[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Submission of vaginal samples collected at home could remove barriers that women face in getting screened for cervical cancer. From December 2013 to January 2014, women aged 21-30 years were recruited online to participate in either (1) self-collected testing for human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and an online survey, or (2) an online survey regarding their perceptions of self-collected testing for HPV infection. Demographics, risk factors, testing perceptions, and satisfaction with self-collected testing were assessed with online questionnaires. Women who performed self-collection were sent a home sampling kit by US mail, which was returned via US mail for HPV testing. A total of 197 women were enrolled, with 130 completing the online survey and 67 participating in both the survey and self-collection. Of the 67 women who were sent kits, 62 (92.5 %) were returned for testing. Sixty kits contained a sample sufficient for testing. The overall prevalence of HPV infection was 17.8 %, however 6 women (9.7 %) were infected with >1 type of HPV. Women who self-collected a sample reported more favorable attributes of self-collection compared to women who only participated in the online survey, including ease of sampling (87.1 vs. 18.9 %), no pain during sampling (72.6 vs. 5.6 %), and lack of embarrassment (67.7 vs. 12.9 %). A high prevalence of HPV infection was demonstrated among women recruited via the internet. Online recruitment and at home screening methods have the potential to engage women in screening by offering an approach that might be more acceptable to women of different backgrounds.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The goal of this pilot study was to evaluate adherence to the 2012 cervical cancer screening guidelines among healthcare providers in a large Health Maintenance Organization.
American journal of obstetrics and gynecology. 06/2014;
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in women is a concern because it is considered a necessary cause of cervical cancer. Male HPV infection is also an important concern, both for the HPV-associated cancer burden in men and for the risk of transmission to women. Effective screening programs have greatly reduced cervical cancer incidence and mortality. HPV vaccines are expected to further reduce the burden of cervical cancer and other HPV-related cancers. However, disparities in terms of screening and HPV vaccination exist across the United States. In order to accurately identify areas of disparity, the spatial distributions of HPV-associated cancers has to be determined. To date, the geographic distribution and pattern exhibited by all HPV-associated cancers that accounts for spatial dependence have not been analyzed at a local level (i.e. county or ZIP code). This study analyzed the spatial dependence and pattern of HPV-associated cancers in Minnesota from 1998 to 2007 using sparse spatial generalized linear mixed models and scan statistics for cluster detection. A strong clustering pattern was seen in the northern region of Minnesota for both men and women. Separate cluster analyses by gender identified areas of overlapping disease burden. The patterns observed in this analysis demonstrate the need to account for spatial dependence when analyzing disease rates for geographic areas (i.e. county or ZIP codes) since spatial analyses of HPV-associated cancers have the potential to identify areas with the highest HPV disease burden and may serve to uncover areas where policies and HPV vaccination strategies can be most beneficial.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Federally funded surveys of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine uptake are important for pinpointing geographically based health disparities. Although national and state level data are available, local (ie, county and postal code level) data are not due to small sample sizes, confidentiality concerns, and cost. Local level HPV vaccine uptake data may be feasible to obtain by targeting specific geographic areas through social media advertising and recruitment strategies, in combination with online surveys.
Journal of Medical Internet Research 01/2014; 16(9):e198. · 3.77 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study addresses the following 3 questions posed by the US Preventive Services Task Force: (1) at what age should screening for cervical cancer begin; (2) at what age should screening for cervical cancer end; and (3) how do the benefits and potential harms of screening strategies that use human papillomavirus DNA testing in conjunction with cytology (cotesting) compare with those strategies that use cytology only?
A Markov model was updated and used to quantify clinical outcomes (i.e., colposcopies, cancers, and life expectancy) associated with different screening strategies.
Screening in the teenaged years is associated with a high number of colposcopies (harms), small differences in cancers detected and, as a result, small gains in life expectancy (benefits). Screening women beginning in the early 20s provides a reasonable balance of the harms and benefits of screening. Among women who have been screened according to the current recommendations for cervical cancer (beginning at age 21 years and conducted every 3 years with cytology), screening beyond 65 years is associated with small additional gains in life expectancy but large increases in colposcopies. For cotesting, a strategy of cytology only conducted every 3 years, followed by cotesting conducted every 5 years (for women ≥30 years), is associated with fewer colposcopies and greater gains in life expectancy compared with screening with cytology only conducted every 3 years.
The results of this modeling study support current US Preventive Services Task Force recommendations for cervical cancer screening.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Decision models are sometimes used alongside systematic reviews to synthesize evidence. Clarity, however, is lacking about when and how to conduct modeling studies in tandem with systematic reviews, as well as about how to evaluate and present model results. The objective of this study was to collect and analyze information from various sources to inform the development of a framework for deciding when and how a decision model should be added to a systematic review.
We collected data through 1) review and analysis of evidence reports that used decision models; 2) review and synthesis of current best practices for the development of decision models; 3) interviews of Evidence-Based Practice Center directors and selected staff, United States Preventive Services Task Force members, and decision modelers who developed models used by the United States Preventive Services Task Force; and 4) a focus group of expert modelers.
Models are well suited to address gaps in the literature, better suited for certain types of research questions, and essential for determining the value of information relating to future research. Opinions differ regarding whether model outputs constitute evidence, but interviewees expressed concern over the lack of standards and directions in grading and reporting such "evidence." Interviews of stakeholders and modelers revealed the importance of communication and presentation of model results as well as the importance of model literacy and involvement of stakeholders.
The study demonstrates the need for a framework for deciding when and how to use models alongside systematic reviews and provides information to develop such a framework.
Value in Health 01/2013; 16(1):133-9. · 2.19 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Over the last 5 years, prophylactic vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) in pre-adolescent females has been introduced in most developed countries, supported by modeled evaluations that have almost universally found vaccination of pre-adolescent females to be cost-effective. Studies to date suggest that vaccination of pre-adolescent males may also be cost-effective at a cost per vaccinated individual of ∼US$400-500 if vaccination coverage in females cannot be increased above ∼50%; but if it is possible, increasing coverage in females appears to be a better return on investment. Comparative evaluation of the quadrivalent (HPV16,18,6,11) and bivalent (HPV16,18) vaccines centers around the potential trade-off between protection against anogenital warts and vaccine-specific levels of cross-protection against infections not targeted by the vaccines. Future evaluations will also need to consider the cost-effectiveness of a next generation nonavalent vaccine designed to protect against ∼90% of cervical cancers. The timing of the effect of vaccination on cervical screening programs will be country-specific and will depend on vaccination catch-up age range and coverage and the age at which screening starts. Initial evaluations suggest that if screening remains unchanged, it will be less cost-effective in vaccinated compared to unvaccinated women but, in the context of current vaccines, will remain an important prevention method. Comprehensive evaluation of new approaches to screening will need to consider the population-level effects of vaccination over time. New screening strategies of particular interest include delaying the start age of screening, increasing the screening interval and switching to primary HPV screening. Future evaluations of screening will also need to focus on the effects of disparities in screening and vaccination uptake, the potential effects of vaccination on screening participation, and the effects of imperfect compliance with screening recommendations. This article forms part of a special supplement entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases" Vaccine Volume 30, Supplement 5, 2012.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Purpose: To analyze trends in invasive cervical cancer incidence by age, histology, and race over a 35-year period (1973-2007) in order to gain insight into changes in the presentation of cervical cancer. Methods: Data from the nine Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registries that continuously collected information on invasive cervical cancer were analyzed for trends. Standardized to the 2000 U.S population, annual age-adjusted incidence rates were estimated by race and histologic subtype. Histologic subtype was classified into squamous, adenocarcinoma, and adenosquamous. Results: Overall incidence rates for invasive cervical cancer decreased by 54% over the 35 years, from 13.07/100,000 (1973-1975) to 6.01/100,000 (2006-2007), and the incidence rates declined by 51% and 70.2%, respectively, among whites and blacks. The incidence rates for squamous carcinoma decreased by 61.1% from 10.2/100,000 (1973-1975) to 3.97/100,000 (2006-2007). Incidence rates for adenosquamous cell carcinomas decreased by 16% from 0.27/100,000 (1973-1975) to 0.23/100,000 (2006-2007), and incidence rates for adenocarcinomas increased by 32.2% from 1.09/100,000 (1973-1975) to 1.44/100,000 (2006-2007). This increase in adenocarcinomas was due to an increase in incidence in white women; a decrease in incidence was observed for black women. Conclusions: Although marked reductions in the overall and race-specific incidence rates of invasive cervical cancer have been achieved, they mask important variation by histologic subtype. These findings suggest that alternatives to Pap smear-based screening, such as human papillomavirus (HPV) testing and HPV vaccination, need to be prioritized if adenocarcinomas of the cervix are to be controlled.
Journal of Women's Health 07/2012; 21(10):1031-7. · 1.90 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Limited by what is reported in the literature, most systematic reviews of medical tests focus on "test accuracy" (or better, test performance), rather than on the impact of testing on patient outcomes. The link between testing, test results and patient outcomes is typically complex: even when testing has high accuracy, there is no guarantee that physicians will act according to test results, that patients will follow their orders, or that the intervention will yield a beneficial endpoint. Therefore, test performance is typically not sufficient for assessing the usefulness of medical tests. Modeling (in the form of decision or economic analysis) is a natural framework for linking test performance data to clinical outcomes. We propose that (some) modeling should be considered to facilitate the interpretation of summary test performance measures by connecting testing and patient outcomes. We discuss a simple algorithm for helping systematic reviewers think through this possibility, and illustrate it by means of an example.
Journal of General Internal Medicine 06/2012; 27 Suppl 1:S76-82. · 3.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An update to the American Cancer Society (ACS) guideline regarding screening for the early detection of cervical precancerous lesions and cancer is presented. The guidelines are based on a systematic evidence review, contributions from 6 working groups, and a recent symposium cosponsored by the ACS, the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, and the American Society for Clinical Pathology, which was attended by 25 organizations. The new screening recommendations address age-appropriate screening strategies, including the use of cytology and high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) testing, follow-up (eg, the management of screen positives and screening intervals for screen negatives) of women after screening, the age at which to exit screening, future considerations regarding HPV testing alone as a primary screening approach, and screening strategies for women vaccinated against HPV16 and HPV18 infections.
American Journal of Clinical Pathology 04/2012; 137(4):516-42. · 2.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this chapter, we summarise findings from recent cost-effectiveness analyses of screening for cervical cancer and ovarian cancer. We begin with a brief summary of key issues that affect the cost-effectiveness of screening, including disease burden, and availability and type of screening tests. For cervical cancer, we discuss the potential effect of human papilloma virus vaccines on screening. Outstanding epidemiological and cost-effectiveness issues are included. For cervical cancer, this includes incorporating the long-term effect of treatment (including adverse birth outcomes in treated women who are of reproductive age) into cost-effectiveness models using newly available trial data to identify the best strategy for incorporating human papilloma virus tests. A second issue is the need for additional data on human papilloma virus vaccines, such as effectiveness of reduced cancer incidence and mortality, effectiveness in previously exposed women and coverage. Definitive data on these parameters will allow us to update model-based analyses to include more realistic estimates, and also potentially dramatically alter our approach to screening. For ovarian cancer, outstanding issues include confirming within the context of a trial that screening is effective for reducing mortality and incorporating tests with high specificity into screening into screening algorithms for ovarian cancer.
Best practice & research. Clinical obstetrics & gynaecology 12/2011; 26(2):163-73. · 1.87 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pathologic and genetic data suggest that epithelial ovarian cancer may consist of indolent and aggressive phenotypes. The objective of the current study was to estimate the impact of a 2-phenotype paradigm of epithelial ovarian cancer on the mortality reduction achievable using available screening technologies.
The authors modified a Markov model of ovarian cancer natural history (the 1-phenotype model) to incorporate aggressive and indolent phenotypes (the 2-phenotype model) based on histopathologic criteria. Stage distribution, incidence, and mortality were calibrated to data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program of the US National Cancer Institute. For validation, a Monte Carlo microsimulation (1000,000 events) of the United Kingdom Collaborative Trial of Ovarian Cancer Screening (UKCTOCS) multimodality prevalence screen was performed. Mortality reduction and positive predictive value (PPV) were estimated for annual screening.
In validation against UKCTOCS data, the model-predicted percentage of screen-detected cancers diagnosed at stage I and II was 41% compared with 47% (UKCTOCS data), and the model-predicted PPV of screening was 27% compared with 35% (UKCTOCS data). The model-estimated PPV of a strategy of annual population-based screening in the United States at ages 50 to 85 years was 14%. The mortality reduction using annual postmenopausal screening was 14.7% (1-phenotype model) and 10.9% (2-phenotype model). Mortality reduction was lower with the 2-phenotype model than with the 1-phenotype model regardless of screening frequency or test sensitivity; 68% of cancer deaths are accounted for by the aggressive phenotype.
The current analysis suggested that reductions in ovarian cancer mortality using available screening technologies on an annual basis are likely to be modest. A model that incorporated 2 clinical phenotypes of ovarian carcinoma into its natural history predicted an even smaller potential reduction in mortality because of the more frequent diagnosis of indolent cancers at early stages.
Cancer 02/2011; 117(3):545-53. · 5.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To estimate outcomes and costs of surveillance strategies after treatment for high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN).
A hypothetical cohort of women was evaluated after treatment for CIN 2 or 3 using a Markov model incorporating data from a large study of women treated for CIN, systematic reviews of test accuracy, and individual preferences. Surveillance strategies included initial conventional or liquid-based cytology, human papillomavirus testing, or colposcopy 6 months after treatment, followed by annual or triennial cytology. Estimated outcomes included CIN, cervical cancer, cervical cancer deaths, life expectancy, costs, cost per life-year, and cost per quality-adjusted life-year.
Conventional cytology at 6 and 12 months, followed by triennial cytology, was least costly. Compared with triennial cytology, annual cytology follow-up reduced expected cervical cancer deaths by 73% to 77% and had an average incremental cost per life-year gained of $69,000 to $81,000. For colposcopy followed by annual cytology, the incremental cost per life-year gained ranged from $70,000 to more than $1 million, depending on risk. Between-strategy differences in mean additional life expectancy per woman were less than 4 days; differences in mean incremental costs per woman were as high as $822. In the cost-utility analysis, colposcopy at 6 months followed by annual cytology had an incremental cost per quality-adjusted life-year of less than $5,500. Human papillomavirus testing or liquid-based cytology added little to no improvement to life-expectancy with higher costs.
Annual conventional cytology surveillance reduced cervical cancers and cancer deaths compared with triennial cytology. For high risk of recurrence, a strategy of colposcopy at 6 months increased life expectancy and quality-adjusted life expectancy. Human papillomavirus testing and liquid-based cytology increased costs, but not effectiveness, compared with traditional approaches.
Obstetrics and Gynecology 11/2010; 116(5):1158-70. · 4.80 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Data are lacking on how women view alternative approaches to surveillance for cervical cancer after treatment of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. We measured and compared patient preferences (utilities) for scenarios with varying surveillance strategies and outcomes to inform guidelines and cost-effectiveness analyses of post-treatment surveillance options.
English- or Spanish-speaking women who had received an abnormal Pap test result within the past 2 years were recruited from general gynecology and colposcopy clinics and newspaper and online advertisements in 2007 and 2008. Participation consisted of one face-to-face interview, during which utilities for 11 different surveillance scenarios and their associated outcomes were elicited using the time tradeoff metric. A sociodemographic questionnaire also was administered.
65 women agreed to participate and successfully completed the preference elicitation exercises. Mean utilities ranged from 0.989 (undergoing only a Pap test, receiving normal results) to 0.666 (invasive cervical cancer treated with radical hysterectomy or radiation and chemotherapy). Undergoing both Pap and HPV tests and receiving normal/negative results had a lower mean utility (0.953) then undergoing only a Pap test and receiving normal results (0.989). Having both tests and receiving normal Pap but positive HPV results was assigned an even lower mean utility (0.909). 15.9% of the respondents gave higher utility scores to the Pap plus HPV testing scenario (with normal/negative results) than to the "Pap test alone" scenario (with normal results), while 17.5% gave the Pap test alone scenario a higher utility score.
Preferences for outcomes ending with normal results but involving alternative surveillance processes differ substantially. The observed differences in utilities have important implications for clinical guidelines and cost-effectiveness analyses.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Estimate the accuracy and cost-effectiveness of cervical cancer screening strategies based on high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing of self-collected vaginal samples.
A subset of 1,665 women (age range, 18-50 y) participating in a cervical cancer screening study were screened by liquid-based cytology and by high-risk HPV DNA testing of both self-collected vaginal swab samples and clinician-collected cervical samples. Women with positive/abnormal screening test results and a subset of women with negative screening test results were triaged to colposcopy. On the basis of individual and combined test results, 5 screening strategies were defined. Estimates of sensitivity and specificity for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse were calculated, and a Markov model was used to estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios for each strategy.
Compared with cytology-based screening, high-risk HPV DNA testing of self-collected vaginal samples was more sensitive (68%, 95% CI = 58%-78% vs 85%, 95% CI = 76%-94%) but less specific (89%, 95% CI = 86%-91% vs 73%, 95% CI = 67%-79%). A strategy of high-risk HPV DNA testing of self-collected vaginal samples followed by cytology triage of HPV-positive women was comparably sensitive (75%, 95% CI = 64%-86%) and specific (88%, 95% CI = 85%-92%) to cytology-based screening. In-home self-collection for high-risk HPV DNA detection followed by in-clinic cytology triage had a slightly lower lifetime cost and a slightly higher quality-adjusted life year (QALY) expectancy than did cytology-based screening (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of triennial screening compared with no screening was $9,871/QALY and $12,878/QALY, respectively).
Triennial screening by high-risk HPV DNA testing of in-home, self-collected vaginal samples followed by in-clinic cytology triage was cost-effective.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To understand whether and how recency of sexual activity is associated with Pap testing rates among young women.
We analyzed data on self-reported receipt of Pap testing and initiation of sexual activity among young women and girls aged 15 to 24 years using the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth, an in-person, population-based survey of reproductive-aged men and women in the United States. The primary outcome was receiving a Pap test and its relationship to initiation of sexual activity. A multivariable model was used to predict the probability of having had a Pap test in the previous 12 months.
Thirty-three percent of the 2,513 women had never had sex. Of these, 13.9% had had a Pap test in the previous year. Sixty-seven percent of sexually-active women aged 15-24 reported receiving a Pap test (corresponding to 13.1 million tests). Approximately 59% women aged 15-20 years old who reported having initiated sexual activity in the previous 3 years also reported a Pap test in the previous year.
The current guidelines recommend screening 3 years after initiation of vaginal intercourse or at age 21, whichever is earlier. Contrary to the current guidelines, many young women who have not had sex or who initiated sex within the previous 3 years reported having had a Pap test. Assuming that the patterns observed in this study persist, there is an urgent need for education regarding the need to adhere to guidelines to reduce the burden of potentially unnecessary Pap tests in young women.
Obstetrics and Gynecology 12/2009; 114(6):1213-9. · 4.80 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recently published results from a large randomized trial (Canadian Cervical Cancer Screening Trial study group) suggest that human papillomavirus testing followed by Pap smear-based triage for human papillomavirus positive women may be an effective way to screen women for cervical cancer. We determined the potential cost-effectiveness of including human papillomavirus tests for cervical cancer screening for Canada and three provinces: Alberta, Newfoundland and Ontario.
We developed four Markov decision models using data from relevant Canadian and provincial studies and databases. The models were used to determine the number of false positive test results, cancers, lifetime costs and life-expectancy for 27 different screening strategies that varied by age to begin screening (18 or 25 years), screening interval (one, two, three, or five years) and whether the currently recommended strategy (screening every year from age 18 until 21 and then every three years afterwards with conventional Paps) was conducted prior to age 25. Strategies were compared using incremental cost-effectiveness ratios.
Screening strategies beginning at age 18 were associated with a substantial increase in the number of false-positive test results but only small differences in the number of cancers compared to the same strategy conducted beginning at age 25. Strategies of human papillomavirus testing first, followed by triage with Pap smears were associated with lower costs and greater increases in life-expectancy than the currently recommended screening strategy in Canada.
A strategy of human papillomavirus testing beginning at age 25, with Pap triage for women with positive human papillomavirus results may be more effective at reducing cervical cancer at a lower cost than the current recommended strategy for screening in Canada.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of the study was to examine the relationship of depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) and combined oral contraceptive (COC) use with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN).
Two case-control studies of women who presented for gynecologic care and underwent cytologic and human papillomavirus (HPV) testing were performed. The first included oncogenic HPV-positive women grouped based on histology: negative (n = 152), CIN1 (n = 133), and CIN2-3 or greater (n = 173). For the second, 2 groups were identified: negative HPV/negative histology (n = 107) and positive oncogenic HPV/negative histology (n = 152).
Among oncogenic HPV-positive women, DMPA use was inversely associated with CIN2-3 or greater (adjusted odds ratio [OR(adj)], 0.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.2-1.1) and CIN1 (OR(adj), 0.1; 95% CI, 0.01-0.6); COC use was not associated with either. Among histologically negative women, DMPA use was associated with oncogenic HPV (OR(adj), 4.7; 95% CI, 1.4-15.8).
Among women with oncogenic HPV, hormonal contraceptive use was not associated with an increased risk of CIN2-3 or greater. Longer-term DMPA use may attenuate the colposcopic and histologic features of CIN because women reporting such use were more likely than others to have cervical oncogenic HPV without evidence of CIN.
American journal of obstetrics and gynecology 06/2009; 200(5):489.e1-8. · 3.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: (1) To define a set of health state descriptions related to screening, diagnosis, prognosis, and toxicities relevant to ovarian cancer; (2) To derive a set of quality of life-related utilities to be used for cost-effectiveness analyses.
A comprehensive list of health states was developed to represent the experiences of diagnostic testing for ovarian cancer, natural history of ovarian cancer (e.g., newly diagnosed early stage ovarian cancer, recurrent progressive ovarian cancer) and the most common chemotherapy-related toxicities (e.g. alopecia, peripheral neuropathy, pain, neutropenia, fatigue). Valuation of each health state was obtained through individual interviews of 13 ovarian cancer patients and 37 female members of the general public. Interviews employed visual analog score (VAS) and time trade off (TTO) methods of health state valuation.
Mean TTO-derived utilities were higher than VAS-derived utilities by 0.118 U (p<0.0001). Mean VAS-derived utilities for screening tests were 0.83 and 0.81 for true negative blood test and ultrasound; 0.79 and 0.78 for false negative blood test and ultrasound, respectively. Patients and volunteers generally agreed in their preference ranking of chemotherapy-associated states, with lowest rankings being given to febrile neutropenia, grades 3-4 fatigue, and grades 3-4 nausea/vomiting. For 55% of chemotherapy-associated health states, the average utility assigned was higher for patients than for volunteers.
This study establishes societal preferences for a number of health states related to screening, diagnosis and treatment of ovarian cancer that can be used for assessing the cost-effectiveness of different ovarian cancer screening and treatment regimens.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the cost effectiveness of intraperitoneal versus intravenous regimens for adjuvant treatment of optimally resected stage III ovarian cancer.
A decision model was developed to compare the cost effectiveness at 7-, 11.5-, and 35-year horizons of intravenous carboplatin and paclitaxel (IV-CARBO/PAC), intravenous cisplatin and paclitaxel (IV-CIS/PAC), or intravenous paclitaxel followed by intraperitoneal cisplatin and paclitaxel (IP-CIS/PAC). Survival data were from women participating in representative Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG) protocols. Medicare reimbursement rates and the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Database were used to estimate costs for treatment regimens and grade 3 to 4 adverse effects, respectively.
Median predicted survival was 66, 57, 51, and 48 months for IP-CIS/PAC, IV-CARBO/PAC, IV-CIS/PAC (GOG 172), or IV-CIS/PAC (GOG 158), respectively. Across a range of analyses, IV-CIS/PAC was more costly and had lower life expectancy than IV-CARBO/PAC. Compared with IV-CARBO/PAC, IP-CIS/PAC had an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of $180,022 per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) saved at a 7-year time horizon, $71,835/QALY at 11.5 years, and $32,053/QALY over a lifetime. Extending the survival advantage of IP-CIS/PAC over 11.5 years and a lifetime results in ICERs of $26,249 and $23,973, respectively. Assuming IP-CIS/PAC and IV-CIS/PAC were equally effective when administered on an outpatient basis, the ICER of IP-CIS/PAC compared with IV-CARBO/PAC was $26,311.
Inpatient IP-CIS/PAC, while not cost effective compared with IV-CARBO/PAC at 7 years, becomes cost effective if a longer time horizon is modeled and/or a survival benefit can be assumed to persist longer than currently available data. Outpatient IP-CIS/PAC may also be cost effective compared with IV-CARBO/PAC if proven as effective as inpatient IP-CIS/PAC.
Journal of Clinical Oncology 10/2008; 26(25):4144-50. · 18.04 Impact Factor