[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Infectious and inflammatory diseases have repeatedly shown strong genetic associations within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC); however, the basis for these associations remains elusive. To define host genetic effects on the outcome of a chronic viral infection, we performed genome-wide association analysis in a multiethnic cohort of HIV-1 controllers and progressors, and we analyzed the effects of individual amino acids within the classical human leukocyte antigen (HLA) proteins. We identified >300 genome-wide significant single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the MHC and none elsewhere. Specific amino acids in the HLA-B peptide binding groove, as well as an independent HLA-C effect, explain the SNP associations and reconcile both protective and risk HLA alleles. These results implicate the nature of the HLA-viral peptide interaction as the major factor modulating durable control of HIV infection.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Enfuvirtide is a novel antiretroviral that blocks HIV-1 cell fusion and viral entry. This Phase II, controlled, open-label, randomized, multicentre dose-ranging trial explored the safety, antiviral activity and pharmacokinetics of enfuvirtide, administered by subcutaneous (s.c.) injection, in 71 HIV-1-infected, protease inhibitor-experienced, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-naive adults for 48 weeks. Study participants were randomized to receive enfuvirtide at a deliverable dose of 45, 67.5 or 90 mg twice daily; the 45 mg twice daily dose required 2 injections/day, while the higher doses required 4 injections/day. A background oral antiretroviral (ARV) regimen of abacavir (300 mg twice daily), amprenavir (1200 mg twice daily), ritonavir (200 mg twice daily) and efavirenz (600 mg once daily) was provided with enfuvirtide. A control group received the background ARV regimen alone. All potential participants underwent an HIV genotype at screen to ensure a homogenous population and to exclude patients with evidence of genotypic resistance to NNRTIs. Overall, the tolerability of the combination of abacavir, amprenavir, ritonavir, efavirenz and enfuvirtide was generally comparable to control through 48 weeks. No enfuvirtide dose-dependent adverse events (AEs) were observed across treatment groups. Injection site reactions (ISRs) occurred at least once in 68.5% of the enfuvirtide-treated population, and most ISRs were mild to moderate in severity, with no apparent dose relationship. Excluding ISRs, the most common treatment-emergent AEs were nausea, diarrhoea, dizziness and fatigue; with no clinically significant differences in the incidence of AEs observed between the control and enfuvirtide groups. Each treatment group benefited from ARV therapy, with a trend of increasing antiviral and immunological activity associated with increasing enfuvirtide dose. At 48 weeks, the median HIV-1 RNA change from baseline for the ITT population was -2.24 log10 copies/ml for the combined enfuvirtide groups compared with -1.87 log10 copies/ml for the control group. In addition, 54.9% of patients in the enfuvirtide group achieved HIV-1 RNA < or = 400 copies/ml versus 36.8% of patients in the control group. These results indicate that enfuvirtide has a favourable safety profile and is a promising new antiviral agent for HIV-infected patients who have been on previously failing ARV regimens.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The safety and antiviral activity of lopinavir (Lpv), a protease inhibitor (PI) coformulated with ritonavir (Rtv) to enhance its pharmacokinetic properties, were evaluated in 70 patients with plasma human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA levels of 1000-100,000 copies/mL on a first PI-containing regimen. Patients were randomized to substitute only the PI with Lpv/Rtv, 400/100 mg or 400/200 mg twice daily. On day 15, nevirapine (200 mg 2x/day) was added, and nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors were changed. Despite a >4-fold reduction in phenotypic susceptibility to the preentry PI in 63% of patients, mean plasma HIV-1 RNA levels declined by 1.14 log(10) copies/mL after 2 weeks of Lpv/Rtv. At week 48, 86% of subjects receiving treatment had plasma HIV-1 RNA levels of <400 copies/mL; 76% had levels <50 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL (intent-to-treat: 70% and 60%, respectively). Mean CD4 cell counts increased by 125 cells/muL. Three patients discontinued therapy for drug-related adverse events.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases 03/2002; 185(5):599-607. · 5.85 Impact Factor