[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Eliciting effective immune responses using non-living/replicating DNA vaccines is a significant challenge. We have previously shown that ballistic dermal plasmid DNA-encoded flagellin (FliC) promotes humoral as well as cellular immunity to co-delivered antigens. Here, we observe that a plasmid encoding secreted FliC (pFliC(-gly)) produces flagellin capable of activating two innate immune receptors known to detect flagellin; Toll-like Receptor 5 (TLR5) and Nod-like Receptor family CARD domain-containing protein 4 (NRLC4). To OPEN ACCESS Vaccince 2013, 1 416 test the ability of pFliC(-gly) to act as an adjuvant we immunized mice with plasmid encoding secreted FliC (pFliC(-gly)) and plasmid encoding a model antigen (ovalbumin) by three different immunization routes representative of dermal, systemic, and mucosal tissues. By all three routes we observed increases in antigen-specific antibodies in serum as well as MHC Class I-dependent cellular immune responses when pFliC(-gly) adjuvant was added. Additionally, we were able to induce mucosal antibody responses and Class II-dependent cellular immune responses after mucosal vaccination with pFliC(-gly). Humoral immune responses elicited by heterologus prime-boost immunization with a plasmid encoding HIV-1 from gp160 followed by protein boosting could be enhanced by use of pFliC(-gly). We also observed enhancement of cross-clade reactive IgA as well as a broadening of B cell epitope reactivity. These observations indicate that plasmid-encoded secreted flagellin can activate multiple innate immune responses and function as an adjuvant to non-living/replicating DNA immunizations. Moreover, the capacity to elicit mucosal immune responses, in addition to dermal and systemic properties, demonstrates the potential of flagellin to be used with vaccines designed to be delivered by various routes.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: & Aims: Abnormal activity of innate immune cells and T-helper (Th)17 cells has been implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, including Crohn's disease (CD). Intestinal innate immune (myeloid) cells have been found to induce development of Th17 cells in mice, but it is not clear if this occurs in humans, or in patients with CD. We investigated whether human intestinal lamina propria cells (LPCs) induce development of Th17 cells and whether these have a role in pathogenesis of CD.
Normal intestinal mucosa samples were collected from patients with colorectal cancer, and non-inflammed and inflammed regions of mucosa were collected from patients with CD. LPCs were isolated by enzymatic digestion and analyzed for expression of HLA-DR, lineage markers (Lin), CD14, and CD163 using flow cytometry.
Among HLA-DR(high) Lin(-) cells, we identified a subset of CD14(+) CD163(low) cells in intestinal LPCs; this subset expressed Toll-like receptor (TLR)2, TLR4, and TLR5 mRNAs and produced interleukin (IL)6, IL1β, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α in response to lipopolysaccharide. In vitro co-culture with naïve T cells revealed that CD14(+) CD163(low) cells induced development of Th17 cells. CD14(+) CD163(low) cells from inflamed regions of mucosa of patients with CD expressed high levels of IL6, IL23p19, and TNF mRNAs, and strongly induced Th17 cells. CD14(+) CD163(low) cells from the non-inflamed mucosa of patients with CD also had increased abilities to induce Th17 cells, compared with those from normal intestinal mucosa.
CD14(+) CD163(low) cells in intestinal LPCs from normal intestinal mucosa induce differentiation of naïve T cells into Th17 cells; this activity is increased in mucosal samples from patients with CD. These findings show how intestinal myeloid cell types could contribute to pathogenesis of CD and possibly other Th17-associated diseases.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Osteoclasts are multinucleated cells formed by fusion of mononuclear precursors in response to receptor activator of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) ligand (RANKL). We found that RANKL induced expression of the DExD/H helicase family corepressor strawberry notch homologue 2 (Sbno2). Previous in vitro studies showed that Sbno2 is induced by IL-10 and is involved in NF-κB repression. However, the role of Sbno2 in vivo and its pleiotropic functions are unknown. Sbno2 gene targeting resulted in normal NF-κB activation by TLR ligands. However, Sbno2-deficient mice exhibited increased bone mass due to impaired osteoclast fusion. Expression of dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP), a critical player in osteoclast fusion, was significantly attenuated, and cell fusion of Sbno2-deficient osteoclasts was rescued by DC-STAMP. Sbno2 directly bound to T cell acute lymphocytic leukemia 1 (Tal1) and attenuated its inhibition of DC-STAMP expression, leading to activation of the DC-STAMP promoter by microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF). Thus, Sbno2 plays a pivotal role in bone homeostasis in vivo by fine-tuning osteoclast fusion.
Journal of Experimental Medicine 08/2013; · 13.21 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The small intestine harbors a substantial number of commensal bacteria and is sporadically invaded by pathogens, but the response to these microorganisms is fundamentally different. We identified a discriminatory sensor by using Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3). Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) of one major commensal species, lactic acid bacteria (LAB), triggered interferon-β (IFN-β) production, which protected mice from experimental colitis. The LAB-induced IFN-β response was diminished by dsRNA digestion and treatment with endosomal inhibitors. Pathogenic bacteria contained less dsRNA and induced much less IFN-β than LAB, and dsRNA was not involved in pathogen-induced IFN-β induction. These results identify TLR3 as a sensor to small intestinal commensal bacteria and suggest that dsRNA in commensal bacteria contributes to anti-inflammatory and protective immune responses.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) has been widely studied in an inflammatory context, but the effect of TLR5 on the adaptive response to bacterial flagellin has received considerably less attention. Here, we demonstrate that TLR5 expression by dendritic cells (DCs) allows a 1,000-fold enhancement of T-cell sensitivity to flagellin, and this enhancement did not require the expression of NLRC4 or Myd88. The effect of TLR5 on CD4 T-cell sensitivity was independent of the adjuvant effect of flagellin and TLR5 ligation did not alter the sensitivity of ovalbumin (OVA)-specific T cells to OVA. In the spleen, the exquisite T-cell sensitivity to flagellin was regulated by CD4-CD8α- DCs and was blocked by a monoclonal antibody to TLR5. In the mesenteric lymph nodes, flagellin-specific T-cell activation was regulated by a population of CD103-CD11b+ DCs. Thus, TLR5 expression by mucosal and systemic DC subsets controls the sensitivity of the adaptive immune response to flagellated pathogens.Mucosal Immunology advance online publication 1 May 2013. doi:10.1038/mi.2013.25.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: TNFR-associated factor family member-associated NF-κB activator (TANK)-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) is critical for the activation of IFN regulatory factor 3 and type I IFN production upon virus infection. A set of TBK1-binding proteins, 5-azacytidine-induced gene 2 (AZI2; also known as NAP1), TANK, and TBK1-binding protein 1 (TBKBP1), have also been implicated in the production of type I IFNs. Among them, TANK was found to be dispensable for the responses against virus infection. However, physiological roles of AZI2 and TBKBP1 have yet to be clarified. In this study, we found that none of these TBK1-binding proteins is critical for type I IFN production in mice. In contrast, AZI2, but not TBKBP1, is critical for the differentiation of conventional dendritic cells (cDCs) from bone marrow cells in response to GM-CSF. AZI2 controls GM-CSF-induced cell cycling of bone marrow cells via TBK1. GM-CSF-derived DCs from AZI2-deficient mice show severe defects in cytokine production and T cell activation both in vitro and in vivo. Reciprocally, overexpression of AZI2 results in efficient generation of cDCs, and the cells show enhanced T cell activation in response to Ag stimulation. Taken together, AZI2 expression is critical for the generation of cDCs by GM-CSF and can potentially be used to increase the efficiency of immunization by cDCs.
The Journal of Immunology 04/2013; · 5.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Respiratory tract viruses are a major environmental risk factor for both the inception and exacerbations of asthma. Genetic defects in Toll-like receptor (TLR) 7-mediated signaling, impaired type I interferon responses, or both have been reported in asthmatic patients, although their contribution to the onset and exacerbation of asthma remains poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine whether Pneumovirus infection in the absence of TLR7 predisposes to bronchiolitis and the inception of asthma. METHODS: Wild-type and TLR7-deficient (TLR7(-/-)) mice were inoculated with the rodent-specific pathogen pneumonia virus of mice at 1 (primary), 7 (secondary), and 13 (tertiary) weeks of age, and pathologic features of bronchiolitis or asthma were assessed. In some experiments infected mice were exposed to low-dose cockroach antigen. RESULTS: TLR7 deficiency increased viral load in the airway epithelium, which became sloughed and necrotic, and promoted an IFN-α/β(low), IL-12p70(low), IL-1β(high), IL-25(high), and IL-33(high) cytokine microenvironment that was associated with the recruitment of type 2 innate lymphoid cells/nuocytes and increased TH2-type cytokine production. Viral challenge of TLR7(-/-) mice induced all of the cardinal pathophysiologic features of asthma, including tissue eosinophilia, mast cell hyperplasia, IgE production, airway smooth muscle alterations, and airways hyperreactivity in a memory CD4(+) T cell-dependent manner. Importantly, infections with pneumonia virus of mice promoted allergic sensitization to inhaled cockroach antigen in the absence but not the presence of TLR7. CONCLUSION: TLR7 gene defects and Pneumovirus infection interact to establish an aberrant adaptive response that might underlie virus-induced asthma exacerbations in later life.
The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology 04/2013; · 9.17 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sphingobacterium spiritivorum has five unusual sphingophospholipids (SPLs). Our previous study determined the complete chemical structures of these SPLs. The compositions of the long-chain bases/fatty acids in the ceramide portion, isoheptadecasphingosine/isopentadecanoate or isoheptadecasphingosine/2-hydroxy isopentadecanoate, are characteristic. The immune response against bacterial lipid components is considered to play important roles in microbial infections. It is reported that several bacterial sphingolipids composed of ceramide are recognized by CD1-restricted T and NKT cells and that a non-peptide antigen is recognized by γδ T cells. In this study, we demonstrated that these bacterial SPLs activated murine bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) via Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 but not TLR2, although they slightly activated CD1d-restricted NKT and γδT cells. Interestingly, this TLR 4-recognition pathway of bacterial SPLs involves the fatty acid composition of ceramide in addition to the sugar moiety. A non-hydroxy fatty acid composed of ceramide was necessary to activate murine BMMs. The bacterial survival was significantly higher in TLR4-/- mice than in TLR2-/- and wild-type mice. The results indicate that activation of the TLR4-dependent pathway of BMMs by SPLs induced an innate immune response and contributed to bacterial clearance.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 03/2013; · 4.66 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: P18-I10 (RGPGRAFVTI), and OVA 257–264 (SIINFEKL) were synthesized by NeoMPS. Equimolar mixtures of the phosphorothioate CpG-ODNs 1555 (GCTAGACGTTAGCGT) and 1466 (TCAACGTTGA) (CpG sequences underlined) or control ODNs 1612 (GCTAGATGT-TAGCGT) and 1471 (TCAAGCTTGA) were synthesized at the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research core facility. All were free of endotoxin and protein contamination. Lipoteichoic acids (LTA), macrophage-activating lipoprotein (MALP-2), zy-mosan (Zym), Pam 3 CSK 4 (Pam3), poly(inosinic acid)poly(cytidylic acid) [poly(IC) or PIC], lipopolysaccharide (LPS), monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL), and suppressive ODN 2088 were purchased from Invivogen. E6020 (a TLR4 ligand) was obtained from Eisai. Dose titration was performed to determine the working doses based on induction of minimal amounts of cytokines by individual ligands. Inhibitors for P38 (SB203580), ERK (FR180204), JNK (SP600125), and NF-B (SN50) were purchased from EMD Biosciences. Neutralizing antibodies for IL-12p70, IL-1, and IL-6, TNF were purchased from R&D Systems or eBioscience. Recombinant IL-12, TNF, MIP-1, and IP-10 proteins were purchased from Peprotech. Cell Isolation, Purification, and Coculture. Bone marrow cells were cultured at 7 10 5 per ml for 6 days in the presence of 15 ng/ml GM-CSF (Peprotech) in RPMI medium 1640 supplemented with 10% heat-inactivated FCS, 2 mM L-glutamine, 100 units/ml penicillin, and 100 g/ml streptomycin. DCs and macrophages were obtained from suspension and adherent cells, respectively. Popliteal lymph node (LN) cells were isolated after footpad immunization either with DCs or with peptide. For T cell purification, spleens were removed from naïve mice. Total T cells as well as CD4 and CD8 T cell subsets were separated by negative selection (to avoid perturbation) on an autoMACS Separator (Miltenyi Biotec) by using a mixture of antibodies against CD45R, CD49b, CD11b, Ter-119, and/or CD8 or CD4. The purity of sorted cell populations was at least 97%. After 20 h of stimulation with various TLR ligands, stimulator cells were washed to remove excess reagents. Purified total T cells or T cell subsets were used as responders, cocultured with syngeneic stimulators at a ratio of 1:2.5. In some experiments, neutralizing antibodies for IFN-and IFN-(R&D Systems) were included in the culture of DCs with TLR ligands.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 01/2013; · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pellagra is a photosensitivity syndrome characterized by three "D's": diarrhea, dermatitis, and dementia as a result of niacin deficiency. However, the molecular mechanisms of photosensitivity dermatitis, the hallmark abnormality of this syndrome, remain unclear. We prepared niacin deficient mice in order to develop a murine model of pellagra. Niacin deficiency induced photosensitivity and severe diarrhea with weight loss. In addition, niacin deficient mice exhibited elevated expressions of COX-2 and PGE syntheses (Ptges) mRNA. Consistently, photosensitivity was alleviated by a COX inhibitor, deficiency of Ptges, or blockade of EP4 receptor signaling. Moreover, enhanced PGE2 production in niacin deficiency was mediated via ROS production in keratinocytes. In line with the above murine findings, human skin lesions of pellagra patients confirmed the enhanced expression of Ptges. Niacin deficiency-induced photosensitivity was mediated through EP4 signaling in response to increased PGE2 production via induction of ROS formation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Microsomal prostaglandin synthetase-1 (mPGES-1) is an inducible terminal enzyme required for prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) biosynthesis. In this study, we examined the role of mPGES-1 in the inflammation and demyelination observed in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS). We induced EAE with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein(35-55) peptide in mPGES-1-deficient (mPGES-1(-/-)) and wild-type (WT) mice. First, we examined the histopathology in the early and late phases of EAE progression. Next, we measured the concentration of PGE(2) in the spinal cord and investigated the expression of mPGES-1 using immunohistochemistry. In addition, we examined the progression of the severity of EAE using an EAE score to investigate a correlation between pathological features and paralysis. In this paper, we demonstrate that WT mice showed extensive inflammation and demyelination, whereas mPGES-1(-/-) mice exhibited significantly smaller and more localized changes in the perivascular area. The mPGES-1 protein was induced in vascular endothelial cells and microglia around inflammatory foci, and PGE(2) production was increased in WT mice but not mPGES-1(-/-) mice. Furthermore, mPGES-1(-/-) mice showed a significant reduction in the maximum EAE score and improved locomotor activity. These results suggest that central PGE(2) derived from non-neuronal mPGES-1 aggravates the disruption of the vessel structure, leading to the spread of inflammation and local demyelination in the spinal cord, which corresponds to the symptoms of EAE. The inhibition of mPGES-1 may be useful for the treatment of human MS.
Neurochemistry International 12/2012; · 2.66 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mucosal immunity is poorly activated after systemic immunization with protein Ags. Nevertheless, induction of mucosal immunity in such a manner would be an attractive and simple way to overcome the intrinsic difficulties in delivering Ag to such sites. Flagellin from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (FliC) can impact markedly on host immunity, in part via its recognition by TLR5. In this study, we show that systemic immunization with soluble FliC (sFliC) drives distinct immune responses concurrently in the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) and the spleen after i.p. and s.c. immunization. In the MLN, but not the spleen, sFliC drives a TLR5-dependent recruitment of CD103(+) dendritic cells (DCs), which correlates with a diminution in CD103(+) DC numbers in the lamina propria. In the MLN, CD103(+) DCs carry Ag and are the major primers of endogenous and transgenic T cell priming. A key consequence of these interactions with CD103(+) DCs in the MLN is an increase in local regulatory T cell differentiation. In parallel, systemic sFliC immunization results in a pronounced switching of FliC-specific B cells to IgA in the MLN but not elsewhere. Loss of TLR5 has more impact on MLN than splenic Ab responses, reflected in an ablation of IgA, but not IgG, serum Ab titers. Therefore, systemic sFliC immunization targets CD103(+) DCs and drives distinct mucosal T and B cell responses. This offers a potential "Trojan horse" approach to modulate mucosal immunity by systemically immunizing with sFliC.
The Journal of Immunology 11/2012; · 5.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5), a sensor for bacterial flagellin, mounts innate and adaptive immune responses, and has been implicated in infectious diseases, colitis and metabolic syndromes. Although TLR5 is believed to belong to cell surface TLRs, cell surface expression has never been verified. Moreover, it has remained unclear which types of immune cells express TLR5 and contribute to flagellin-dependent responses. In this study we established an anti-mouse TLR5 monoclonal antibody and studied the cell surface expression of TLR5 on immune cells. The macrophage cell line J774 expressed endogenous TLR5 on the cell surface and produced IL-6 and G-CSF in response to flagellin. Cell surface expression of TLR5 and flagellin-induced responses were completely abolished by silencing a TLR-specific chaperone protein associated with TLR4 A (PRAT4A), demonstrating that TLR5 is another client of PRAT4A. In the in vivo immune cells, cell surface TLR5 was mainly found on neutrophils and CD11b ( hi ) Ly6C ( hi ) classical monocytes in the bone marrow, circulation, spleen and inflammatory lesions. Ly6C ( hi ) classical monocytes, but not neutrophils, produced cytokines in response to flagellin. Splenic CD8 ( - ) CD4 ( + ) conventional dendritic cells and CD11c ( hi ) CD11b ( hi ) lamina propria DCs, also clearly expressed cell surface TLR5. Collectively, cell surface expression of TLR5 is dependent on PRAT4A and restricted to neutrophils, classical monocytes and specific DC subsets.
International Immunology 07/2012; 24(10):613-23. · 3.14 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epidemiological studies have suggested that the long-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs that inhibit cyclooxygenase (COX) activity moderates the onset or progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Thus it has been suggested that prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), a major end-product of COX, may play a pathogenic role in AD, but the involvement of PGE synthase (PGES), a terminal enzyme downstream from COX, has not been fully elucidated. To examine the involvement in AD pathology of microsomal PGES-1 (mPGES-1), a PGES enzyme, we here prepared primary cerebral neuronal cells from the cerebri of wild-type and mPGES-1-deficient mice and then treated them with β-amyloid (Aβ) fragment 31-35 (Aβ(31-35)), which represents the shortest sequence of native Aβ peptide required for neurotoxicity. Treatment of wild-type neuronal cells with Aβ(31-35) induced mPGES-1 gene expression and PGE(2) production, followed by significant apoptotic cell death, but apoptosis was not induced in mPGES-1-deficient cells. Furthermore, the combined treatment of Aβ(31-35) and PGE(2) induced apoptosis in mPGES-1-deficient neuronal cells. These results indicated that mPGES-1 is induced during Aβ-mediated neuronal cell death and is involved in Aβ-induced neurotoxicity associated with AD pathology.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 07/2012; 424(3):409-13. · 2.41 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hydronephrosis induced in the kidney of neonatal mice exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) via lactation is a sensitive and characteristic hallmark of TCDD teratogenicity. We previously found that cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) activity induced in mouse neonate kidneys by lactational TCDD exposure is required for this toxicity. COX-2 is an inducible form of cyclooxygenase and is responsible for producing prostaglandins (PGs) and thromboxane. PGE(2), a prostaglandin, is elevated in TCDD-exposed mouse pups. In this study, we investigated the role of microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1), an inducible form of PGE(2) synthase, in TCDD-induced hydronephrosis. A dose of 10 μg TCDD/kg to dams increased mPGES-1 messenger RNA abundance, urinary PGE(2) levels, and the incidence of hydronephrosis in mPGES-1 wild-type pups. In homozygous mPGES-1 knockout (KO) mice, in contrast, TCDD-induced hydronephrosis was suppressed, demonstrating an essential role of mPGES-1 in the response. Lack of the mPGES-1 gene also suppressed urinary PGE(2) level to near the basal level in TCDD-exposed pups. In conclusion, mPGES-1 upregulation upon lactational TCDD exposure is a causal factor for TCDD-induced hydronephrosis in mouse neonates.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Antibody-antigen conjugates, which promote antigen-presentation by dendritic cells (DC) by means of targeted delivery of antigen to particular DC subsets, represent a powerful vaccination approach. To ensure immunity rather than tolerance induction the co-administration of a suitable adjuvant is paramount. However, co-administration of unlinked adjuvant cannot ensure that all cells targeted by the antibody conjugates are appropriately activated. Furthermore, antigen-presenting cells (APC) that do not present the desired antigen are equally strongly activated and could prime undesired responses against self-antigens. We, therefore, were interested in exploring targeted co-delivery of antigen and adjuvant in cis in form of antibody-antigen-adjuvant conjugates for the induction of anti-tumour immunity. In this study, we report on the assembly and characterization of conjugates consisting of DEC205-specific antibody, the model antigen ovalbumin (OVA) and CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN). We show that such conjugates are more potent at inducing cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses than control conjugates mixed with soluble CpG. However, our study also reveals that the nucleic acid moiety of such antibody-antigen-adjuvant conjugates alters their binding and uptake and allows delivery of the antigen and the adjuvant to cells partially independently of DEC205. Nevertheless, antibody-antigen-adjuvant conjugates are superior to antibody-free antigen-adjuvant conjugates in priming CTL responses and efficiently induce anti-tumour immunity in the murine B16 pseudo-metastasis model. A better understanding of the role of the antibody moiety is required to inform future conjugate vaccination strategies for efficient induction of anti-tumour responses.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(7):e40208. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Accumulating evidence indicates that cyclooxygenase (COX)-2-derived prostaglandin (PG) E(2) is involved in the development of various tumors, including colorectal cancer. However, the precise contribution of microsomal PGE synthase (mPGES)-1, a terminal enzyme that acts downstream of COX-2 in the PGE(2)-biosynthetic pathway, to multiple processes of tumor development is not yet fully understood. Here, we show the pro-tumorigenic role of mPGES-1 in chemical carcinogen-induced colon carcinogenesis and intrasplenic tumor transplantation models. Genetic deletion of mPGES-1 significantly reduced both the total number and size of colorectal polyps at 18 weeks after azoxymethane administration with reduced nuclear translocation of β-catenin, altered expression profiles of chemokines/cytokines and increased production of antitumorigenic PGs, prostaglandin D(2) and prostacyclin in tumor tissues. At an early stage (6 weeks), mPGES-1 deficiency significantly reduced the number of aberrant crypt foci, while its transgenic overexpression increased the number. Furthermore, the growth of intrasplenically transplanted tumor cells was suppressed in mPGES-1 knockout (KO) mice. Co-culture of tumor cells with bone marrow-derived macrophages (BM-MΦs) isolated from wild-type (WT) mice resulted in the induction of mPGES-1 in BM-MΦs and increased the growth of tumor cells in vitro, whereas mPGES-1-null BM-MΦs failed to facilitate tumor growth. The adoptive transfer of WT BM-MΦs into mPGES-1 KO mice restored the growth of transplanted tumor cells, indicating that mPGES-1 in MΦs is important for the growth of adjacent tumor cells. Taken together, our findings suggest that the inhibition of mPGES-1 is an alternative therapeutic target for colorectal and possibly other cancers.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CD103(+) dendritic cells (DCs) are the major conventional DC population in the intestinal lamina propria (LP). Our previous report showed that a small number of cells in the LP could be classified into four subsets based on the difference in CD11c/CD11b expression patterns: CD11c(hi)CD11b(lo) DCs, CD11c(hi)CD11b(hi) DCs, CD11c(int)CD11b(int) macrophages, and CD11c(int)CD11b(hi) eosinophils. The CD11c(hi)CD11b(hi) DCs, which are CD103(+), specifically express TLR5 and induce the differentiation of naive B cells into IgA(+) plasma cells. These DCs also mediate the differentiation of Ag-specific Th17 and Th1 cells in response to flagellin. We found that small intestine CD103(+) DCs of the LP (LPDCs) could be divided into a small subset of CD8α(+) cells and a larger subset of CD8α(-) cells. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that CD103(+)CD8α(+) and CD103(+)CD8α(-) LPDCs were equivalent to CD11c(hi)CD11b(lo) and CD11c(hi)CD11b(hi) subsets, respectively. We analyzed a novel subset of CD8α(+) LPDCs to elucidate their immunological function. CD103(+)CD8α(+) LPDCs expressed TLR3, TLR7, and TLR9 and produced IL-6 and IL-12p40, but not TNF-α, IL-10, or IL-23, following TLR ligand stimulation. CD103(+)CD8α(+) LPDCs did not express the gene encoding retinoic acid-converting enzyme Raldh2 and were not involved in T cell-independent IgA synthesis or Foxp3(+) regulatory T cell induction. Furthermore, CD103(+)CD8α(+) LPDCs induced Ag-specific IgG in serum, a Th1 response, and CTL activity in vivo. Accordingly, CD103(+)CD8α(+) LPDCs exhibit a different function from CD103(+)CD8α(-) LPDCs in active immunity. This is the first analysis, to our knowledge, of CD8α(+) DCs in the LP of the small intestine.
The Journal of Immunology 06/2011; 186(11):6287-95. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of lower respiratory tract infection in infants. In human infants, plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) are recruited to the nasal compartment during infection and initiate host defense through the secretion of type I IFN, IL-12, and IL-6. However, RSV-infected pDC are refractory to TLR7-mediated activation. In this study, we used the rodent-specific pathogen, pneumonia virus of mice (PVM), to determine the contribution of pDC and TLR7 signaling to the development of the innate inflammatory and early adaptive immune response. In wild-type, but not TLR7- or MyD88-deficient mice, PVM inoculation led to a marked infiltration of pDC and increased expression of type I, II, and III IFNs. The delayed induction of IFNs in the absence of TLR7 or MyD88 was associated with a diminished innate inflammatory response and augmented virus recovery from lung tissue. In the absence of TLR7, PVM-specific CD8(+) T cell cytokine production was abrogated. The adoptive transfer of TLR7-sufficient, but not TLR7-deficient pDC to TLR7 gene-deleted mice recapitulated the antiviral responses observed in wild-type mice and promoted virus clearance. In summary, TLR7-mediated signaling by pDC is required for appropriate innate responses to acute pneumovirus infection. It is conceivable that as-yet-unidentified defects in the TLR7 signaling pathway may be associated with elevated levels of RSV-associated morbidity and mortality among otherwise healthy human infants.
The Journal of Immunology 05/2011; 186(10):5938-48. · 5.52 Impact Factor