7%) was the C. jejuni biotype that was least frequently isolated. However, the most frequently isolated C. coli biotype was biotype I (72.1%) and all the isolates of C. lari were biotype I.
Veterinaria italiana 45(4):501-5. · 0.52 Impact Factor