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ABSTRACT: Thoracic trauma is the principle causative factor in 30% of road traffic deaths. Researchers have developed force-deflection corridors of the thorax for various loading conditions in order to elucidate injury mechanisms and to validate the mechanical response of ATDs and numerical human models. A corridor, rather than a single response characteristic, results from the variability inherent in biological experimentation. This response variability is caused by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The intrinsic factors are associated with individual differences among human subjects, e.g. the differences in material properties and in body geometry. The extrinsic sources of variability include fluctuations in the loading and supporting conditions in experimental tests. Recent studies have considered the intrinsic factors, especially the material-level response of the rib, which can be modified over a limited range within, e.g. a finite element (FE) model in order to fit a gross overall thoracic response corridor. Studies typically do not, however, consider uncertainty due to extrinsic factors. The purpose of this work was to estimate the contribution of selected extrinsic factors to the uncertainty in a response corridor by using a thorax FE model. The sensitivity of twelve response corridors to the relative positioning of the thorax, the loader and the test fixture was analyzed. Reasonable ranges of experimental uncertainty were established for loader angle, loader location, and thorax orientation, and response variability was analyzed for three tissue states (intact, denuded, and eviscerated) with four different loaders (hub, distributed belt, single diagonal belt, and double diagonal belts). Of the variables considered here, the thorax orientation has the largest effect on the force-deflection response, which increases and decreases the effective stiffness up to 20%. The simulation work isolated the extrinsic contribution from the corridor and indicated model deficiencies and refinements, which have the potential to improve model accuracy, particularly modeling the soft tissues and the costal cartilage.
Stapp car crash journal 12/2006; 50:169-89.
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ABSTRACT: This article assesses the position-dependent injury tolerance of the hip in the frontal direction based on testing of eight postmortem human subjects.
For each subject, the left and right hemipelvis complex was axially loaded using a previously developed test configuration. Six positions were defined from a seated femur neutral condition, combining flexed, neutral, and extended femur positions with abducted, neutral, and adducted positions.
Axial injury tolerances based on peak force were found to be 6,850 +/- 840 N in the extended, neutral position and 4,080 +/- 830 N in the flexed, neutral position. From the flexed neutral orientation, the peak axial force increased 18% for 20 degrees abduction and decreased 6% for 20 degrees adduction. From the extended, neutral orientation, the peak axial force decreased 4% for 20 degrees abduction and decreased 3% for 20 degrees adduction. However, as there is evidence that increases in loading may occur after the initiation of fracture, the magnitude of the peak force is likely related to the extent of injury, not to the initial tolerance. Using the axial femur force at the initiation of fracture (assessed with acoustic crack sensors) as a potentially more relevant indicator of injury may lower the existing injury criteria. This fracture initiation force varied by position from 3,010 +/- 560 N in the flexed, neutral position to 5,470 N in the extended, abducted position. Further, there was a large position-dependent variation in the ratio of fracture initiation force to the peak axial force. The initiation of fracture was 83% of the peak axial force in the extended, abducted position, but the ratio was 34% in the extended, adducted position.
This may have significant implications for the development of pelvic injury criteria by automobile designers attempting to mitigate pelvis injuries.
Traffic Injury Prevention 10/2006; 7(3):299-305. DOI:10.1080/15389580600660013 · 1.29 Impact Factor
Nihon Kikai Gakkai Ronbunshu, A Hen/Transactions of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers, Part A 01/2002; 68(668):674-681. DOI:10.1299/kikaia.68.674