S Koifman

Bahiana School of Medicine and Public Health, Bahia, Estado de Bahía, Brazil

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Publications (41)190.73 Total impact

  • Carmen Freire, Koifman RJ, Sergio Koifman
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of hematological and hepatic alterations and possible association with serum levels of beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (beta-HCH), p,p′-DDE, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) among residents in an area heavily contaminated with organochlorine (OC) pesticides. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 415 male and 432 female residents aged >14 years. Serum samples were collected and analyzed for OC pesticides concentrations and biochemical parameters. Frequencies of hematological and hepatic alterations were calculated for each gender. Association between beta-HCH, p,p′-DDE (1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethylene), and HCB levels and presence of alterations was determined by logistic regression stratified by gender and controlling for confounders. Highest frequencies were observed for eosinophilia (23% men and 18% women), low hemoglobin (12% men and 15% women), and low erythrocyte count (12% men). High levels of bilirubin, glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT) were observed, respectively, in 10, 11, and 12% of men and
    Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 04/2015; 78(8). DOI:10.1080/15287394.2014.999396 · 1.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Worldwide data for cancer survival are scarce. We aimed to initiate worldwide surveillance of cancer survival by central analysis of population-based registry data, as a metric of the effectiveness of health systems, and to inform global policy on cancer control. Individual tumour records were submitted by 279 population-based cancer registries in 67 countries for 25·7 million adults (age 15-99 years) and 75 000 children (age 0-14 years) diagnosed with cancer during 1995-2009 and followed up to Dec 31, 2009, or later. We looked at cancers of the stomach, colon, rectum, liver, lung, breast (women), cervix, ovary, and prostate in adults, and adult and childhood leukaemia. Standardised quality control procedures were applied; errors were corrected by the registry concerned. We estimated 5-year net survival, adjusted for background mortality in every country or region by age (single year), sex, and calendar year, and by race or ethnic origin in some countries. Estimates were age-standardised with the International Cancer Survival Standard weights. 5-year survival from colon, rectal, and breast cancers has increased steadily in most developed countries. For patients diagnosed during 2005-09, survival for colon and rectal cancer reached 60% or more in 22 countries around the world; for breast cancer, 5-year survival rose to 85% or higher in 17 countries worldwide. Liver and lung cancer remain lethal in all nations: for both cancers, 5-year survival is below 20% everywhere in Europe, in the range 15-19% in North America, and as low as 7-9% in Mongolia and Thailand. Striking rises in 5-year survival from prostate cancer have occurred in many countries: survival rose by 10-20% between 1995-99 and 2005-09 in 22 countries in South America, Asia, and Europe, but survival still varies widely around the world, from less than 60% in Bulgaria and Thailand to 95% or more in Brazil, Puerto Rico, and the USA. For cervical cancer, national estimates of 5-year survival range from less than 50% to more than 70%; regional variations are much wider, and improvements between 1995-99 and 2005-09 have generally been slight. For women diagnosed with ovarian cancer in 2005-09, 5-year survival was 40% or higher only in Ecuador, the USA, and 17 countries in Asia and Europe. 5-year survival for stomach cancer in 2005-09 was high (54-58%) in Japan and South Korea, compared with less than 40% in other countries. By contrast, 5-year survival from adult leukaemia in Japan and South Korea (18-23%) is lower than in most other countries. 5-year survival from childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia is less than 60% in several countries, but as high as 90% in Canada and four European countries, which suggests major deficiencies in the management of a largely curable disease. International comparison of survival trends reveals very wide differences that are likely to be attributable to differences in access to early diagnosis and optimum treatment. Continuous worldwide surveillance of cancer survival should become an indispensable source of information for cancer patients and researchers and a stimulus for politicians to improve health policy and health-care systems. Canadian Partnership Against Cancer (Toronto, Canada), Cancer Focus Northern Ireland (Belfast, UK), Cancer Institute New South Wales (Sydney, Australia), Cancer Research UK (London, UK), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (Atlanta, GA, USA), Swiss Re (London, UK), Swiss Cancer Research foundation (Bern, Switzerland), Swiss Cancer League (Bern, Switzerland), and University of Kentucky (Lexington, KY, USA). Copyright © 2014 Allemani et al. Open Access article distributed under the terms of CC BY. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    The Lancet 03/2015; 385:977-1010. DOI:10.1016/50140-6736(14)62038-9 · 39.21 Impact Factor
  • Revista Brasileira de Saúde Materno Infantil 01/2015; 15(1):105-120. DOI:10.1590/S1519-38292015000100009
  • S. Koifman, GPJ Ortega, RJ Koifman
    Cancer Research 02/2012; 71(24 Supplement):P4-11-22-P4-11-22. DOI:10.1158/0008-5472.SABCS11-P4-11-22 · 9.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract (UADT; including oral cavity, pharynx, larynx and oesophagus) have high incidence rates all over the world, and they are especially frequent in some parts of Latin America. However, the data on the role of the major risk factors in these areas are still limited. We have evaluated the role of alcohol and tobacco consumption, based on 2,252 upper aerodigestive squamous-cell carcinoma cases and 1,707 controls from seven centres in Brazil, Argentina, and Cuba. We show that alcohol drinkers have a risk of UADT cancers that is up to five times higher than that of never-drinkers. A very strong effect of aperitifs and spirits as compared to other alcohol types was observed, with the ORs reaching 12.76 (CI 5.37-30.32) for oesophagus. Tobacco smokers were up to six times more likely to develop aerodigestive cancers than never-smokers, with the ORs reaching 11.14 (7.72-16.08) among current smokers for hypopharynx and larynx cancer. There was a trend for a decrease in risk after quitting alcohol drinking or tobacco smoking for all sites. The interactive effect of alcohol and tobacco was more than multiplicative. In this study, 65% of all UADT cases were attributable to a combined effect of alcohol and tobacco use. In this largest study on UADT cancer in Latin America, we have shown for the first time that a prevailing majority of UADT cancer cases is due to a combined effect of alcohol and tobacco use and could be prevented by quitting the use of either of these two agents.
    Cancer Causes and Control 07/2011; 22(7):1037-46. DOI:10.1007/s10552-011-9779-7 · 2.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies support an important role for human papillomavirus (HPV) in a subgroup of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC). We have evaluated the HPV deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) prevalence as well as the association between serological response to HPV infection and HNSCC in two distinct populations from Central Europe (CE) and Latin America (LA). Cases (n = 2214) and controls (n = 3319) were recruited from 1998 to 2003, using a similar protocol including questionnaire and blood sample collection. Tumour DNA from 196 fresh tissue biopsies was analysed for multiple HPV types followed by an HPV type-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocol towards the E7 gene from HPV 16. Using multiplex serology, serum samples were analysed for antibodies to 17 HPV types. Statistical analysis included the estimation of adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and the respective 95% confidence intervals (CIs). HPV16 E7 DNA prevalence among cases was 3.1% (6/196), including 4.4% in the oropharynx (3/68), 3.8% in the hypopharynx/larynx (3/78) and 0% among 50 cases of oral cavity carcinomas. Positivity for both HPV16 E6 and E7 antibodies was associated with a very high risk of oropharyngeal cancer (OR = 179, 95% CI 35.8-899) and hypopharyngeal/laryngeal cancer (OR = 14.9, 95% CI 2.92-76.1). A very low prevalence of HPV DNA and serum antibodies was observed among cases in both CE and LA. The proportion of head and neck cancer caused by HPV may vary substantially between different geographical regions and studies that are designed to evaluate the impact of HPV vaccination on HNSCC need to consider this heterogeneity.
    International Journal of Epidemiology 03/2011; 40(2):489-502. DOI:10.1093/ije/dyq249 · 9.20 Impact Factor
  • Cancer Research 01/2011; 70(8 Supplement):1821-1821. DOI:10.1158/1538-7445.AM10-1821 · 9.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract [(UADT): oral cavity, pharynx, larynx and oesophagus] have high incidence rates in some parts of South America. Alterations in the TP53 gene are common in these cancers. In our study, we have estimated the prevalence and patterns of TP53 mutations (exons 4-10) in 236 UADT tumours from South America in relation to lifestyle risk factors, such as tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking. Moreover, we have conducted a pilot study of EGFR mutations (exons 18-21) in 45 tumours from the same population. TP53 mutation prevalence was high: 59% of tumours were found to carry mutant TP53. We found an association between TP53 mutations and tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking. The mutation rate increased from 38% in never-smokers to 66% in current smokers (P-value for trend = 0.09). G:C>T:A transversions were found only in smokers (15%). Alcohol drinkers carried more G:C>A:T transitions (P = 0.08). Non-exposed individuals were more probable to carry G:C>A:T transitions at CpG sites (P = 0.01 for never-smokers and P < 0.001 for never-drinkers). EGFR mutations were found in 4% of cases. Inactivation of TP53 by mutations is a crucial molecular event in the UADT carcinogenesis and it is closely related to exposure to lifestyle risk factors. EGFR mutations do not appear to be a common event in UADT carcinogenesis in this population.
    Carcinogenesis 12/2009; 31(6):1054-9. DOI:10.1093/carcin/bgp212 · 5.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Of all malignant neoplasias affecting women, breast cancer has the highest incidence rate in Brazil. The objective of the present study was to determine the frequency of genetic modifications in families with medium and high risk for breast and ovarian cancer from different regions of Brazil. An exploratory, descriptive study was carried out on the prevalence of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in case series of high-risk families for breast and/or ovarian cancer. After heredogram construction, a blood sample was taken and DNA extraction was performed in all index cases. The protein truncation test was used to screen for truncated mutations in exon 11 of the BRCA1 gene and in exons 10 and 11 of the BRCA2 gene. Of the 612 individuals submitted to genetic testing, 21 (3.4%), 19 women and 2 men, had mutations in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes. Of the 19 BRCA1 mutations found in the 18 participants, 7 consisted of ins6kb mutations, 4 were 5382insC, 3 were 2156delGinsCC, 2 were 185delAG, 1 was C1201G, 1 was C3522T, and 1 was 3450del4. With respect to the BRCA2 gene, 3 mutations were found: 5878del10, 5036delA and 4232insA (one case each). The prevalence of germline mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes found in the present study was lower than reported by other studies on high-risk Brazilian populations. The inclusion of individuals with medium risk may have contributed to the lower prevalence observed.
    Brazilian journal of medical and biological research = Revista brasileira de pesquisas medicas e biologicas / Sociedade Brasileira de Biofisica ... [et al.] 06/2009; 42(5):453-7. DOI:10.1590/S0100-879X2009000500009 · 1.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Over the past few decades, there has been growing support for the idea that cancer needs an interdisciplinary approach. Therefore, the international cancer community has developed several strategies as outlined in the WHO non-communicable diseases Action Plan (which includes cancer control) as the World Health Assembly and the UICC World Cancer Declaration, which both include primary prevention, early diagnosis, treatment, and palliative care. This paper highlights experiences/ideas in cancer control for international collaborations between low, middle, and high income countries, including collaborations between the European Union (EU) and African Union (AU) Member States, the Latin-American and Caribbean countries, and the Eastern Mediterranean countries. These proposals are presented within the context of the global vision on cancer control set forth by WHO in partnership with the International Union Against Cancer (UICC), in addition to issues that should be considered for collaborations at the global level: cancer survival (similar to the project CONCORD), cancer control for youth and adaptation of Clinical Practice Guidelines. Since cancer control is given lower priority on the health agenda of low and middle income countries and is less represented in global health efforts in those countries, EU and AU cancer stakeholders are working to put cancer control on the agenda of the EU-AU treaty for collaborations, and are proposing to consider palliative care, population-based cancer registration, and training and education focusing on primary prevention as core tools. A Community of Practice, such as the Third International Cancer Control Congress (ICCC-3), is an ideal place to share new proposals, learn from other experiences, and formulate new ideas. The aim of the ICCC-3 is to foster new international collaborations to promote cancer control actions in low and middle income countries. The development of supranational collaborations has been hindered by the fact that cancer control is not part of the objectives of the Millennium Development Goals (MGGs). As a consequence, less resources of development aids are allocated to control NCDs including cancer.
    Tumori 01/2009; 95(5):579-96. · 1.09 Impact Factor
  • Epidemiology 10/2008; 19(6):S210-S211. DOI:10.1097/01.ede.0000340133.34601.53 · 6.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An abstract is unavailable. This article is available as HTML full text and PDF.
    Epidemiology 10/2008; 19(6):S86. DOI:10.1097/01.ede.0000339797.06960.39 · 6.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cancer survival varies widely between countries. The CONCORD study provides survival estimates for 1.9 million adults (aged 15-99 years) diagnosed with a first, primary, invasive cancer of the breast (women), colon, rectum, or prostate during 1990-94 and followed up to 1999, by use of individual tumour records from 101 population-based cancer registries in 31 countries on five continents. This is, to our knowledge, the first worldwide analysis of cancer survival, with standard quality-control procedures and identical analytic methods for all datasets. To compensate for wide international differences in general population (background) mortality by age, sex, country, region, calendar period, and (in the USA) ethnic origin, we estimated relative survival, the ratio of survival noted in the patients with cancer, and the survival that would have been expected had they been subject only to the background mortality rates. 2800 life tables were constructed. Survival estimates were also adjusted for differences in the age structure of populations of patients with cancer. Global variation in cancer survival was very wide. 5-year relative survival for breast, colorectal, and prostate cancer was generally higher in North America, Australia, Japan, and northern, western, and southern Europe, and lower in Algeria, Brazil, and eastern Europe. CONCORD has provided the first opportunity to estimate cancer survival in 11 states in USA covered by the National Program of Cancer Registries (NPCR), and the study covers 42% of the US population, four-fold more than previously available. Cancer survival in black men and women was systematically and substantially lower than in white men and women in all 16 states and six metropolitan areas included. Relative survival for all ethnicities combined was 2-4% lower in states covered by NPCR than in areas covered by the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program. Age-standardised relative survival by use of the appropriate race-specific and state-specific life tables was up to 2% lower for breast cancer and up to 5% lower for prostate cancer than with the census-derived national life tables used by the SEER Program. These differences in population coverage and analytical method have both contributed to the survival deficit noted between Europe and the USA, from which only SEER data have been available until now. Until now, direct comparisons of cancer survival between high-income and low-income countries have not generally been available. The information provided here might therefore be a useful stimulus for change. The findings should eventually facilitate joint assessment of international trends in incidence, survival, and mortality as indicators of cancer control.
    The Lancet Oncology 08/2008; 9(8):730-56. DOI:10.1016/S1470-2045(08)70179-7 · 24.73 Impact Factor
  • EJC Supplements 07/2008; 6(9):196-196. DOI:10.1016/S1359-6349(08)71871-8 · 9.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The first Brazilian historical mortality cohort study on miners was conducted. The cohort consisted of 3224 workers in the underground coal mining industry in southern Brazil. This industry has been operating since 1942 without compliance with any regulatory standards, since there were no relevant national regulations. Over almost 60 years, about 5000 workers were exposed to high levels of radiation. However, later radiation exposure was significantly reduced, particularly that due to radon exposure. Recent radon concentration measurements indicated an average annual exposure to radon progeny of 2.1 WLM, ranging from 0.2 to 7.2 WLM. As radon exposure in the past was unknown, it can be suggested that mine workers have not been working safely as regards the health hazard related to radon and radon progeny exposure. The cohort inclusion criteria are as follows: (a) all male employees who had worked for at least one year at the coal mine; (b) workers with complete workplace information (underground and surface); (c) employment hiring between 1945 and 1997 and (d) the worker must have been alive on 1 January 1979. Through multiple strategies of search it was possible to follow up the members of the cohort with a success rate of 92%. This paper presents the characteristics of the study population and provides information about the feasibility of conducting a retrospective mortality study in Brazil, taking into account the methodological and logistical difficulties of conducting such a study in a developing country.
    Journal of Radiological Protection 10/2007; 27(3):349-60. DOI:10.1088/0952-4746/27/3/007 · 1.32 Impact Factor
  • Epidemiology 08/2007; 18(5):S11. DOI:10.1097/01.ede.0000276438.00058.01 · 6.18 Impact Factor
  • Epidemiology 11/2006; 17. DOI:10.1097/00001648-200611001-00892 · 6.18 Impact Factor
  • Epidemiology 11/2006; 17(Suppl). DOI:10.1097/00001648-200611001-00423 · 6.18 Impact Factor
  • Epidemiology 11/2006; 17. DOI:10.1097/00001648-200611001-00242 · 6.18 Impact Factor
  • Epidemiology 11/2006; 17. DOI:10.1097/00001648-200611001-00815 · 6.18 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

587 Citations
190.73 Total Impact Points


  • 2011
    • Bahiana School of Medicine and Public Health
      Bahia, Estado de Bahía, Brazil
  • 1997–2009
    • Fundação Oswaldo Cruz
      Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
  • 2007
    • International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
      Wien, Vienna, Austria
  • 2006
    • University of São Paulo
      San Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
  • 2002
    • Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
      Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil