[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study examined facial affect recognition in pre-lingually deaf individuals with schizophrenia. Affective facial-labeling task and the control task of face feature processing (the Benton facial recognition test) were performed by deaf subjects with schizophrenia using French sign language (FSL), hearing subjects with schizophrenia, and hearing healthy controls. Deaf subjects with schizophrenia performed more poorly than hearing clinical controls with schizophrenia or healthy controls on the affective facial-labeling task. No differences were found on the control task between deaf subjects with schizophrenia and hearing clinical or healthy controls. The results showed that facial affect recognition and face feature processing were differently impaired in pre-lingually deaf individuals with schizophrenia, suggesting that neurocognitive backgrounds of impaired affective facial processing may be distinct from those of general impairment in face processing.
Schizophrenia Research 07/2003; 61(2-3):265-70. · 4.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neuropsychological tests that require shifting an attentional set, such as the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, are sensitive to frontal lobe damage. Although little information is available for humans, an animal experiment suggested that different regions of the prefrontal cortex may contribute to set shifting behavior at different levels of processing. Behavioral studies also suggest that set shifting trials are more time consuming than non-set shifting trials (i.e. switch cost) and that this may be underpinned by differences at the neural level. We determined whether there were differential neural responses associated with two different levels of shifting behavior, that of reversal of stimulus-response associations within a perceptual dimension or that of shifting an attentional set between different perceptual dimensions. Neural activity in the antero-dorsal prefrontal cortex increased only in attentional set shifting, in which switch costs were significant. Activity in the postero-ventral prefrontal cortex increased not only in set shifting but also in reversing stimulus-response associations, in which switch costs were absent. We conclude that these distinct regions in the human prefrontal cortex provide different levels of attention control in response selection. Thus, the antero-dorsal prefrontal cortex may be critical for higher order control of attention, i.e. attentional set shifting, whereas the postero-ventral area may be related to a lower level of shift, i.e. reorganizing stimulus-response associations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The loss of the neurons in layer 3, one of the groups of cortical neurons most vulnerable in various degenerative brain diseases, results in axonal degeneration leading to atrophy of the corpus callosum. Previous studies showed callosal atrophy in three degenerative dementias: frontotemporal dementia (FTD), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), and Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, it is unclear whether a characteristic pattern of atrophy is present in each. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the pattern of the callosal atrophy was different among patients with FTD, PSP, or early onset AD.
Eleven patients with FTD, nine patients with PSP, 16 patients with early onset AD, and 23 normal controls, all age and sex matched, were studied using MRI. The ratios of midsagittal corpus callosum areas to the midline internal skull surface area on T1 weighted images were analyzed. The corpus callosum was divided into quarters: the anterior, middle-anterior, middle-posterior, and posterior portions.
Compared with controls, all three patient groups had significantly decreased total callosal/skull area ratio. An analysis of covariance adjusted for the total callosal area/skull area ratio showed that the anterior quarter callosal/skull area ratio in FTD, the middle-anterior quarter area ratio in PSP, and the posterior quarter area ratio in AD were significantly smaller than those in the other three groups.
Although atrophy of the corpus callosum is not specific to any degenerative dementia, the patterns of the atrophy are different among patients with FTD, PSP, or early onset AD. Differential patterns of callosal atrophy might reflect characteristic patterns of neocortical involvement in each degenerative dementia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We measured the cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (CMRglc) by using positron emission tomography (PET) with [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and the choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity at 3 days and 3 months after destruction of the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM). Although the frontal ChAT activity remained 20% lower than that of controls even at 3 months post-lesioning, the frontal CMRglc, which was reduced by 40% at 3 days, returned to normal at 3 months, namely CMRglc recovered with time without the recovery of ChAT activity with time. Since glucose metabolism reflects mainly presynaptic neuronal activity, we speculate that presynaptic rearrangement may have some relation to the recovery of CMRglc.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the contribution of the superior frontal gyrus and precuneus to the cognitive process of attention set shift, we examined the correlation between change in neural activity in these areas and the timing of attention set shift using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging. Seven subjects underwent a card-sorting task in which they matched a test card to one of two target cards according to color or shape. The subjects had to determine the correct category based only on feedback and shift the sorting principle when the feedback changed from "correct" to "incorrect." Transient increase of neural activity time locked with attention shift phases was detected in the medial superior frontal gyrus (the rostral part of the supplementary motor area) and precuneus. During the control task, in which the feedback and the motor responses were preserved without any attention shift, this type of change in neural activity was not observed. Our findings indicate that increase in neural activity in these brain areas may be closely related to attention set shift between object features and suggest that these areas may play a role in the shifting of cognitive sets.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Single photon emission computed tomography was used to evaluate regional cerebral blood flow changes during gait on a treadmill in 10 patients with Parkinson's disease and 10 age-matched controls. The subjects were injected with [99mTc]hexamethyl-propyleneamine oxime twice: while walking on the treadmill, which moved at a steady speed, and while lying on a bed with their eyes open. On the treadmill, all subjects walked at the same speed with their preferred stride length. The patients showed typical hypokinetic gait with higher cadence and smaller stride length than the controls. In the controls, a gait-induced increase in brain activity was observed in the medial and lateral premotor areas, primary sensorimotor areas, anterior cingulate contex, superior parietal cortex, visual cortex, dorsal brainstem, basal ganglia and cerebellum. The Parkinson's disease patients revealed relative underactivation in the left medial frontal area, right precuneus and left cerebellar hemisphere, whereas they showed relative overactivity in the left temporal cortex, right insula, left cingulate cortex and cerebellar vermis. This is the first experimental study showing that the dorsal brainstem, which corresponds to the brainstem locomotor region in experimental animals, is active during human bipedal gait. The reduced brain activity in the medial frontal motor areas is a basic abnormality in motor performance in Parkinson's disease. The underactivity in the left cerebellar hemisphere, in contrast to the overactivity in the vermis, could be associated with a loss of lateral gravity shift in parkinsonian gait.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effect of entorhinal cortical lesion on cerebral cortical function, we studied cerebral glucose utilization (CMRGlc) using a high resolution PET scanner after quinolinic acid lesion of the unilateral entorhinal cortex in rats. [18F]Fluorodeoxyglucose PET was performed at 4 days and 4 weeks after surgery, and CMRGlc in the bilateral frontal, parietal and temporal regions were analyzed. At 4 days, the entorhinal lesion induced a 12-15% decrease in CMRGlc of frontal, parietal and temporal regions ipsilateral to the lesion. The hypometabolism continued at 4 weeks in the temporal region. These findings suggest that entorhinal lesion induces cerebral cortical hypometabolism, which implies a pathogenetic role of entorhinal area on the cortical hypometabolism in Alzheimer's disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The centrum semiovale may be susceptible to hypoperfusion as a result of carotid artery occlusion. Recent studies suggest that the cerebral hematocrit decreases with diminished cerebral perfusion pressure. To investigate whether the effect of carotid artery occlusion on the hematocrit in the centrum semiovale is different from that in the cerebral cortex, seven patients with unilateral carotid artery occlusion were studied with positron emission tomography. The distributions of the red blood cell and plasma volumes were assessed using carbon monoxide labeled with oxygen 15 and human serum albumin-dithiosemicarbazone tracers labeled with copper 62, respectively. The CBF and CMRO2 were also measured with the (15)O steady-state technique. The calculated values for the hematocrit in the centrum semiovale ipsilateral to the arterial occlusion were significantly decreased compared with those in any of the other regions examined (the overlying cortical region and the contralateral cortex and centrum semiovale). This decrease in hematocrit, which resulted from a more pronounced increase in plasma volume than in red blood cell volume, was associated with a decrease in CBF and an increase in the oxygen extraction fraction. Hemodynamic disturbance caused by carotid artery occlusion may induce selective decrease of hematocrit limited to the centrum semiovale.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We estimated the effect of the Harderian gland (an orbital gland of land vertebrates) on the measurement of cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (CMRGIc) of the rat brain using positron emission tomography (PET) for animal use. The Harderian gland had the high accumulation of 18-F labeled deoxyglucose (FDG) after intravenous injection. By placing the large regions of interest (ROI) (twice the full width at half maximum in diameter), the CMRGIc in the frontal region was slightly higher compared with the CMRGIc after Harderian gland resection, but the parietal and occipital regions and the cerebellum had the similar level of CMRGIc before and after Harderian gland resection. Therefore the Harderian gland has a slight effect on the frontal lobe CMRGIc, but such overestimation can be within the permissible range for PET study of rat brains.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the neural mechanisms involved in shifting attention we used positron emission tomography to examine regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) during a task that demands shifting attention between color and shape. Significant activation was observed in the right dorsal prefrontal cortex and parieto-occipital cortex at all frequencies of attention shifts. The frequency of shifts between categories correlated significantly with rCBF in the rostral part of the supplementary motor area and the left precuneus, whereas the number of successive correct responses correlated with rCBF in the orbitofrontal cortex and the caudate nucleus. This study suggests that several prefrontal regions may participate in the processes of shifting attention in different ways.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate whether atrophy of the corpus callosum is associated with cognitive impairment and cerebral cortical hypometabolism in corticobasal degeneration.
Prospective clinicoradiological correlation with magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography.
A university hospital.
Eight right-handed patients with clinically diagnosed corticobasal degeneration (mean+/-SD age, 64+/-8 years).
Midsagittal corpus callosum area-skull area ratio (on T1-weighted magnetic resonance images), the sum of the scaled scores of the 6 subtests on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (Digit Span, Arithmetic, Picture Arrangement, Object Assembly, Block Design, and Digit Symbol), and cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (measured with positron emission tomography by using fludeoxyglucose F 18 as a tracer).
Compared with 36 age-matched right-handed control subjects, the patients had significantly decreased callosal area-skull area ratio. The reduction in this ratio was greatest in the middle half of the corpus callosum. The atrophy of the corpus callosum was accompanied by a decreased mean cortical glucose metabolic rate with hemispheric asymmetry and a decrease in the sum of the scaled subtest scores of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised.
Atrophy of the corpus callosum with middle predominance is present in corticobasal degeneration, and this atrophy is associated with cognitive impairment and cerebral cortical hypometabolism with hemispheric asymmetry. Atrophy of the corpus callosum might reflect the severity of the disconnection between cortical regions, and this may be an important factor in the development of cerebral cortical dysfunction in corticobasal degeneration.