Shunsuke Imai

Osaka Prefectural Institute of Public Health, Ōsaka, Ōsaka, Japan

Are you Shunsuke Imai?

Claim your profile

Publications (106)176.16 Total impact

  • Source
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Aberrant carbohydrate expression frequently occurs in breast cancer and may endow cells with metastatic potential. Here we first studied the relationship between expression of Vicia villosa agglutinin (lectin) (VVA)-binding carbohydrates and aggressive breast cancer. We then investigated the molecular characteristics of these glycoproteins and compared them with those of glycoproteins recognized by the mouse anti-Tn monoclonal antibody (MAb) HB-Tn1. Histochemical studies of samples from 322 cases of invasive ductal carcinoma demonstrated that VVA-binding carbohydrate expression correlated with tumor stage, lymphatic invasion, and lymph node metastasis (p=0.0385, p=0.0019, and p=0.0430. respectively). Western blotting analysis of frozen materials from 39 cases, under denaturing and reducing conditions, revealed that the major cancer cell-specific VVA-binding proteins were molecules of about 30, 33, and >200 kDa. Cases expressing the approximately 33 kDa molecule had significant lymphatic invasion more frequently than did cases not expressing this molecule (p=0.0076). Binding of VVA to the approximately 30 and approximately 33 kDa molecules was completely lost by preincubation of VVA with 1 mM Tn antigen (N-acetylgalactosamine alpha1-O-serine). The VVA-binding molecules appeared to react with VU-3C6 anti-MUC1 MAb. Expression of HB-Tn1 in breast cancer cells showed significant correlation with expression of VVA-binding carbohydrate(s) (p<0.0001) but HB-Tn1 reactivity was not clearly related to breast cancer aggressiveness. Because anti-Tn MAbs bound to Tn antigen clusters, we concluded that atypical MUC1 bearing the noncluster form of Tn antigen is implicated in aggressive growth of primary breast cancer cells, particularly in lymphatic metastasis.
    Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 07/2006; 98(1):31-43. DOI:10.1007/s10549-005-9115-6 · 4.20 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: MUC1 is a transmembrane molecule characterized by a repeated sequence of 20 amino acid (TAP PAHGVTSAPDTRPAPGS). Abnormal overexpression of MUC1 in cancer cells is thought to contribute to their aggressive growth, but molecular mechanisms associated with this effect are still unclear. Our current study aimed to clarify whether MUC1 expression as recognized by VU-3C6 anti-MUC1 mouse IgG monoclonal antibody (MAb) with a dominant epitope of 12 amino acids: GVTSAPDTRPAP, correlated with aggressive properties of human breast cancer. Immunohistochemical studies of 309 samples of formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded materials showed no statistical correlation between MUC1 expression and clinicopathological parameters, as well as several breast cancer aggressiveness-related markers. Expression or nonexpression of MUC1 in 50 frozen samples, as determined by Western blotting, demonstrated no correlation with aggressive properties of breast cancer. However, samples with one MUC1-positive band more often had lymphatic vessel invasion and lymph node metastasis than those with more than two or three MUC1-positive bands (p<0.014 and p<0.043, respectively). Because VU-3C6 MAb recognizes MUC1 with short branches of O-glycosylated core carbohydrates, we used immunohistological methods to examine Tn antigen (precursor antigen: GalNAcalpha-O-Ser/Thr), Thomsen-Friedenreich (T) antigen, and sialyl-Tn antigen (STn) antigen. We found a strong correlation between expression of MUC1 and Tn antigen (p<0.0006), and samples with Tn antigen expression had more lymphatic metastasis than those with no such expression (p<0.08). We concluded that the lack of polymorphic MUC1 expression with Tn antigen is one characteristic related to aggressive breast cancer.
    Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 09/2005; 92(3):223-30. DOI:10.1007/s10549-005-2469-y · 4.20 Impact Factor
  • T. Murakami, J. Sakai, S. Imai
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A large decrease in the electrical resistance of the junction was observed with an applied voltage of several volts in small area ramp-type junctions, YBa2Cu3O7−δ/Pr0.5Ca0.5MnO3−z/SrRuO3. The lowest resistivity of the Pr0.5Ca0.5MnO3−z barrier layer attained was ∼100 Ω cm, which is much lower than the previously observed resistivities in the electric-field-induced metallic states in a single crystal of Pr0.7Ca0.3MnO3 or in stacked junctions with a Pr0.5Ca0.5MnO3−z barrier. The lowest resistivity is still much larger than that of the fully ferromagnetic metallic states induced by a magnetic field. However, it was found that the lowest resistivity is not intrinsic and that it is limited by a series resistance caused by the SrRuO3 electrode, including contact resistances. The lower resistivity can be reached using an electrode with a lower resistance. © 2003 American Institute of Physics.
    Journal of Applied Physics 11/2003; 94(10):6549-6551. DOI:10.1063/1.1619574 · 2.19 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Microangiography with spatial resolution in the micrometer range was carried out for depicting angiogenic vessels in a rabbit model of cancer using a high-resolution detector and a third generation synchrotron radiation source at SPring-8. The long source-to-object distance and small source spot of synchrotron radiation radiography are able to produce high-resolution images. The imaging system was composed of an X-ray direct-conversion type detector incorporating an X-ray SATlCON pickup tube. Microangiographic images were obtained with no geometric blur and were stored in a digital frame memory system with a 1024 × 1024-pixel, 10-bit format. A VX2 carcinoma was transplanted into a rabbit auricle. At seven days after transplantation, small tumor blood vessels with diameters of 10-30 μm in an immature vascular network produced by angiogenesis were observed using monochromatic X-rays after contrast agent injection to the auricular artery.
    Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 2003. Proceedings of the 25th Annual International Conference of the IEEE; 10/2003
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: p53, a tumor suppressor gene, is a target of genetic alternations in many human and animal cancers. Compared to normal tissues, cancer tissues overexpress mutant p53 protein thus allowing their detection by a number of immunochemical procedures. To what extent the expression of mutant p53 correlates with dog mammary tumorigenesis has not been fully studied. In the present study, 20 spontaneously arising canine mammary tumors were examined for overexpression of mutant p53. Two different monoclonal antibodies, BP53-12 and PAb122, which recognize different epitopes of the p53 product, were used. The canine tumors in the present study exhibited five different histological types: i) osteosarcoma (n=7); ii) carcinosarcoma (n=4); iii) solid carcinoma (n=5); iv) complex carcinoma (n=3); and v) tubulopapillar carcinoma (n=1). The positive ratios against BP53-12 and PAb122 antibodies were 50% (10/20) and 60% (12/20) respectively. Among these positive samples, 35% (7/20) reacted to both antibodies. Finally, 15 out of 20 tumors showed positivity against one of the monoclonal antibodies. Mostly, as in human mammary tumor cells, BP53-12 staining was observed in the nuclei of tumor cells. PAb122 staining, however, was confined to cytoplasm of osteosarcoma or carcinosarcoma cells. To confirm the location of the staining, immunoelectron microscopy was done. The results showed that the cytoplasm of cartilage cells in the sarcomas had positive staining. These results indicate that anti-p53 antibodies BP53-12 and PAb122, generated against human p53 are cross reacting with the same molecule in canine cells and that the role of p53 in tumorigenesis is not only confined to tumors in human. Our finding suggests that a combination of p53 monoclonal antibodies should be used to screen, not only canine mammary tumors but also human mammary tumors, to obtain a better tumor prognosis.
    Oncology Reports 11/2001; 8(6):1215-9. DOI:10.3892/or.8.6.1215 · 2.19 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of whole-body MRI(WB-MRI) in the evaluation of cellularity in bone marrow and the distribution of fatty marrow in aplastic anemia. WB-MRI was performed on five patients with aplastic anemia who ranged in age from 62 to 70 years of age, and on four controls with malignant lymphoma who ranged in age from 59 to 67 years. Coronal images were obtained using a body coil with an FOV of 48 cm x 48 cm, and with both fast short T1 inversion recovery(STIR) and spin-echo T1-weighted(T1-WI) in three regions: (1) head to thorax, (2) abdomen to pelvis, and (3) lower extremities. The findings on WB-MRI were compared with those of histological studies of bone marrow at the sternum and the posterior iliac crest. The results were as follows: (1) there was a correlation between the cellularity of histological studies of bone marrow and signal intensity on WB-MRI; (2) WB-MRI could detect the activity of bone marrow; and (3) in a comparison of signal intensity in aplastic anemia and control subjects, there were differences of signal intensity in the central marrow.
    Nihon Igaku Hoshasen Gakkai zasshi. Nippon acta radiologica 09/2001; 61(9):502-7.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The purpose of the present study was to compare differences in the depiction of small vessels in tumors on microangiograms obtained with a conventional soft X-ray system and with a synchrotron radiation (SR) system, and to evaluate the microangioarchitecture of these tumors and the process of their growth neovascularization. The SR system consisted of a monochromatic X-ray source of 37.6keV just above the K absorption edge of barium and two fluorescent-screen CCD-camera lens-coupling systems. One of the CCD systems had a 24μm equivalent pixel size and an input field size of 24×24mm. The other system had a 6μm equivalent pixel size and an input field of 6×6mm. Microangiograms using the soft X-ray system depicted small vessels (diameter 20–50μm), but the microangioarchitecture of the tumors could not be evaluated from conventional images. The monochromatic SR system allowed depiction of small vessels with a diameter of less than 25μm. In addition, this system allowed us to confirm the process of growth neovascularization in the tumors.
    Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A Accelerators Spectrometers Detectors and Associated Equipment 07/2001; 467:1346-1348. DOI:10.1016/S0168-9002(01)00660-X · 1.32 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Marginisporum crassissimum (Yendo) Ganesan, a marine red alga found in the ordinal coastal sea around Japan, revealed antitumor (antimetastatic) effects in vitro and in vivo. In in vitro experiments, extracts of this alga inhibited not only the growth of several tumor cell lines, such as B16-BL6 (a mouse melanoma cell line), JYG-B (a mouse mammary carcinoma cell line) and KPL-1 (a human mammary carcinoma cell line), but also invasion of B16-BL6 cells in a culture system. In in vivo experiments, the lung metastasis of B16-BL6 cells inoculated to the tail vein of B57BL/6J mice was inhibited by intraperitoneal administration of an extract from the alga. In addition, life prolongation of B57BL/6J mice inoculated with B16-BL6 cells was also observed by the intraperitoneal administration of the extract. An effective substance showing B16-BL6 growth inhibition in vitro was partially purified by filtration and hydrophobic column chromatography, and was revealed to be sensitive to trypsin-digestion and heat-treatment. The molecular weight of the substance was greater than 100 kDa. This is the first study demonstrating antitumor (antimetastatic) effects of M. crassissimum.
    Cancer Letters 07/2001; 167(2):145-50. DOI:10.1016/S0304-3835(01)00460-8 · 5.02 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Layered-type junctions of perovskite-type manganite Pr<sub>1-x </sub>Ca<sub>x</sub>MnO<sub>3-y</sub> (PCMO; x=0.3, 0.4, 0.5) and high-T <sub>c</sub> superconductor YBa<sub>2</sub>Cu<sub>3</sub>O<sub>7</sub> (YBCO) were fabricated and their resistivity perpendicular to the plane were measured. A field effect was observed in which the resistivity decreased for 4 orders with 10 V of applied voltage at 30 K. Several oxygen-annealed junctions showed an abrupt drop of resistivity at about 2 V, independently to x, which is considered to be a sign of charge-ordering (CO). Annealing, on the other hand, suppressed the macroscopic resistivity of PCMO films. A field effect at room temperature was also observed
    IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity 04/2001; DOI:10.1109/77.919330 · 1.32 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Microangiography with about 10 μm resolution has been carried out for depicting angiogenic vessels in a rabbit model of cancer using a high-resolution detector and a third generation synchrotron radiation source at SPring-8. In synchrotron radiation radiography, a long source-to-object distance and a small source spot can produce high-resolution images. VX2 carcinoma had been transplanted in a rabbit auricle. By using this imaging system, small tumor blood vessels with diameters of 20-30 μm in an immature vascular network produced by angiogenesis were visualized after contrast material injection to the auricular artery.
    Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 2001. Proceedings of the 23rd Annual International Conference of the IEEE; 02/2001
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of whole body MR imaging (WB-MRI) in the detection of bone metastases from breast cancer and to compare the results with those from bone scintigraphy. In 21 patients with suspected bone metastasis from breast cancer, both bone scintigraphy and WB-MRI were performed. With WB-MRI, coronal images were obtained using a body coil in an FOV of 48 cm, and sequences of fast short TI inversion recovery (STIR) and gadolinium-enhanced fast spoiled GRASS (SPGR) were used in three parts: from the head to the thorax, the abdomen to the pelvis, and the lower extremities. Of the total 105 metastatic bone lesions, 65 (61.9%) were detected by bone scintigraphy, 98 (93.3%) by fast STIR, and 74 (70.5%) by fast SPGR. Thus, the detection of bone metastases by WB-MRI was excellent. However, detectability in the ribs was lower for WB-MRI than for bone scintigraphy. Contrast-enhanced MRI was useful in the differentiation of osteosclerotic lesions, in which high signal intensity is rare, pleural effusion, which has high signal intensity on STIR, and bone metastatic lesions. In conclusion, WB-MRI showed high reliability in the detection of bone metastatic lesions from breast cancer.
    Nihon Igaku Hoshasen Gakkai zasshi. Nippon acta radiologica 05/2000; 60(5):249-54.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Duodenal diverticulum is a well-known pathological entity. The majority of patients with this condition are asymptomatic. Although hemorrhage has been described, it is an infrequent complication. We report a patient who presented with massive upper gastrointestinal bleeding with hypovolemic shock, originating from a duodenal diverticulum. The diagnosis was made by emergency angiography. Superselective arterial embolization was performed with a successful outcome. To the best of our knowledge, superselective embolization for hemorrhage originating from a duodenal diverticulum has not previously been described in the literature.
    Radiation Medicine 01/2000; 18(6):377-9.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Peripheral vascular lesions may occur as a result of various clinical problems, cosmetic or dysfunctional causes, or bleeding. In severe cases, coagulopathy and congestive heart failure may occur. Although the efficacy of transarterial embolization (TAE) for arterial vascular lesions is well known, TAE has no effect on low-flow vascular lesions (venous malformations, venous angiomas, and venous components of arteriovenous malformation). Therefore, in such cases, a percutaneous approach is the best method, and we consider sclerotherapy to be the most useful conservative treatment. The primary objective of this study was to confirm the efficacy of percutaneous sclerosing treatment for peripheral low-flow vascular lesions. Lesions were classified on the basis of state of blood flow and morphologic features, and infiltration was classified on the basis of angiographic features and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings. In sclerosing treatment, we used 5% solutions of polidocanol, absolute ethanol, and N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (NBCA) as sclerosing agents. Each type of lesion, static or slow-flow, cystic, or localized, showed remarkable improvement after sclerosing treatment with only polidocanol. However, for moderate-to-fast-flow lesions, another sclerosing agent (absolute ethanol/NBCA) was needed. With diffuse infiltrative lesions, surgical repair might be needed, but we recognize the usefulness of sclerosing treatment for functional or cosmetic improvement in these cases.
    Nihon Igaku Hoshasen Gakkai zasshi. Nippon acta radiologica 07/1999; 59(7):325-32.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We studied the association of fatty liver with subcutaneous and visceral obesity in 46 male and 36 female patients with body mass index (BMI) over 22 kg/m2. The correlation coefficient between the ratio of the visceral adipose tissue to the subcutaneous adipose tissue (V/S) and the computed tomography (CT) number of the liver was -0.299 (P < 0.05) and that between the V/S ratio and the ratio of the CT number of the liver to that of the spleen (CT-L/CT-S) was -0.335 (P < 0.05) in the males. Partial correlation analysis after making correction for BMI showed an increased correlation coefficient of -0.485 (P < 0.05) between the V/S ratio and the CT-L/CT-S ratio in the males. The odds ratio in the males for CT-L/CT-S below 1.0 and V/S above 1.0 was 3.25 with a 95% confidence interval of 1.02 to 9.39. No such association between the V/S ratio and the CT-L/CT-S ratio was present in the female patients. Multiple regression analysis with serum level of alanine aminotransferase, a marker of fatty liver, as an independent variable revealed a partial regression coefficient of -17.7 for CT-L/CT-S (P < 0.05) in the males and -21.7 (P < 0.05) in the females, validating the CT-L/CT-S ratio as an index of fatty liver. The results indicate the association of fatty liver as determined by the CT-L/CT-S ratio with visceral obesity in males.
    Acta medica Okayama 08/1998; 52(4):225-31. · 0.75 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Sixteen research groups participated in the ISOBM TD-4 Workshop in which the reactivity and specificity of 56 monoclonal antibodies against the MUC1 mucin was investigated using a diverse panel of target antigens and MUC1 mucin-related synthetic peptides and glycopeptides. The majority of antibodies (34/56) defined epitopes located within the 20-amino acid tandem repeat sequence of the MUC1 mucin protein core. Of the remaining 22 antibodies, there was evidence for the involvement of carbohydrate residues in the epitopes for 16 antibodies. There was no obvious relationship between the type of immunogen and the specificity of each antibody. Synthetic peptides and glycopeptides were analyzed for their reactivity with each antibody either by assay of direct binding (e.g. by ELISA or BiaCore) or by determining the capacity of synthetic ligands to inhibit antibody binding interactions. There was good concordance between the research groups in identifying antibodies reactive with peptide epitopes within the MUC1 protein core. Epitope mapping tests were performed using the Pepscan analysis for antibody reactivity against overlapping synthetic peptides, and results were largely consistent between research groups. The dominant feature of epitopes within the MUC1 protein core was the presence, in full or part, of the hydrophilic sequence of PDTRAPAP. Carbohydrate epitopes were less easily characterized and the most useful reagents in this respect were defined oligosaccharides, rather than purified mucin preparations enriched in particular carbohydrate moieties. It was evident that carbohydrate residues were involved in many epitopes, by regulating epitope accessibility or masking determinants, or by stabilizing preferred conformations of peptide epitopes within the MUC1 protein core. Overall, the studies, highlight concordance between groups rather than exposing inconsistencies which gives added confidence to the results of analyses of the specificity of antimucin monoclonal antibodies.
    Tumor Biology 02/1998; 19 Suppl 1:1-20. · 2.84 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The 56 MAbs submitted to the ISOBM TD-4 Workshop were analysed by ELISA assay for reactivity against synthetic MUC1 mucin protein core-related peptides. With peptides comprising 5, 7 and 20 amino acids, 4/56 (7.1%), 33/56 (58.9%) and 51/56 (91.1%) of antibodies showed positive reactivity, respectively. Peptides with 60, 80, 100 and 120 amino acids showed 50/56 (98.2%), 54/56 (96.4%), 53/56 (94.6%) and 47/56 (83.9%) antibodies with positive reactivity, respectively. The reactivity of each MAb with synthetic peptides was classified into 3 groups. In group A (15 MAbs), the reactivity increased depending on the peptides in length and was maximal with 20-, 60-, 80-, 100- and 120-mer peptides. In group B (24 MAbs), most antibodies showed very weak binding affinity to peptides with a small increase in reactivity with the 100- and 120-mer peptides. In group C (17 MAbs), the reactivity showed strong binding affinity with the 20-mer peptide followed by a reduced uneven pattern of reactivity with the 60-, 80-, 100- and 120-mer peptides. These results show that the binding affinity of MAbs against synthetic peptides does not depend on the recognition of antibodies to the epitopes of core protein.
    Tumor Biology 02/1998; 19 Suppl 1:30-4. DOI:10.1159/000056502 · 2.84 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Tumor Biology 01/1998; 19(Suppl. 1):1-20. DOI:10.1159/000056500 · 2.84 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Sixteen research groups participated in the ISOBM TD-4 Workshop in which the reactivity and specificity of 56 monoclonal antibodies against the MUC1 mucin was investigated using a diverse panel of target antigens and MUC1 mucin- related synthetic peptides and glycopeptides. The majority of antibodies (34/56) defined epitopes located within the 20-amino acid tandem repeat sequence of the MUC1 mucin protein core. Of the remaining 22 antibodies, there was evidence for the involvement of carbohydrate residues in the epitopes for 16 antibodies. There was no obvious relationship between the type of immunogen and the specificity of each antibody. Synthetic peptides and glycopeptides were analyzed for their reactivity with each antibody either by assay of direct binding (e.g. by ELISA or BiaCore) or by determining the capacity of synthetic ligands to inhibit antibody binding interactions. There was good concordance between the research groups in identifying antibodies reactive with peptide epitopes within the MUC1 protein core. Epitope mapping tests were performed using the Pepscan analysis for antibody reactivity against overlapping synthetic peptides, and results were largely consistent between research groups. The dominant feature of epitopes within the MUC1 protein core was the presence, in full or part, of the hydrophilic sequence of PDTRPAP. Carbohydrate epitopes were less easily characterized and the most useful reagents in this respect were defined oligosaccharides, rather than purified mucin preparations enriched in particular carbohydrate moieties. It was evident that carbohydrate residues were involved in many epitopes, by regulating epitope accessibility or masking determinants, or by stabilizing preferred conformations of peptide epitopes within the MUC1 protein core. Overall, the studies highlight concordance between groups rather than exposing inconsistencies which gives added confidence to the results of analyses of the specificity of anti-mucin monoclonal antibodies.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We report a case of colonic type adenocarcinoma of the appendix with perforating peritonitis in a 92-year-old man. The preoperative diagnosis was localized peritonitis due to acute appendicitis and emergency laparotomy was performed. A gray, hard tumor was palpated at the base of the appendix. Appendiceal cancer was suspected, and right hemicolectomy was performed. The histopathological diagnosis was moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma of the appendix. The tumor obstructed the orifice of the appendix, and this may have caused the perforation of the appendix. The patient had an uneventful postoperative course and there have been no signs of recurrence in the 2 years since the operation.
    Journal of Gastroenterology 11/1997; 32(5):658-62. DOI:10.1007/BF02934117 · 4.02 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

707 Citations
176.16 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2001–2006
    • Osaka Prefectural Institute of Public Health
      Ōsaka, Ōsaka, Japan
  • 2003
    • Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
      • School of Materials Science
      Ishikawa, Okinawa-ken, Japan
  • 1997–2000
    • Kawasaki Medical University
      • Department of Daignostic Radiology 2
      Kurasiki, Okayama, Japan
  • 1998
    • Aichi Prefectural Institute of Public Health
      Nagoya, Aichi, Japan
    • University of Nottingham
      Nottigham, England, United Kingdom
  • 1995
    • Nippon Zenyaku Kogyo Co., Ltd.
      Hukusima, Fukushima, Japan
  • 1982–1995
    • Nara Medical University
      • Department of Pathology
      Kashihara, Nara, Japan
    • Netherlands Cancer Institute
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands
  • 1994
    • Kurume University
      • Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
      Куруме, Fukuoka, Japan
  • 1979–1993
    • Nara Hospital
      Ikuma, Nara, Japan
  • 1992
    • Kyoto University
      • Institute for Virus Research
      Kioto, Kyōto, Japan
    • Meiji University
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 1990
    • Osaka Prefecture University
      • Department of Applied Bioscience
      Sakai, Osaka-fu, Japan