T Kinoshita

Aizawa Hospital, Honjō, Saitama, Japan

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Publications (27)63.96 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We examined the urinary disturbances in 56 consecutive patients with cervical compressive myelopathy using the latest International Continence Society classification. Of the 56 patients with cervical compressive myelopathy, 29 (52%) had some urinary subjective complaints, whereas the remaining 27 (48%) had none. Urologic examination indicated that 8 of these 29 (28%) patients with urinary complaints had urologic disorders other than neurogenic bladder. Of the remaining 21 patients, only 6 (25%) were judged to have neurogenic bladder on urodynamic study. Urodynamic study may be of limited value in diagnosing urinary disturbance in cervical myelopathy. Further, four cases (83%) showed underactive bladder activity in voiding phase, and only one case (17%) showed overactive bladder activity in filling phase. These results were contrary to those of previous studies indicating that cervical compressive myelopathy is associated with overactive bladder activity in filling phase. There were no significant differences in motor or sensory Japanese Orthopedic Association scores between the patients with and without urinary complaints. However, the patients with urinary complaints had significantly longer durations of myelopathy and delayed motor evoked potential latencies than those without urinary complaints. After surgery, 19 of the 21 (90%) patients with urinary complaints showed recovery from urinary disturbance. Operations in patients with cervical myelopathy were also effective against urinary disturbance. Urinary complaints may be an indication for surgical treatment despite the results of urodynamic study.
    Journal of Spinal Disorders & Techniques 09/2005; 18(4):315-20. · 1.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previous reports have described magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings alleged to be specific for vertebral fractures caused by malignant lesions. Using such findings for differential diagnosis is often difficult, especially during the early phase of the fracture. With the relative inaccuracy of any single imaging finding, a validated scoring system based on a combination of imaging findings might lead to enhanced diagnostic accuracy. The purpose of this study was to establish a diagnostic scoring system for discriminating osteoporotic vertebral fractures from those caused by malignant tumors on the basis of MRI and computed tomography (CT) findings. Ten MRI and CT scan findings of 57 osteoporotic vertebral fractures and 43 neoplastic fractures were retrospectively evaluated for their ability to discriminate between malignant and benign vertebral fractures. The following four MRI and two CT findings were selected as the basis for the scoring system: pedicle or other posterior element involvement; extension into the paravertebral region; preservation of normal bone marrow signal; a continuous black line representing the posterior vertebral body margin on T2-weighted MRI images; osteolytic destruction; and distinct fracture lines on CT. By combining the findings common to MRI and CT scans of vertebral fractures, a simple scoring system was devised. This scoring system was found to enhance the accuracy of imaging diagnosis of fractures caused by benign or malignant spinal lesions.
    Journal of Orthopaedic Science 08/2005; 10(4):345-52. · 0.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nine patients with severely destructive spondyloarthropathy and marked neurologic deficits associated with dialysis-related amyloidosis underwent posterior decompression and fusion by means of instrumentation at our institute. All patients showed segmental kyphosis, six patients vertebral ankylosis, and eight patients spondylolisthesis. Spondylolisthesis at two levels was noted in three patients. Of the 11 levels of spondylolisthesis in all, 9 were proximally adjacent and 2 were distally adjacent to vertebral ankylosis. All patients underwent posterior decompression and multisegment fusion with autogenous iliac bone. From three to five spinal segments were fixed. Seven patients underwent posterior fusion by means of a pedicle or lateral mass screw between levels C3 and C7, one patient between C3 and C6, and one between C3 and T1. The clinical rate of improvement at the final follow-up was 74.3%. Though complete stability could not be achieved in three patients, the results were rated as good. No postoperative neurologic deterioration has been observed in this series, nor did any patients die immediately after surgery or during the postoperative follow-up period. As anterior long-span surgery might be too invasive for hemodialysis patients, we think that posterior decompression and fusion may well be a reasonable and effective strategy for severe hemodialysis-associated cervical spondyloarthropathy with neurologic deficits. To achieve complete stability, 360 degrees fusion with both anterior and posterior fixation with instrumentation may be required for these patients.
    Journal of Spinal Disorders & Techniques 03/2005; 18(1):23-8. · 1.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the enhancement of new bone |formation elicited ectopically by recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2), using parathyroid hormone (PTH) and a phosphodiesterase inhibitor (PDEi), pentoxifylline (PTX), in an animal model. Collagen sponge sheet discs containing rhBMP were implanted onto the back muscles of mice. PTX alone (200 mg/kg body weight [BW]), PTH(1-34) (10 microg/kg BW), PTX plus PTH (200 mg/kg BW and 10 microg/kg BW, respectively), or vehicle (control) were injected subcutaneously daily for 3 weeks after implantation. At the end of this period, rhBMP-2-induced ectopic ossicles were harvested from each group of animals. Ossicles from the PTX-treated group were significantly larger in size, with unchanged bone mineral density (BMD), as compared with the ossicles from the controls. In contrast, the ossicles from the PTH-treated group had significantly higher BMD, but showed no difference in size when compared with those from the control animals. The ossicles of the PTX + PTH treatment group were significantly larger than those of the control and PTH treatment groups. In addition, the BMD of the harvested tissues from the PTX + PTH treatment group was signifi-cantly higher than that of tissues from the control and PTX treatment groups. Although the calcium content of ossicles was significantly higher in the PTX-, PTH-, and PTX + PTH-treated groups than in the control group, the Ca content of ossicles from the PTH + PTX-treated group was highest (two times that of controls), followed by the PTH- and PTX-treated groups.
    Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism 02/2004; 22(4):329-34. · 2.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We treated a patient of type IV mucopolysaccharidosis (Morquio's disease) with lower leg paresis due to kyphoscoliosis. A 65-year-old woman presented with Morquio's disease. A lateral radiograph demonstrated the classic bullet-shaped vertebrae and a 65 degrees thoraco-lumbar kyphosis. After the age of 60, she suffered from numbness in both lower legs and walking disturbance. Bilateral patellae-tendon reflexes were exaggerated. MRI showed compression of the spinal cord around T12 to L2 with a highlighted area of change inside the spinal cord. Myelography and computed tomography after the myelography showed narrowing of the sub-arachnoidal space and deformation of the spinal cord around the T12 to L2 levels. Severe vertebral osteoporosis made it necessary to first perform posterior correction of the kyphosis and fusion. The curve was stabilised with the Luque method from T7 to L4. Her neurological condition markedly recovered, but 1 year after surgery her neurological condition again began to deteriorate, resulting in walking disturbance. For this reason, anterior decompression and fusion through a lateral thoracotomy was undertaken. Decompression of the spinal cord and a bone graft from the iliac crest were attained. The patient's neurological condition again improved, but not as much as immediately after the first operation.
    Journal of Clinical Neuroscience 06/2003; 10(3):358-61. · 1.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to achieve spinal fusion in the absence of bone graft material using a new, injectable, and semi-liquid synthetic polymer (polylactic acid polyethylene glycol [PLA-PEG] block copolymer) containing recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2). Twenty-seven skeletally mature beagles underwent anterior thoracic spinal fusion at T9-T10. Group I (n = 9) was injected with 1 mL of PLA-PEG block copolymer carrier alone into space under the vertebral pleura and the anterior longitudinal ligament. Group II (n = 9) was injected with 1 mL of PLA-PEG carrier containing 500 microgram of rhBMP-2. Group III (n = 9) was injected with 1 mL of PLA-PEG carrier containing 1000 microgram of rhBMP-2. In the Group I animals, no evidence of new bone formation was noted at the implanted sites both radiographically and histologically. In contrast, all of the nine animals in Group III showed new bone formation in 12 weeks, and four of the nine animals in Group II showed bony mass at the injected sites. However, vertebral bony fusion was incomplete despite the significant amount of new bone formation in both groups that showed new bone formation. In addition to resulting in improvements in the surgical procedure, injection of rhBMP-2 and a synthetic polymer is useful for bone formation for spinal fusion.
    Journal of Spinal Disorders & Techniques 05/2003; 16(2):137-43. · 1.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A retrospective study of the outcomes of multilevel anterior decompression and interbody fusion for cervical myelopathy due to ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) was performed to both investigate the long-term results and assess the cause of late deterioration. Twenty-seven patients (mean age, 58.1 years) underwent this procedure and were followed for at least 5 years. The severity of the clinical symptoms was described using the scoring system for cervical myelopathy proposed by the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA score). The average preoperative JOA score was 7.7, and the score at final follow-up was 13.4 with a recovery rate of 62.0%. A delayed deterioration was attributed to a thoracolumbar lesion other than a compromising alteration of the cervical spine. Consequently, this method of treatment for OPLL could stop the progress of ossification and keep a physiological cervical alignment and thus provide good long-term results.
    Journal of Clinical Neuroscience 04/2003; 10(2):199-207. · 1.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The patient presented with neurofibromatosis and a dystrophic kyphoscoliosis around the cervico-thoracic junction. When the patient was 59 years old, he started to suffer from dyspnea caused by an intrathoracic meningocele in the upper left thoracic cavity. A wide laminectomy from T2 to T5 was performed and the meningocele was resected. Although the dyspnoea disappeared postoperatively, the patient started to neurologically deteriorate. Laminectomy alone caused instability around the apex of the kyphosoliosis and spinal cord compression. Halo cast was applied and brought remarkable recovery of neurologic deficits. This result encouraged us to perform posterior fusion in situ from C3 to L2 with bone graft from the iliac crests and the Luque technique in conjunction with the Isola system. This resulted in the patient being able to walk again. The removal of the posterior element predisposes the patient to unstable postlaminectomy kyphosis and removes valuable bone stock required for posterior spinal fusion. For this reason, spinal fusion should have been conducted during surgery for the patient's meningocele.
    Journal of Clinical Neuroscience 04/2003; 10(2):268-72. · 1.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The authors sought to identify treatment-related factors that influenced survival after surgical treatment for metastatic spinal tumors and to evaluate the relationship between survival and postoperative ambulation time as a factor related to quality of life. The medical records of 81 patients with metastatic spinal tumors who underwent palliative surgery at the study institution were assessed. Univariate analysis for factors influencing survival used the Kaplan-Meier log rank statistic and multivariate analysis used the Cox proportional hazards model. The Spearman correlation test was used to analyze the relationship between postoperative ambulation and survival time. The patients had a median age of 59.9 years and a median survival of 10.6 months after surgery. For patients, postoperative ambulatory median survival was 16.5 months and median ambulation time was 13.8 months. By univariate analysis, anatomic site of the primary tumor, postoperative ambulation, and combined adjuvant therapy (chemotherapy plus radiotherapy) were associated with prolonged survival (P < 0.05). Multivariate analysis identified primary site and postoperative ambulatory function as independent predictors of prolonged survival (P < 0.0001). Significant correlations were found between ambulation time and survival time of patients who were able to walk after surgery (P < 0.0001), even in patients with liver (P < 0.05) or lung carcinoma (P < 0.05). The anatomic site of primary carcinoma and postoperative ambulation were associated with longer survival after palliative surgery for metastatic spinal tumor. When ambulation is attained after surgery, it can be preserved until late in remaining life even when the primary tumor is unfavorable. Palliative surgery for spinal metastasis can improve the quality and quantity of life.
    Cancer 01/2003; 97(2):476-84. · 5.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP-4), a member of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily, is capable of initiating differentiation of uncommitted mesenchymal cells into a chondro/osteogenic pathway. This study reports the effects of pentoxifylline (PTX), a nonspecific inhibitor of phosphodiesterases (PDEs), that causes elevation of the intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) level on the BMP-4-induced chondro/osteogenic differentiation of a mesenchymal cell line, C3H10T1/2; a bone marrow stromal cell line, ST2; and an osteoblastic cell line, MC3T3-E1. It was found that PTX enhanced BMP-4-induced chondro/osteogenic differentiation in C3H10T1/2 and ST2 cells. Similar effects were observed when adding dibutyryl-cAMP and forskolin. These results indicate that cAMP may potentiate the action of BMP-4 on osteoprogenitor cells, highlighting the possibility that PDE inhibitors could be used as therapeutic agents to enhance bone formation through this effect.
    Bone 10/2002; 31(3):396-401. · 4.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the effects of instrumentation on postoperative inflammatory reaction and identified standard changes in serum cytokine concentrations after spinal surgery. Pro-inflammatory cytokines [interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8] and anti-inflammatory cytokines [IL-10, IL-1 receptor antagonist (ra), and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptors (sTNF-R) I and II] were assayed in serum from seven patients with lumbar spinal posterior decompression, six with spinal decompression and posterolateral fusion without instrumentation and seven with spinal decompression and posterolateral fusion with instrumentation. All cytokines after spinal instrumentation increased significantly more than in other groups on postoperative days 0 and 1. Seven days after SI, IL-6, -8, and -10 had normalized, but IL-1ra and sTNF-RI and sTNF-RII remained elevated. Both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines were enhanced by implants in the acute phase, whereas only anti-inflammatory cytokines were enhanced by instruments in the subacute phase.
    Journal of Spinal Disorders & Techniques 09/2002; 15(4):294-300. · 1.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Collagen sponge disks (6 mm diameter, 1 mm thickness) were impregnated with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) (5 microg/disk) and implanted onto the back muscles of mice. Ten or 20 mg/kg per day of Rolipram, a selective inhibitory agent to phosphodiesterase type 4 (PDE-4), or vehicle, was injected subcutaneously into the host mice for 3 weeks. After treatment, rhBMP-2-induced ectopic ossicles were harvested and examined by radiographic and histologic methods to determine the size, bone quality, and mineral content of the ossicles. The ossicles from a group treated with 20 mg/kg per day Rolipram were significantly larger in size and higher in bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) than the control samples. No significant differences were noted in mice treated with 10 mg/kg per day of Rolipram. Histologically, ossicles from the high-dose (20 mg/kg per day) Rolipram-treated group showed densely packed, thicker trabeculae when compared with those from the control group. These experimental results indicate that the PDE-4 inhibitor, Rolipram, may enhance the bone-inducing capacity of BMP-2 in mesenchymal cells. This in turn may result in increased responsiveness to BMP-2 and point to a potential use of PDE-4 inhibitors for the promotion of rhBMP-dependent bone repair.
    Bone 05/2002; 30(4):589-93. · 4.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The cyclic monophosphate nucleotides (cyclic adenosine monophosphate [cAMP] and cyclic guanosine monophosphate [cGMP]) are found ubiquitously in mammalian cells and act as second messenger transducers to effect the intracellular actions of a variety of hormones, cytokines, and neurotransmitters. In turn, these nucleotides also modulate the signal transduction processes regulated by a range of cytokines and growth factors. Previously, we have reported that pentoxifylline, a nonselective phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitor, can promote osteoblastic differentiation by elevating intracellular cAMP levels and, consequently, enhance bone formation in vivo and in vitro. In this study, reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis of the osteoblastic cell lines, MC3T3-E1 and ST2 revealed the presence of PDE1, PDE2, PDE3, PDE4, PDE7, PDE8, and PDE9. We examined the effect of selective inhibitors for a respective PDE isozyme on the capacity of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP-4)-induced alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, a cellular differentiation marker, in cells with osteogenetic potential. The results indicate that selective inhibitors for PDE2, PDE3, and PDE4 enhanced the BMP-4-induced ALP activity in a dose-dependent manner in ST2 cells but not in MC3T3-E1 cells. Northern blot analysis also revealed that the selective inhibitors for PDE2, PDE3, and PDE4 enhanced the levels of expression of messenger RNAs (mRNAs) of ALP, osteopontin (OP), and collagen type I in ST2 cells but not in MC3T3-E1 cells except for the treatment with PDE4 inhibitor. Given these data, we conclude that PDE isozymes are involved in the modulation of osteoblastic differentiation mainly at an early stage. Additionally, selective inhibitors for PDE2, PDE3, and PDE4 appear to promote the differentiation of osteogenic precursor cells toward an osteoblastic phenotype.
    Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 03/2002; 17(2):249-56. · 6.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It is sometimes difficult to determine the appropriate surgical site in patients with thoracic myelopathy with diffuse or multisegmental lesions. To solve this problem, a magnetic stimulation study was carried out. Seven patients with myelopathy and 10 healthy control subjects were examined. Transcranial magnetic stimulation was applied and the motor evoked potentials (MEPs) of the intercostal muscles were recorded. The MEP latencies for the two groups were then compared. In patients with thoracic myelopathy, the MEP latencies caudal to the lesion were more extended than those of the control subjects. This method could identify the levels at which myelopathy originates in patients with a radiologically visible lesion. This method has the potential to be used for deciding the surgical site at the level responsible for myelopathy in cases with multiple or diffused compression.
    Journal of Spinal Disorders 11/2001; 14(5):439-44. · 1.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, white blood cell count, and body temperature were measured prospectively in patients after two types of spinal surgery without complications and three cases of infection after spinal instrumentation surgery. To investigate the effects of instrumentation on postoperative inflammatory reaction, and to describe early detection of postoperative wound infection. In thoracic and abdominal surgery as well as hip arthroplasty, C-reactive protein has proved more valuable than erythrocyte sedimentation rate for early detection of postoperative infectious complications. It has not yet been established, however, how inflammatory parameters change after surgery when spinal instruments have been inserted into the body. For this study, two groups of patients were examined: a control group that underwent spinal decompression surgery without instrumentation (n = 36) and another group that underwent spinal decompression and fusion surgery with spinal instrumentation (n = 37). The erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, white blood cell count, and body temperature were recorded 1 day before surgery and on days 0 to 4, 7, 11, 14, 21, 28, and 42 after surgery. Inflammatory indexes (i.e., C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, white blood cell count, and body temperature) were significantly higher for the surgery with instrumentation than for the spinal decompression surgery without instrumentation. Multiple regression analysis showed that C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate peaks significantly correlated with the use of instrumentation (C-reactive protein: P = 0.000257, erythrocyte sedimentation rate: P = 0.000132). In the patients with infection after spinal instrumentation surgery, C-reactive protein, white blood cell count, and body temperature started to increase again 4 to 11 days after surgery. The elevation of erythrocyte sedimentation rate levels was prolonged. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein display a significantly higher reaction after spinal surgery with instrumentation. Renewed elevation of C-reactive protein, white blood cell count, and body temperature after postoperative days 4 to 7 may be a critical sign of postoperative infection.
    Spine 09/2001; 26(15):1698-704. · 2.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Porous collagen disks (6 mm diameter, 1 mm thickness) were impregnated with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) (5 microg/disk) and implanted onto the back muscles of mice. Pentoxifylline (PTX), which is a methylxanthine-derived inhibitor of phosphodiesterases (PDEs), or vehicle, was injected (5, 25, 50, 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg body weight/day) into the mice subcutaneously once a day for 3 weeks from the day of implantation of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-laden disks. The rhBMP-2-induced ectopic ossicles were harvested and examined using radiographic, histological, and biochemical methods to determine size, bone quality, and calcium content. When compared with controls, ossicles from mice treated with >50 mg/kg per day of PTX were significantly larger in size and had a greater calcium content. However, no differences were noted in mice treated with lower doses (5 and 25 mg/kg per day) of PTX. The temporal sequence of the bone-forming process was unchanged by PTX based on histological examination. The histology of the ossicles from high- and low-dose PTX-treated mice was essentially identical to that observed in the control mice. These experimental results indicate that PTX enhanced the bone-inducing capacity of BMP-2. The underlying mechanism of action most likely involves the inhibition of intracellular phosphodiesterases and a resulting elevation of the intracellular content of cyclic nucleotides. Further studies are warranted to understand how BMP-induced bone formation is pharmacologically modified by PTX.
    Bone 04/2001; 28(3):290-4. · 4.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The administration of either Pentoxifylline (PTX), a methylxanthine derivative and an inhibitor of cyclic AMP (c-AMP) phosphodiesterases (PDEs), or Rolipram, an inhibitor specific to type-4 PDE (PDE4) in normal mice, significantly increased both cortical and cancellous bone mass. Vertebrae and tibiae from mice treated with PTX or Rolipram were analyzed by means of bone densitometry and histomorphometry. The results revealed that both PTX and Rolipram increased bone mass in normal mice mainly through the acceleration of bone formation. These findings suggest that both PTX and Rolipram can enhance physiological bone formation and thereby increase bone mass in normal mice. The possibility that these agents may be of value for the treatment of osteoporosis is discussed.
    Bone 01/2001; 27(6):811-7. · 4.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Two cases of eosinophilic granuloma (EG) of the spine associated with neurological deficits are presented. The patients were treated conservatively by using external fixation with a brace as well as bed rest. Neurological deficits and pain diminished and finally disappeared as the tumor mass decreased in size, as seen on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. During the 5-year follow-up period no recurrence of the tumors was detected on MR images. Surgical treatment for spinal EG in children presenting with typical vertebra plana is not recommended except for those with severe or progressive palsy and for those in whom the disease requires differential diagnosis.
    Journal of Neurosurgery 11/2000; 93(2 Suppl):312-6. · 3.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We used a commercially available computer-assisted image-guidance system for cervical pedicle screw insertion in both the laboratory and in a preliminary clinical setting. Nine plastic cervical spine models (C2-C7) were used in the laboratory test. The StealthStation was used to create the preoperative plan for each screw such that it would be inserted down the center of the pedicle, parallel to the long axis. Using a light-emitting diode-equipped drill guide, 2-mm holes were drilled in 108 pedicles. A total of 108 pedicle holes were drilled. The mean trajectory deviation from the surgical plan in the axial plane was 1.7+/-1.7 degrees (range, 0 to 8 degrees), and the mean deviation of the position of the hole was 1.7+/-0.6 mm (range, 0.1 to 2.9 mm). Eighty-three drill holes (76.9%) were contained within the pedicles, whereas partial cortical perforation was noted in 25 pedicles (23.1%). In the clinical setting, 36 cervical pedicle screws were inserted in nine patients using the image-guided system. Within the limits of imaging artifact, all 36 pedicle screws appear to have been inserted accurately by postoperative computed tomographic examination. No neurologic or vascular complications were encountered.
    Journal of Spinal Disorders 07/2000; 13(3):218-24. · 1.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Desmoplastic fibroma is a relatively uncommon tumor and rarely involves the spine. The authors describe a 20-year-old woman with a thoracic epidural desmoplastic fibroma treated by complete resection and posterior spinal fusion. Four years after surgery, neither the tumor nor clinical symptoms have recurred. Thus, complete resection is considered necessary to treat this tumor.
    Journal of Spinal Disorders 07/2000; 13(3):267-70. · 1.21 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

592 Citations
63.96 Total Impact Points


  • 2005
    • Aizawa Hospital
      Honjō, Saitama, Japan
  • 1999–2004
    • Shinshu University
      • Department of Orthopaedic Surgery
      Shonai, Nagano, Japan