Suzanne L Wolden

Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York City, New York, United States

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Publications (202)799.91 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The Children's Oncology Group study AHOD0031, a randomized phase III study, was designed to evaluate the role of early chemotherapy response in tailoring subsequent therapy in pediatric intermediate-risk Hodgkin lymphoma. To avoid treatment-associated risks that compromise long-term health and to maintain high cure rates, dose-intensive chemotherapy with limited cumulative doses was used.
    Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background Treatment with radiotherapy (RT) is associated with an increased risk of second malignant neoplasms (SMNs) in childhood cancer survivors; it is unclear how treatment with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) impacts this risk. We provide the first report of SMN risk in a cohort of childhood cancer survivors treated with IMRT.ProcedureRetrospective review of patients ≤21 years of age treated with IMRT at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center between December 1998 and February 2009. Eligible patients survived at least 5 years from IMRT initiation. The risk of SMN was assessed via standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) and excess absolute risk (EAR). The cumulative incidence was estimated using methods for competing risks.ResultsAmong 242 patients, six developed SMNs: four developed second solid cancers (all within the radiation field), and two developed myelodysplastic syndrome. Median time from IMRT initiation to a second solid cancer was 7.2 years (range, 6.8–9.5), with a 10-year cumulative incidence of 3.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0–7.8%), SIR of 11.4 (95% CI, 3.1–29.2) and EAR of 1.8 per 1,000 person-years (95% CI, −0.1 to 3.8).Conclusions Longer follow-up is required to determine how the risk of SMN after IMRT compares to other modalities of radiation treatment, such as proton therapy. This study provides a preliminary report, which will serve as a baseline for future longitudinal analyses of SMN risk after IMRT. Pediatr Blood Cancer © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Pediatric Blood & Cancer 10/2014; · 2.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose To assess outcomes and toxicity of high-dose-rate intraoperative radiation therapy (HDR-IORT) in the management of pediatric sarcoma. Methods and Materials Seventy-five pediatric patients underwent HDR-IORT for sarcoma from May 1993 to November 2013. The median age was 9 years old (36 patients were ≤6 years old). HDR-IORT was part of initial therapy in 37 patients (49%) and for recurrent disease in 38 patients (51%). Forty-one patients (55%) received HDR-IORT and postoperative external beam RT (PORT), and 22 patients (29%) were previously treated with external beam radiation therapy to the IORT site. Local control (LC), overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) were estimated using Kaplan-Meier methods. Results At a median follow-up of 7.8 years for surviving patients, 5-year projected rates of LC, EFS, and OS were 63% (95% confidence interval [CI] 50%-76%), 33% (95% CI 21%-45%), and 43% (95% CI 30%-55%), with a median survival of 3.1 years. The 5-year LC, EFS, and OS rates for patients with recurrent disease were 46% (95% CI, 28%-64%), 30% (95% CI, 13%-46%), and 36% (95% CI, 18%-54%). Acute toxicity ≥grade 3 occurred in 2 (2.5%) treatments; late toxicity ≥grade 3 occurred in 4 (5.3%) patients 0.3-9.9 years after HDR-IORT. The incidence of toxicity ≥grade 3 was not associated with HDR-IORT applicator size, HDR-IORT dose, prior RT or PORT, or prior or postoperative chemotherapy, but all toxicity ≥grade 3 occurred in patients ≤6 years treated with HDR-IORT doses ≥12 Gy. Conclusions HDR-IORT is a well-tolerated component of multimodality therapy for pediatric sarcoma, allowing additional local treatment while reducing external beam exposure. Taking clinical considerations into account, doses between 8-12 Gy are appropriate for HDR-IORT in patients ≤6 years of age.
    International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics 10/2014; 90(2):362–368. · 4.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose To evaluate feasibility and patterns of failure in adult patients with Ewing sarcoma (ES) treated with whole lung irradiation (WLI) for pulmonary metastases. Methods and Materials Retrospective review of all ES patients treated at age 18 or older with 12-15 Gy WLI for pulmonary metastases at a single institution between 1990 and 2014. Twenty-six patients met the study criteria. Results The median age at WLI was 23 years (range, 18-40). The median follow-up time of the surviving patients was 3.8 years (range, 1.0-9.6). The 3-year cumulative incidence of pulmonary relapse (PR) was 55%, with a 3-year cumulative incidence of PR as the site of first relapse of 42%. The 3-year event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) were 38 and 45%, respectively. Patients with exclusively pulmonary metastases had better outcomes than did those with extrapulmonary metastases: the 3-year PR was 45% in those with exclusively lung metastases versus 76% in those with extrapulmonary metastases (P=.01); the 3-year EFS was 49% versus 14% (P=.003); and the 3-year OS was 61% versus 13% (P=.009). Smoking status was a significant prognostic factor for EFS: the 3-year EFS was 61% in nonsmokers versus 11% in smokers (P=.04). Two patients experienced herpes zoster in the radiation field 6 and 12 weeks after radiation. No patients experienced pneumonitis or cardiac toxicity, and no significant acute or late sequelae were observed among the survivors. Conclusion WLI in adult patients with ES and lung metastases is well tolerated and is associated with freedom from PR of 45% at 3 years. Given its acceptable toxicity and potential therapeutic effect, WLI for pulmonary metastases in ES should be considered for adults, as it is in pediatric patients. All patients should be advised to quit smoking before receiving WLI.
    International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics 08/2014; 89(5):1069–1075. · 4.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Loco-regionally recurrent head and neck cancer (HNC) in the setting of prior radiotherapy carries significant morbidity and mortality. The role of re-irradiation (re-RT) remains unclear due to toxicity. We determined prognostic factors for loco-regional control (LRC) and formulated a nomogram to help clinicians select re-RT candidates.
    Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology. 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Whole-lung irradiation (WLI) is standard of care in the treatment of patients with rhabdomyosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma, and Wilms tumor and pulmonary metastases. However, it is not routinely utilized in the treatment of pulmonary metastases arising from other soft tissue sarcoma histologies. A patient presented with synovial sarcoma of his groin and punctate pulmonary metastases. After completion of multimodality treatment to his primary lesion, he received WLI. The patient is without evidence of disease at 3.8 years. This case demonstrates the need for further study of WLI in synovial sarcoma as it may improve outcomes in patients with this disease. Pediatr Blood Cancer © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Pediatric Blood & Cancer 06/2014; · 2.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Plaque brachytherapy is a common form of treatment for uveal melanoma, and the Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study (COMS) used (125)I. Recently, (106)Ru has been reintroduced for plaque brachytherapy in the United States. We reviewed our experience treating uveal melanoma with (106)Ru plaque brachytherapy using COMS planning techniques, hypothesizing that we would observe similar outcomes to those in the COMS.
    Brachytherapy 05/2014; · 1.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A 6-year-old boy initially presented to an outside hospital with a right orbital mass with biopsy positive for translocation involving EWS RNA-binding protein 1 gene and imaging consistent with primary extraskeletal Ewing sarcoma (ES). There was no evidence of metastatic disease. Patient underwent gross tumor resection and adjuvant chemotherapy (VAdriaC/IE) followed by postoperative 45-Gy proton beam radiation. After 19 months, a solitary in-field local recurrence occurred, which was unsuccessfully surgically resected. Thereafter, treatment commenced with irinotecan and temozolomide, and the patient presented to the center of the authors. MRI showed locally recurrent disease without evidence of metastatic disease. Right orbital exenteration was performed, and an orbital mold was fashioned to deliver brachytherapy. There were no complications. The patient had no evidence of recurrent disease at 37-month follow up. This is the first report of orbital implant brachytherapy for recurrent primary ES of the orbit, and an additional report of primary extraskeletal ES of the orbit, which is a rare primary orbital tumor.
    Ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery 05/2014; · 0.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Current Children's Oncology Group (COG) guidelines recommend 24 Gy whole abdominopelvic radiation therapy (WAP-RT) for pediatric patients with sarcoma with peritoneal dissemination and/or malignant ascites. However, WAP-RT has never been described for pediatric sarcoma excluding desmoplastic small round-cell tumor (DSRCT). The objective of this study was to evaluate feasibility, outcomes, and toxicity of WAP-RT in children with sarcoma and peritoneal dissemination.ProcedureDetailed records of all 10 pediatric patients with sarcoma (excluding DSRCT) treated with WAP-RT from 2001 to 2013 were reviewed.ResultsMedian age was 9.9 years (range, 1.7–33.8). Seven patients had rhabdomyosarcoma, 2 embryonal undifferentiated sarcoma of the liver, and 1 Ewing sarcoma. Patients received a median dose of 24 Gy with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) to the whole abdomen and pelvis. Two patients did not complete treatment, one due to transfusion-resistant pancytopenia and one due to moderate acute gastrointestinal toxicity. At a median follow-up of 4.0 years, both relapse-free survival and overall survival were 100%. Acute hematologic toxicities were common, with 40% of patients developing a grade 4 hematologic toxicity. Most acute gastrointestinal toxicities were grade 1 and managed appropriately with anti-diarrheals and anti-emetics. Late effects varied, and half of patients are without long-term sequelae.Conclusions All patients remain free of disease, both locally and distantly. Although WAP-RT was associated with acute and late toxicity, treatment was feasible with supportive care. Given the excellent rates of tumor control, we recommend that all providers give WAP-RT with IMRT to patients with pediatric sarcoma and peritoneal dissemination and/or malignant ascites. Pediatr Blood Cancer © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Pediatric Blood & Cancer 05/2014; · 2.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The risk of breast cancer is high in women treated for a childhood cancer with chest irradiation. We sought to examine variations in risk resulting from irradiation field and radiation dose. We evaluated cumulative breast cancer risk in 1,230 female childhood cancer survivors treated with chest irradiation who were participants in the CCSS (Childhood Cancer Survivor Study). Childhood cancer survivors treated with lower delivered doses of radiation (median, 14 Gy; range, 2 to 20 Gy) to a large volume (whole-lung field) had a high risk of breast cancer (standardized incidence ratio [SIR], 43.6; 95% CI, 27.2 to 70.3), as did survivors treated with high doses of delivered radiation (median, 40 Gy) to the mantle field (SIR, 24.2; 95% CI, 20.7 to 28.3). The cumulative incidence of breast cancer by age 50 years was 30% (95% CI, 25 to 34), with a 35% incidence among Hodgkin lymphoma survivors (95% CI, 29 to 40). Breast cancer-specific mortality at 5 and 10 years was 12% (95% CI, 8 to 18) and 19% (95% CI, 13 to 25), respectively. Among women treated for childhood cancer with chest radiation therapy, those treated with whole-lung irradiation have a greater risk of breast cancer than previously recognized, demonstrating the importance of radiation volume. Importantly, mortality associated with breast cancer after childhood cancer is substantial.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 04/2014; · 18.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The emergence of the threat of radiological terrorism and other radiological incidents has led to the need for development of fast, accurate and noninvasive methods for detection of radiation exposure. The purpose of this study was to extend radiation metabolomic biomarker discovery to humans, as previous studies have focused on mice. Urine was collected from patients undergoing total body irradiation at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center prior to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation at 4-6 h postirradiation (a single dose of 1.25 Gy) and 24 h (three fractions of 1.25 Gy each). Global metabolomic profiling was obtained through analysis with ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS). Prior to further analyses, each sample was normalized to its respective creatinine level. Statistical analysis was conducted by the nonparametric Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and the Fisher's exact test and markers were validated against pure standards. Seven markers showed distinct differences between pre- and post-exposure samples. Of those, trimethyl-l-lysine and the carnitine conjugates acetylcarnitine, decanoylcarnitine and octanoylcarnitine play an important role in the transportation of fatty acids across mitochondria for subsequent fatty acid β-oxidation. The remaining metabolites, hypoxanthine, xanthine and uric acid are the final products of the purine catabolism pathway, and high levels of excretion have been associated with increased oxidative stress and radiation induced DNA damage. Further analysis revealed gender differences in the patterns of excretion of the markers, demonstrating that generation of a gender-specific metabolomic signature will be informative and can provide a quick and reliable assessment of individuals in a radiological scenario. This is the first radiation metabolomics study in human urine laying the foundation for the use of metabolomics in biodosimetry and providing confidence in biomarker identification based on the overlap between animal models and humans.
    Radiation Research 03/2014; · 2.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The results of RTOG-MRC randomized trial of photon (n=15) versus neutron (n=17) therapy in the 1980's reported an improved local control (LC) with neutron radiotherapy for unresectable salivary gland tumors. Due to increased severe toxicity with neutron radiotherapy and the paucity of neutron-therapy centers, we analyzed our institution's results of photon radiotherapy for unresectable salivary gland tumors. From 1990 to 2009, 27 patients with unresectable salivary gland cancer underwent definitive photon radiotherapy at our institution. Nodal involvement on presentation was found in 9 patients. Median dose of radiotherapy was 70 Gy. Chemotherapy was given to 18 patients, most being platinum-based regimens. Local control (LC), locoregional control (LRC), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), overall survival (OS), and toxicity outcomes were assessed. With a median follow-up of 52.4 months, the 2/5-year actuarial LC was 69% (95%CI ± 21.0%)/55% (± 24.2%), LRC was 65% (± 21.4%)/47% (± 21.6%), and DMFS was 71% (± 21.8%)/51% (± 22.8%), respectively using competing risk analysis. The median OS was 25.7 months, and the 2/5-year OS rates were 50% (± 19.0%)/29% (± 16.6%), respectively. Higher histologic grade was significant for an increased rate of DM (intermediate grade vs. low grade, p=0.04, HR 7.93; high grade vs. low grade, p=0.01, HR 13.50). Thirteen (48%) patient's experienced acute grade 3 toxicity. Late grade 3 toxicity occurred in three (11%) patients. Our data compares favorably to neutron radiotherapy with fewer late complications. Photon radiotherapy is an acceptable alternative to neutron radiotherapy in patients who present with unresectable salivary gland tumors.
    Radiology and Oncology 03/2014; 48(1):56-61. · 1.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is a clinical need to improve the efficacy of standard cetuximab + concurrent intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for patients with locally and/or regionally advanced HNSCC. Taxanes have radiosensitizing activity against HNSCC, and nab-paclitaxel may offer therapeutic advantage in comparison with other taxanes. This was a single-institution phase I study with a modified 3 + 3 design. Four dose levels (DLs) of weekly nab-paclitaxel were explored (30, 45, 60, and 80 mg/m(2)), given with standard weekly cetuximab (450 mg/m(2) loading dose followed by 250 mg/m(2) weekly) and concurrent IMRT (total dose, 70 Gy). Twenty-five eligible patients (20 M, 5 F) enrolled, with median age 58 years (range, 46-84 years). Primary tumor sites were oropharynx, 19 (10 human papillomavirus [HPV] pos, 8 HPV neg, 1 not done); neck node with unknown primary, 2; larynx 2; and oral cavity and maxillary sinus, 1 each. Seven patients had received prior induction chemotherapy. Maximum tolerated dose (MTD) was exceeded at DL4 (nab-paclitaxel, 80 mg/m(2)) with three dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) (grade 3 neuropathy, grade 3 dehydration, with grade 3 mucositis grade 3 anemia) among five assessable patients. There was only one DLT (grade 3 supraventricular tachycardia) among six patients at DL3 (nab-paclitaxel, 60 mg/m(2)), and this was deemed the MTD. Among 23 assessable patients, the most common ≥ g3 AEs were lymphopenia 100%, functional mucositis 65%, and pain in throat/oral cavity 52%. At a median follow-up of 33 months, 2-year failure-free survival (FFS) is 65% [95% confidence interval (CI) 42% to 81%] and 2-year overall survival (OS) is 91% (95% CI 69-97). The recommended phase II dose for nab-paclitaxel is 60 mg/m(2) weekly when given standard weekly cetuximab and concurrent IMRT. This regimen merits further study as a nonplatinum alternative to IMRT + cetuximab alone. NCT00736619.
    Annals of Oncology 02/2014; · 7.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Achieving local control is a crucial component in the management of neuroblastoma, but this may be complicated in the setting of prior radiation treatment, especially when the therapeutic target is in proximity to critical structures such as the spinal cord. The authors describe a pediatric patient with multiply recurrent neuroblastoma and prior high-dose radiation therapy to the spine who presented with progressive epidural disease. The patient was managed with resection and intraoperative high-dose-rate brachytherapy using a phosphorus-32 ((32)P) plaque previously developed for the treatment of brain and spine lesions.
    Journal of Neurosurgery Pediatrics 01/2014; · 1.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives The complications as a result of re-irradiation (re-RT) for recurrent head and neck cancer (HNC) can be devas-tating to the already very ill patient. We sought to examine the pattern of failure with the goal of designing optimal re-RT fields for these patients. Methods From July 1996 to April 2011, 47 HNC patients treated with fractionated re-RT developed locoregional fail-ure. Recurrence sites were oropharynx (n=12), neck (n=11), oral cavity (n=9), larynx (n=5), paranasal sinuses (n=5), parotid (n=4), and hypopharynx (n=1). Median initial radia-tion therapy (RT) dose was 65 Gy and median time between radiations was 32.2 months. Salvage surgery was performed in 21 patients (45 %), and 37 patients (79 %) received con-current chemotherapy. Median re-RT dose was 60 Gy, and all patients received intensity-modulated RT. Patterns of failure were assessed by reviewing target volume delineation and compared slice-by-slice visually alongside axial imaging documenting locoregional recurrence. There was no intention to encompass prophylactic subclinical regions at risk. Coding of failures was either in-field (InF) or out-of-field (OutF). All others were marginal failures (margF). Results With a median follow-up of 24.5 months, the median time to locoregional progression-free survival (LRPFS) was 5.3 months and median overall survival (OS) was 12.5 months. Failures were documented as InF in 42 patients (89 %), OutF in three patients (6 %), and margF in two patients (4 %). Five patients died while undergoing re-RT. Patients who developed OutF occurred at sites beyond 2 cm from the tumor volume. Conclusions In our series of recurrent HNC patients who underwent salvage re-RT, the vast majority of locoregional failures were InF. We feel that confining re-RT targets to the gross tumor volume or postoperative clinical target volume without treating the subclinical regions at risk for failure is sufficient. With current image guidance capabilities, reducing the planning target volume margin may further minimize toxicities.
    Journal of Radiation Oncology. 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We previously reported inferior outcomes for locally advanced head and neck cancer treated with cetuximab (C225) versus cisplatin (CDDP). We now examine if this difference persists when accounting for HPV status and update outcomes on the entire cohort. From 3/106 to 4/1/08, 174 locally advanced head and neck cancer patients received definitive treatment with RT and CDDP (n=125) or RT and C225 (n=49). Of these, 62 patients had tissue available for HPV analysis. The median follow-up was 47 months. The 3-year loco-regional failure, disease-free survival, and overall survival for CDDP versus C225 were 5.7% versus 40.2% (P<0.0001), 85.1% versus 35.4% (P<0.0001), and 90.0% versus 56.6% (P<0.0001), respectively. In the subset with tissue, there was no difference in rates of HPV or p16 positivity between the 2 groups. In this subset, the 3-year loco-regional failure, disease-free survival, and overall survival for CDDP versus C225 were 5.3% versus 32.0% (P=0.01), 86.8% versus 43.2% (P=0.002), and 86.7% versus 76.9% (P=0.09), respectively. Multivariate analysis continued to show a benefit for CDDP. With longer follow-up and the inclusion of HPV and p16 status for about one third of patients where tissue was available, we continued to find superior outcomes with concurrent CDDP versus C225.
    American journal of clinical oncology 01/2014; · 2.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives We previously reported inferior outcomes for locally-advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (LAHNSCC) patients treated with concurrent cetuximab vs. high-dose cisplatin with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Prior to FDA approval of cetuximab for LAHNSCC, non-cisplatin eligible patients at our institution received 5-fluorouracil (5FU)/carboplatin. We sought to compare concurrent cetuximab vs. 5FU/carboplatin vs. high-dose cisplatin with IMRT for LAHNSCC. Materials and methods Retrospective review was performed for LAHNSCC patients treated at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center from 11/02 to 04/08 with concurrent cetuximab (n = 49), 5FU/carboplatin (n = 52), or cisplatin (n = 259) and IMRT. Overall survival (OS), locoregional failure (LRF), distant metastasis-free survival, and late toxicity were analyzed using univariate and multivariate analyses. OS analysis was confirmed by propensity score adjustment. Results Treatment groups were similar with regard to primary tumor site, overall stage, and alcohol and tobacco history. Cetuximab and 5FU/carboplatin patients were older, with lower performance status, more comorbidities, higher T classification, and worse renal function. On multivariate analysis, compared with cisplatin and 5FU/carboplatin, cetuximab was associated with inferior 4-year OS (86.9% vs. 70.2% vs. 40.9%; P < .0001) and 4-year LRF (6.3% vs. 9.7% vs. 40.2%; P < .0001). Late toxicity was highest with 5FU/carboplatin (25.0%) vs. cisplatin (8.0%) vs. cetuximab (7.7%). Conclusions Although 5FU/carboplatin patients were sicker and experienced greater toxicity than cisplatin patients, no significant difference was found in all endpoints. In contrast, despite similar pretreatment characteristics, outcomes for cetuximab vs. 5FU/carboplatin were significantly worse. We feel that caution should be used with routine use of cetuximab in the management of LAHNSCC.
    Oral Oncology. 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background and purpose Loco-regionally recurrent head and neck cancer (HNC) in the setting of prior radiotherapy carries significant morbidity and mortality. The role of re-irradiation (re-RT) remains unclear due to toxicity. We determined prognostic factors for loco-regional control (LRC) and formulated a nomogram to help clinicians select re-RT candidates. Material and methods From July 1996 to April 2011, 257 patients with recurrent HNC underwent fractionated re-RT. Median prior dose was 65 Gy and median time between RT was 32.4 months. One hundred fifteen patients (44%) had salvage surgery and 172 (67%) received concurrent chemotherapy. Median re-RT dose was 59.4 Gy and 201 (78%) patients received IMRT. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards were used to identify independent predictors of LRC and a nomogram for 2-year LRC was constructed. Results Median follow-up was 32.6 months. Two-year LRC and overall survival (OS) were 47% and 43%, respectively. Recurrent stage (P = 0.005), non-oral cavity subsite (P < 0.001), absent organ dysfunction (P < 0.001), salvage surgery (P < 0.001), and dose >50 Gy (P = 0.006) were independently associated with improved LRC. We generated a nomogram with concordance index of 0.68. Conclusion Re-RT can be curative, and our nomogram can help determine a priori which patients may benefit.
    Radiotherapy and Oncology. 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose To analyze prognostic factors and patterns of failure for rhabdomyosarcoma of the perineal and perianal region (PRMS), with an emphasis on radiation therapy for locoregional control. Methods and Materials Detailed records of all 14 patients treated for PRMS at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center between 1998 and 2012 were reviewed. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to assess the event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS), and a competing-risks analysis was used to assess the cumulative incidence of local, regional, and distant failures. Results Median age was 15.8 years (range, 1.1-31.9 years). High-risk features were identified: 9 of 14 patients (64%) had group 3 disease and 3 of 14 (21%) had group 4; 11 of 14 tumors (78%) were alveolar; 12 of 14 tumors (86%) were ≥5 cm; and 9 of 14 patients (64%) had involved lymph nodes (N1). Of those aged ≥10 years at diagnosis, 9 of 10 (90%) had alveolar histology, all had tumors ≥5 cm, and 8 of 10 (80%) presented with N1 disease. The rates of local, regional, and distant failure at 5 years were 17%, 31%, and 52%, respectively. Although 3 of the 4 patients with regional failure received nodal irradiation, only one of the nodal failures occurred in the radiation therapy field. The 5-year EFS was 33%, and OS was 39%. Age ≥10 years was associated with poor outcomes: EFS was 13% in patients aged ≥10 years, compared with 75% in those aged <10 years (P=.04); the OS was 13% in patients aged ≥10 years, compared with 100% in those aged <10 years (P=.04). Conclusions Patients with PRMS, especially those aged ≥10 years, present with poor prognostic features and continue to have poor outcomes. Given the high incidence of regional node recurrence, we recommend prophylactic ilioinguinal lymph node irradiation for all patients aged ≥10 years. For children aged <10 years, nodal evaluation is essential to determine the role for lymph node irradiation.
    International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics 01/2014; 89(1):82–87. · 4.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose We sought to identify risk factors for distant metastasis (DM) in patients with oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) and perform a recursive partition analysis (RPA) to identify patients both at low and high risk for DM. Methods Our center treated 647 consecutive OPC patients with IMRT between 9/98 and 1/12. The following clinical features were used as prognostic factors: T Stage, N Stage, smoking history, tumor grade, tumor sub-site, the presence of a low lying (level IV or VB) lymph node (LLLN). A Cox model of the risk of DM was used to identify independent prognostic factors. RPA was used to identify patients at low, intermediate, and high risk for DM. Results The median follow-up time in living patients was 42.2 months (range: 2–166). The primary OPC site was the tonsil in 296 patients, base of tongue in 315 patients, and soft palate or pharyngeal wall in 36 patients. For the entire cohort, the Kaplan–Meier estimate for 3 year freedom from distant metastasis was 88.4%. A Cox model identified T Stage (p < 0.001), N Stage (p = 0.02), and LLLN (p = 0.002) as independent predictors of DM. RPA identified patients at low, intermediate, and high risk of DM, with a 3-year freedom-from DM of 98%, 91.1%, and 65.4% respectively. Conclusion The presence of a low lying lymph node is significantly associated with an increased risk of DM in OPC. RPA identified patients both at very low and very high risk for DM with information routinely obtained in clinic.
    Oral Oncology. 01/2014;

Publication Stats

3k Citations
799.91 Total Impact Points


  • 1999–2014
    • Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center
      • • Department of Radiation Oncology
      • • Department of Surgery
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 2011
    • Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center
      Cincinnati, Ohio, United States
    • University of Utah
      • Department of Radiation Oncology
      Salt Lake City, UT, United States
  • 1998–2011
    • Stanford University
      • Department of Radiation Oncology
      Stanford, CA, United States
  • 2010
    • University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Houston, TX, United States
  • 2009
    • University of Pittsburgh
      • Division of Pediatric Surgery
      Pittsburgh, PA, United States
    • Université de Montréal
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
  • 2004
    • University of Washington Seattle
      • Department of Radiation Oncology
      Seattle, WA, United States
  • 2003
    • University of Minnesota Twin Cities
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Minneapolis, MN, United States
  • 2000
    • Stanford Medicine
      Stanford, California, United States