[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 1. Anopheline larvae are surface feeders and allocate most of their time to search for food at the water surface. However, species of the Anopheles gambiae Giles complex may also show bottom feeding. The consequences of this foraging tactic for life history are unknown, yet may be relevant to understand inter-specific competition patterns.
2. The diving ability and activity of larvae of the main African malaria vectors, An. coluzzii and An. gambiae, at two different water depths (14 and 30 cm) were assessed. We further explored the biological relevance of diving for food harvesting by monitoring key life history traits in two species treatments (single or mixed species) and two food treatments (surface or bottom feeding).
3. Overall, An. coluzzii larvae showed more diving activity than An. gambiae. When feeding at the bottom both species, and especially An. gambiae, showed a delayed emergence and a reduced emergence rate. Moreover, An. gambiae also suffered a reduced wing length.
4. Mixed-species rearing had a detrimental effect on the life history traits of An. gambiae but not on An. coluzzii, suggesting a competitive advantage for the latter in our experimental conditions.
5. The present results confirm that anopheline larvae are able to forage for food at the bottom of their breeding site and that An. coluzzii shows a superior diving activity than An. gambiae and this at a lower cost. These behavioural differences probably reflect specific adaptations to different aquatic habitats, and may be important in shaping species distributions and the population biology of these important vector mosquitoes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study establishes the first faunistic inventory of livestock associated Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) species of Reunion Island (Indian Ocean), where bluetongue and epizootic hemorrhagic disease are regularly recorded. Single night-catches were performed at 41 sites using light suction traps at altitudes ranging from 0 to 1525 m, from March to April 2005. Five species were recorded: Culicoides imicola, Culicoides bolitinos, Culicoides enderleini, Culicoides grahamii, and Culicoides kibatiensis, among which at least the first three species are known to be involved in virus transmission to ruminants and equids. This is the first record of C. bolitinos, C. kibatiensis, and C. enderleini on the island. C. imicola was the most abundant species along the sea coast. C. bolitinos was more abundant inland and on two sites on the east coast. C. kibatiensis and C. grahamii were less abundant than the other three species and limited to two foci.Spatial distribution analysis of the different species showed that C. bolitinos, C. enderleini and C. imicola were collected at low altitudes, while the other two species were found at higher altitude. A morphological identification key for adult females and males is given, as well as cytochrome oxydase subunit I sequences. Phylogenetic reconstructions showed a clear divergence between C. bolitinos from Reunion Island and mainland Africa. This monograph will help to identify the Culicoides species in the poorly known entomological fauna of the south-western Indian Ocean region.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ghardaïa, central Algeria, experienced a major outbreak of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in 2005. Two Leishmania species occur in this region: Leishmania major (MON-25) and Leishmania killicki (MON-301). The two species are transmitted respectively by the sandflies Phlebotomus papatasi and Phlebotomus sergenti and probably involve rodent reservoirs with different ecologies, suggesting distinct epidemiological patterns and distribution areas.
The aims of this study were to establish risk maps for each Leishmania species in Ghardaïa, taking into account the specificities of their vectors and reservoirs biotopes, using land cover and topographical characteristics derived from remote sensing imagery. Using expert and bibliographic knowledge, habitats of vectors and reservoirs were mapped. Hazard maps, defined as areas of presence of both vectors and reservoirs, were then combined with vulnerability maps, defined as areas with human presence, to map the risk of CL occurrence due to each species. The vector habitat maps and risk maps were validated using available entomological data and epidemiological data.
The results showed that remote sensing analysis can be used to map and differentiate risk areas for the two species causing CL and identify palm groves and areas bordering the river crossing the city as areas at risk of CL due to L. major, whereas more limited rocky hills on the outskirts of the city are identified as areas at risk of CL due to L. killicki.
In the current context of urban development in Ghardaïa, this study provides useful information for the local authorities on the respective risk areas for CL caused by both parasites, in order to take prevention and control measures to prevent future CL outbreaks.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The swarming behaviour of natural populations of Anopheles gambiae and An. coluzzii (formerly known as An. gambiae S and M forms, respectively) were investigated through longitudinal surveys conducted between July 2006 and October 2009 in two rural areas of south-western Burkina Faso where these forms are sympatric. In both sites, the majority of swarms were recorded above visual markers localised among houses. In Soumousso, a wooded area of savannah, 108 pairs caught in copula from 205 swarms were sampled; in VK7, a rice growing area, 491 couples from 250 swarms were sampled. If segregated swarms were the norm in both sites, many visual markers were shared by the two forms of An. gambiae. Furthermore, mixed swarms were collected annually in frequencies varying from one site to another, though no mixed inseminations were recorded, corroborating the low hybrid rate previously reported in the field. The occurrence of inter-specific mate-recognition mechanisms, which allow individuals to avoid hybridisation, is discussed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Biting midges of the genus Culicoides (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae) are biological vectors of internationally important arboviruses. To understand the role of Culicoides in the transmission of these viruses, it is essential to correctly identify the species involved. Within the western Palaearctic region, the main suspected vector species, C. obsoletus, C. scoticus, C. dewulfi and C. chiopterus, have similar wing patterns, which makes it difficult to separate and identify them correctly.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: SUMMARY Bluetongue is a disease of major economic concern in Europe. Its causative agent, bluetongue virus (BTV), is transmitted by several Culicoides species (mainly Culicoides imicola and Culicoides obsoletus in Europe). The application of insecticides on animals may reduce transmission of BTV, however, no formulation is currently licensed specifically against Culicoides midges. The present study assesses the susceptibility of C. obsoletus to deltamethrin using an adapted World Health Organization (WHO) susceptibility test. Midges were exposed to different dosages of deltamethrin for 1 h, and mortality after 1 h and 24 h was recorded. Results indicated that deltamethrin is highly toxic to C. obsoletus since a dose of 1·33×10-4% was enough to kill 50% of the population (LD50) in 24 h. The deltamethrin concentration needed to kill 90% of the population (LD90) was 5·55×10-4%. The results obtained in the present work could help to create a system that can be used to assess insecticide resistance and susceptibility of Culicoides biting midges.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a severe mosquito-borne disease that is caused by a Phlebovirus (Bunyaviridae) and affects domestic ruminants and humans. Recently, its distribution widened, threatening Europe. The probability of the introduction and large-scale spread of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) in Europe is low, but localized RVF outbreaks may occur in areas where populations of ruminants and potential vectors are present. In this study, we assumed the introduction of the virus into Italy and focused on the risk of vector-borne transmission of RVFV to three main European potential hosts (cattle, sheep and goats). Five main potential mosquito vectors belonging to the Culex and Aedes genera that are present in Italy were identified in a literature review. We first modelled the geographical distribution of these five species based on expert knowledge and using land cover as a proxy of mosquito presence. The mosquito distribution maps were compared with field mosquito collections from Italy to validate the model. Next, the risk of RVFV transmission was modelled using a multicriteria evaluation (MCE) approach, integrating expert knowledge and the results of a literature review on host sensitivity and vector competence, feeding behaviour and abundance. A sensitivity analysis was performed to assess the robustness of the results with respect to expert choices. The resulting maps include (i) five maps of the vector distribution, (ii) a map of suitable areas for vector-borne transmission of RVFV and (iii) a map of the risk of RVFV vector-borne transmission to sensitive hosts given a viral introduction. Good agreement was found between the modelled presence probability and the observed presence or absence of each vector species. The resulting RVF risk map highlighted strong spatial heterogeneity and could be used to target surveillance. In conclusion, the geographical information system (GIS)-based MCE served as a valuable framework and a flexible tool for mapping the areas at risk of a pathogen that is currently absent from a region.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The swarming behaviour of natural populations of An. gambiae and An. coluzzii (formerly known as An. gambiae M and S forms, respectively) were investigated through longitudinal surveys conducted between July 2006 and October 2009 in two rural areas of south-western Burkina Faso where these forms are sympatric. In both sites, the majority of swarms were recorded above visual markers localized among houses. In Soumousso, a wooded area of savannah, 108 pairs caught in copula from 205 swarms were sampled; in VK7, a rice growing area, 491 couples from 250 swarms were sampled. If segregated swarms were the norm in both sites, many visual markers were shared by the two forms of An. gambiae. Furthermore, mixed swarms were collected annually in frequencies varying from one site to another, though no mixed inseminations were recorded, corroborating the low hybrid rate previously reported in the field. The occurrence of inter-specific mate-recognition mechanisms, which allow individuals to avoid hybridization, is discussed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The swarm structure of two sibling species, An. gambiae coluzzii and An. melas, was characterize to explore the ecological and environmental parameters associated with the formation of swarms and their spatial distribution. Swarms and breeding sites were searched and sampled between January and December 2010, and larval and adult samples were identified by PCR. During the dry season, 456 swarms of An. gambiae s.l. were sampled from 38 swarm sites yielding a total of 23,274 males and 76 females. Of these 38 swarming sites, 18 were composed exclusively of An. gambiae coluzzii and 20 exclusively of An. melas, presenting clear evidence of reproductive swarm segregation. The species makeup of couples sampled from swarms also demonstrated assortative mating. The swarm site localization was close to human dwellings in the case of the An. gambiae coluzzii and on salt production sites for An. melas. At the peak of the rainy season, swarms of An. melas were absent. These findings offer evidence that the ecological speciation of these two sibling species of mosquitoes is associated with spatial swarm segregation and assortative mating, providing strong support for the hypothesis that mate recognition is currently maintaining adaptive differentiation and promoting ecological speciation. Further studies on the swarming and mating systems of An. gambiae, with the prospect of producing a predictive model of swarm distribution, are needed to inform any future efforts to implement strategies based on the use of GMM or SIT.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The swarming behavior of natural populations of Anopheles arabiensis was investigated by conducting transect surveys on 10 consecutive days, around dusk, from March to April and from September to October 2012 in Dioulassoba, a district of Bobo-Dioulasso city in Burkina Faso (West Africa). Swarms were observed outside, around identified larval breeding sites on the banks of the Houet River, as well as in the open-air courtyards found at the centre of many homes in the region. Swarms were found to occur in open sunlit spaces, mostly located above physical or visual cues somehow visually distinct from the surrounding area. Overall 67 and 78 swarms were observed, respectively, during the dry season (March-April) and the rainy season (September-October) of 2012, between 1.5 and 4.5 meters above the ground at their centre. 964 mosquitoes were collected and analyzed from dry season swarms, of which most were male, and all were An. arabiensis, as were the few resting mosquitoes collected indoors. Larvae collected from breeding sites found on the banks of the Houet River mostly consisted of An. arabiensis and only a minority of Anopheles coluzzii (formerly identified as An. gambiae M form). Of 1694 mosquitoes analyzed from 78 swarms in the rainy season collections, a few An. gambiae (formerly known as An. gambiae S form) males were identified, and the remainders were An. arabiensis. The majority of larvae collected during the wet season from the same breeding sites were identified as An. arabiensis followed by An. coluzzii and An. gambiae. The same pattern of species composition was observed in resting mosquitoes, though the proportion of An. arabiensis was less overwhelming. These data support the conclusion that An. arabiensis is the most prevalent species in this area, though the difference in species composition when using different population sampling techniques is noteworthy. Further studies are required for more detailed investigations of male dispersal, feeding behaviour and mating patterns in this urban setting.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Before the release of genetically-modified or sterile male mosquitoes in an attempt to control local populations of malaria vectors, it is crucial to determine male traits involved in mating success. The effects of male size and age as determinants of male mating success in Anopheles gambiae s.s. were measured in the field and under laboratory conditions in Burkina Faso. First, the body sizes (estimated by wing length) of mating, swarming, and indoor-resting male mosquitoes were compared over a 3-yr period (2006-2009) from July to October in Soumousso and Vallée du Kou, two villages in western Burkina Faso. Second, the age structure of swarming and resting male mosquitoes were characterized based on the number of spermatocysts and the proportion of sperm in the reservoir of wild-caught male testis. Third, male age effects on the insemination rate of female An. gambiae were investigated in the laboratory. The mean size of males collected in copula was significantly larger than the mean for swarming males and indoor-resting males. The optimum male age for successful insemination of females was 4-8 d. These results suggest that male size is an important trait in determining male mating competitiveness in the field. Although age was not found to be a significant factor in mating competitiveness, it was significantly correlated with swarming behaviors in the field and insemination success in the laboratory. The implications of these results in terms of sexual selection in An. gambiae and vector control programs are further discussed.
Journal of Medical Entomology 03/2013; 50(2):285-93. · 1.86 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Since bluetongue outbreaks occurred in november 2007 in northern
Spain, an intensive trapping program was carried out to study the diversity and
abundance of the Culicoides Latreille (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) species. Eleven
sheep farms and seven natural habitats distributed throughout the Basque country
region were sampled using UV light CDC traps between 2008-2011. A total of
348,685 Culicoides specimens belonging to 52 species were collected during 1,480
trappings in 24h periods. An updated checklist of these 52 species (including four
new records for the Iberian peninsula) is provided from the Basque country. The
most abundant species in sheep farms were the two sibling species of the obsoletus
complex (81.8% of the total catches): C. obsoletus (Meigen) and C. scoticus Downes
and Kettle. Culicoides lupicaris Downes and Kattle was the next most abundant
taxon collected in farms (9.7% of the total). Few specimens of Culicoides imicola
Kieffer, the bluetongue vector in Mediterranean Basin and some specimens of Culicoides
nubeculosus (Meigen), an important candidate of BTV transmission were
collected in northeast and northwest farms, respectively. In natural ecosystems, three
species, Culicoides festivipennis Kieffer, Culicoides alazanicus Dzhafarov and Culicoides
brunnicans Edwards, comprised 48.5% of the total captures. Culicoides
obsoletus/C. scoticus was present throughout the year and even during the winter
days in temperate Atlantic areas (Gipuzkoa, Biscay) whereas no catches occurred in
winter at the southern farms of Alava, where the climate is much colder in that
season. The majority of the species were active from March to November with
maximum peaks of catches in summer. Most Culicoides obsoletus/C. scoticus
specimens were collected outdoors (65.9%). The study shows greater occurrence and
abundance of obsoletus and pulicaris complex in sheep farms and in lesser extent in
natural ecosystems. Data about diversity, distribution and seasonal dynamics are also
reported improving the knowledge of these Culicoides species in terms of surveillance
and prevention for future bluetongue outbreaks.
Proceedings- Entomological Society of Washington 02/2013; 115:48-69. · 0.39 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The molecular form composition of Anopheles gambiae Giles s.s. (Diptera: Culicidae) mating swarms and the associated mating pairs (copulae) were investigated during two rainy seasons (July to October, 2005 and July to November, 2006) in the villages of Soumousso and Vallée du Kou (VK7). Although the habitats of these villages differ markedly, sympatric populations of M and S molecular forms of An. gambiae s.s. occur in both places periodically. The main aim was to assess the degree to which these molecular forms mate assortatively. In Soumousso, a wooded savannah habitat, the majority of swarm samples consisted of only S-form males (21/28), although a few M-form males were found in mixed M- and S-form swarms. In VK7, a rice growing area, the majority of swarm samples consisted of only M-form males (38/62), until October and November 2006, when there were nearly as many mixed-form as single-form swarms. Overall, ∼60% of M- and S-form swarms were temporally or spatially segregated; the two forms were effectively prevented from encountering each other. Of the remaining 40% of swarms, however, only about half were single-form and the rest were mixed-form. Of the 33 copulae collected from mixed-form swarms, only four were mixed-form pairs, significantly fewer than expected by random pairing between forms (χ(2) = 10.34, d.f. = 2, P < 0.01). Finally, all specimens of inseminated females were of the same form as the sperm contained within their spermatheca (n = 91), even for the four mixed-form copulae. These findings indicate that assortative mating occurs within mixed-form swarms, mediated most probably by close-range mate recognition cues.
Medical and Veterinary Entomology 01/2013; · 2.21 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Culicoides species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) belonging to the Obsoletus and Pulicaris groups are considered to be the main vectors of bluetongue virus (BTV) in non Mediterranean Europe. Selected terrestrial microhabitats (n = 17) on a farm in northern Spain were sampled repeatedly over a year-long period and characterized for use by Culicoides species for immature development. Concurrent use of CDC light traps showed the presence of 37 species and 66,575 specimens of adult Culicoides. A total of 28 species and 11,396 individuals emerged from laboratory-maintained soil samples. Culicoides obsoletus and Culicoides scoticus (pooled as Obsoletus complex) were particularly abundant (comprising 58.6% and 74.5% of the total collections in light traps and emergence traps respectively). Potential key vectors of animal viruses (such as BTV) were found in two main terrestrial types of microhabitats. In the case of C. obsoletus, different types of manure (old and composted manure, manure mixed with organic matter, and fresh manure) produced most of the specimens. In contrast, larvae of C. scoticus and Culicoides lupicaris were associated with soil substantially comprised of rotting leaf litter that included the parasitic plant Lathraea clandestina. Several species, Culicoides festivipennis, Culicoides punctatus and Culicoides brunnicans, were very common in mud at pond margins. Indeed, pond microhabitats and runoff below barn rooflines supported the greatest species richness. In the pond habitat, 49.4% of Culicoides specimens emerged from mud at the water edge, as opposed to 50 cm above (32.4%) and 1 meter above waterline (18%). Similar species richness, but statistically significant differences in abundance, were observed among the four pond microhabitats. Overall, the majority of the specimens were found in the upper layer (0–3 cm), except in manure, where they preferred deeper layers (>6 cm). Maximum peaks of abundance occurred in both light traps and soil samples in summer months, whereas increased captures in autumn were noticed only in light traps. Both trapping systems failed to collect adult Culicoides midges in the coldest months of December, January and February. The literature on immature habitats of species suspected in BTV transmission in Europe, the Pulicaris group and particularly the Obsoletus group, is briefly reviewed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PermaNet 3.0 was evaluated against Culex quinquefasciatus in experimental huts in Lomé. Endpoints were deterrence, exophily, blood feeding inhibition, and mortality. Insecticide susceptibility of Culex quinquefasciatus was assessed with permethrin (1%), DDT (4%), bendiocarb (0.1%), deltamethrin (0.5%, 0.05%), carbosulfan (0.4%), and chlorpyrifos methyl (0.4%). Total of 1,223 Cx. quinquefasciatus females were collected. PermaNet 3.0 unwashed deterred 16.84% Culex mosquitoes. After 20 washes, it deterred 5.79% mosquitoes compared to 6.84% deterrence by unwashed PermaNet 2.0. PermaNet 3.0 induced mosquitoes to exit huts 50.48% and inhibited blood feeding 70.97% in unwashed state. After 20 washes, the net induced 42.91% mosquitoes to exit and inhibited 67.06% mosquitoes from blood feeding. PermaNet 3.0 gave 76% personal protection at zero wash and 69% protection after 20 washes. The net retained 7.1% insecticidal effect in the unwashed state and after 20 washes 6.5%. Cx. quinquefasciatus was resistant to tested insecticides (6%–50% mortality). PermaNet 3.0 is a good control tool against mosquitoes. However, Cx. quinquefasciatus is less affected by PermaNet 3.0. The evaluation depicts the success of vector control innovations using pyrethroids and nonpyrethroids in combination on nets. Additional studies with Culex species are recommended to know whether the difference in blood feeding is interspecific (difference in vector behaviour) and not due to intertrial variability.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the occurrence of the L1014F and L1014S kdr mutations in malaria vector populations in Burkina Faso (West Africa). A cross sectional survey was conducted at 10 sites all located in cotton cultivation areas which are assumed to be the major insecticide resistance selection foci in Burkina Faso. The hot ligation method was used to detect the two kdr mutations in field collected Anopheles gambiae s.l. samples. For the first time in Burkina Faso the L1014S mutation was identified in both M and S forms of An. gambiae s.s. populations collected from the site of Koupela in the central-eastern region at low frequency. Furthermore, the L1014S mutation was also found in one specimen of An. arabiensis collected from the Dano site. The data generated in this study provides additional evidence of the spread of the L1014S mutation into An. gambiae s.l. populations in West Africa. It is now important to evaluate the role of the L1014S mutation in the pyrethroid resistance phenotype and assess its potential impact on the efficacy of pyrethroid-based control measures in West Africa where several resistance mutations now coexist.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Much effort is being devoted for developing new indicators to evaluate the human exposure to Aedes mosquito bites and the risk of arbovirus transmission. Human antibody (Ab) responses to mosquito salivary components could represent a promising tool for evaluating the human-vector contact.
To develop a specific biomarker of human exposure to Aedes aegypti bites, we measured IgG Ab response to Ae. aegypti Nterm-34 kDa salivary peptide in exposed children in 7 villages of Southern Benin (West Africa). Results showed that specific IgG response presented high inter-individual heterogeneity between villages. IgG response was associated with rainfall and IgG level increased from dry (low exposure) to rainy (high exposure) seasons. These findings indicate that IgG Ab to Nterm-34 kDa salivary peptide may represent a reliable biomarker to detect variation in human exposure to Ae. aegypti bites.
This preliminary study highlights the potential use of Ab response to this salivary peptide for evaluating human exposure to Ae. aegypti. This biomarker could represent a new promising tool for assessing the risk of arbovirus transmission and for evaluating the efficacy of vector control interventions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: African Horse Sickness (AHS) has been described for the first time in Senegal in the 1880s. Since then,
it is an endemic disease, with occasional epizootic outbreaks, which caused significant economic losses.
The last outbreak occurred in 2007 and caused the death of 1,169 horses in several regions, with a total
cost estimated at 900 million CFA, of which the half was due to mortality and morbidity. Today, the
unique available control strategy for AHS virus is mass vaccination. The vector species responsible for
AHS virus transmission belong to the genus Culicoides. In Senegal, studies on the fauna of Culicoides
have been conducted four decades ago and failed to highlight the species of veterinary interest involved
in the virus transmission. If Culicoides imicola is historically recognized as the main Afrotropical vector
species, its role in the transmission has never been established in Senegal.
Under the framework of the EDENext project (European FP7 project), several studies were initiated in
2011 to update the Culicoides diversity of Senegal and to allow a better understanding of the species
role in the transmission of AHS virus. The Culicoides population dynamics was followed up monthly for
one year, using OVI traps and horse-baited traps in five sites along a transect Dakar-Thies, in western
Senegal. Captured individuals were identified morphologically at the species level, or with molecular
identification tools for the C. schultzei group. The data obtained in this survey were then confronted
with the reported incidences of the 2007 AHS outbreaks.
This preliminary work allows updating the list of Culicoides of Senegal, helps clarifying the species delimitation
for the C. schultzei group and contributes to identify potential vector species of African horse
sickness virus in Senegal. It also allows choosing the candidate vectors to rear in the insectarium to
unable vector competence studies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Feeding success depends on host availability, host defensive reactions and host preferences. Host choice is a critical determinant of the intensity at which pathogens are transmitted. The aim of the current study was to describe host preferences of Palaearctic Culicoides species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) Latreille using traps baited with the five different host species of poultry, horse, cattle, sheep and goat. Collections were carried out nightly in July and August 2009 in western France with three replicates of a 5 × 5 randomized Latin square (five sites, five hosts). Moreover, an ultraviolet (UV) light/suction trap was operated during host-baited collections to correlate Culicoides biting rates and UV light/suction trap catches. A total of 660 Culicoides belonging to 12 species, but comprised mainly of Culicoides scoticus Downes and Kettle, Culicoides dewulfi Goetghebuer and Culicoides obsoletus Meigen, were collected on animal baits. Abundance was highest for the horse, which accounted for 95% of all Culicoides caught, representing 10 species. The horse, the largest bait, was the most attractive host, even when abundance data were corrected by weight, body surface or Kleiber's scaling factor. Culicoides obsoletus was the only dominant species attracted by birds. Both C. scoticus and C. dewulfi were collected mainly from the upper body of the horse. Finally, the quantification of host preferences allows for discussion of implications for the transmission of Culicoides-borne pathogens such as bluetongue virus.
Medical and Veterinary Entomology 09/2012; · 2.21 Impact Factor