[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In mice, hematopoietic cells home to bone marrow from fetal liver prenatally. To elucidate mechanisms underlying homing, we performed immunohistochemistry with the hematopoietic cell marker c-Kit, and observed c-Kit(+) cells localized inside muscle surrounding bone after 14.5 days post coitum. Flow cytometric analysis showed that CD45(+) c-Kit(+) hematopoietic cells were more abundant in muscle than in bone marrow between 14.5 and 17.5 days post coitum, peaking at 16.5 days post coitum. CD45(+) c-Kit(+) cells in muscle at 16.5 days post coitum exhibited higher expression of Gata2, among several hematopoietic genes, than did fetal liver or bone marrow cells. Colony formation assays revealed that muscle hematopoietic cells possess hematopoietic progenitor activity. Furthermore, exo utero transplantation revealed that fetal liver hematopoietic progenitor cells home to muscle and then to BM. Our findings demonstrate that hematopoietic progenitor cell homing occurs earlier than previously reported and that hematopoietic progenitor cells reside in muscle tissue before bone marrow hematopoiesis occurs during mouse embryogenesis.
PLoS ONE 09/2015; 10(9):e0138621. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0138621 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose: EphA2, a member of the Eph receptor tyrosine kinases family, is an important regulator of tumour initiation, neo-vascularization and metastasis in a wide range of epithelial and mesenchymal cancers, however its role in colorectal cancer (CRC) recurrence and progression is unclear.
Experimental Design: EphA2 expression was determined by immunohistochemistry in stage II/III colorectal tumours (N=338), and findings correlated with clinical outcome. The correlation between EphA2 expression and stem cell markers CD44 and Lgr5 was examined. The role of EphA2 in migration/invasion was assessed using a panel of KRAS wild-type (WT) and mutant (MT) parental and invasive CRC cell line models.
Results: Colorectal tumours displayed significantly higher expression levels of EphA2 compared with matched normal tissue, which positively correlated with high CD44 and Lgr5 expression levels. Moreover, high EphA2 mRNA and protein expression were found to be associated with poor overall survival in stage II/III CRC tissues, in both univariate and multivariate analyses. Pre-clinically, we found that EphA2 was highly expressed in KRASMT CRC cells and that EphA2 levels are regulated by the KRAS-driven MAPK and RalGDS-RalA pathways. Moreover, EphA2 levels were elevated in several invasive daughter cell lines and down-regulation of EphA2 using RNAi or recombinant EFNA1, suppressed migration and invasion of KRASMT CRC cells.
Conclusions: These data show that EpHA2 is a poor prognostic marker in stage II/III CRC, which may be due to its ability to promote cell migration and invasion, providing support for the further investigation of EphA2 as a novel prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target.
Clinical Cancer Research 08/2015; DOI:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-15-0603 · 8.72 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: — Leukemias are disorders that cause the abnormal growth and differentiation of hematopoietic cells. Therapies for leukemia are often invasive and there is no guarantee of a positive outcome. Biologically active peptides are being used for a number of therapies for different diseases. We derived several biologically active peptides from fetal liver derived Delta like-1+ hepatoblasts with the intention of finding novel biologically active peptides for the treatment of leukemia. After screening 9 peptides we discovered that two of the peptides caused changes of cell number in the human leukemic cell line Kasumi-1. Further investigation showed that a peptide with the sequence RRRRRRRR(PEG3)CQKKDGPCVINGS also caused suppression of the C-MYC and CCND1 genes at 1 day. The cell number and viability at 1 day along with the gene expression data suggests the peptide is a novel biologically active peptide that will be useful for the investigation of novel therapies for leukemia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Detachment of non-malignant intestinal epithelial cells from the extracellular matrix (ECM) triggers their growth arrest and, ultimately, apoptosis. In contrast, colorectal cancer cells can grow without attachment to the ECM. This ability is critical for their malignant potential. We found previously that detachment-induced growth arrest of non-malignant intestinal epithelial cells is driven by their detachment-triggered autophagy, and that RRAS, a major oncogene, promotes growth of detached cells by blocking such autophagy. In an effort to identify the mechanisms of detachment-induced autophagy and growth arrest of non-malignant cells we found here that detachment of these cells causes upregulation of ATG3 and that ATG3 upregulation contributes to autophagy and growth arrest of detached cells. We also observed that when ATG3 expression is artificially increased in the attached cells, ATG3 promotes neither autophagy nor growth arrest but triggers their apoptosis. ATG3 upregulation likely promotes autophagy of the detached but not that of the attached cells because detachment-dependent autophagy requires other detachment-induced events, such as the upregulation of ATG7. We further observed that those few adherent cells that do not die by apoptosis induced by ATG3 become resistant to apoptosis caused by cell detachment, a property that is critical for the ability of normal epithelial cells to become malignant. We conclude that cell-ECM adhesion can switch ATG3 functions: when upregulated in detached cells in the context of other autophagy-promoting events, ATG3 contributes to autophagy. However, when overexpressed in the adherent cells, in the circumstances not favoring autophagy, ATG3 triggers apoptosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ZFAT is a transcriptional regulator, containing eighteen C2H2-type zinc-fingers and one AT-hook, involved in autoimmune thyroid disease, apoptosis, and immune-related cell survival. We determined the solution structures of the thirteen individual ZFAT zinc-fingers (ZF) and the tandemly arrayed zinc-fingers in the regions from ZF2 to ZF5, by NMR spectroscopy. ZFAT has eight uncommon bulged-out helix-containing zinc-fingers, and six of their structures (ZF4, ZF5, ZF6, ZF10, ZF11, and ZF13) were determined. The distribution patterns of the putative DNA-binding surface residues are different among the ZFAT zinc-fingers, suggesting the distinct DNA sequence preferences of the N-terminal and C-terminal zinc-fingers. Since ZFAT has three to five consecutive tandem zinc-fingers, which may cooperatively function as a unit, we also determined two tandemly arrayed zinc-finger structures, between ZF2 to ZF4 and ZF3 to ZF5. Our NMR spectroscopic analysis detected the interaction between ZF4 and ZF5, which are connected by an uncommon linker sequence, KKIK. The ZF4-ZF5 linker restrained the relative structural space between the two zinc-fingers in solution, unlike the other linker regions with determined structures, suggesting the involvement of the ZF4-ZF5 interfinger linker in the regulation of ZFAT function.
Journal of Structural and Functional Genomics 03/2015; 16(2). DOI:10.1007/s10969-015-9196-3
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent ultrahigh-density tiling array and large-scale transcriptome analysis have revealed that large numbers of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are transcribed in mammals. Several lncRNAs have been implicated in transcriptional regulation, organization of nuclear structure, and post-transcriptional processing. However, the regulation of expression of lncRNAs is less well understood. Here, we show that the exogenous and endogenous expression of an oncogenic form of small GTPase Ras (called oncogenic Ras) decrease the expression of lncRNA ANRIL (antisense non-coding RNA in the INK4 locus), which is involved in the regulation of cellular senescence. We also show that forced expression of oncogenic Ras increases the expression of lncRNA PANDA (p21 associated ncRNA DNA damage activated), which is involved in the regulation of apoptosis. Microarray analysis demonstrated that expression of multiple lncRNAs fluctuated by forced expression of oncogenic Ras. These findings indicate that oncogenic Ras regulates the expression of a large number of lncRNAs including functional lncRNAs, such as ANRIL and PANDA.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human carcinomas are comprised of complex mixtures of tumor cells that are known to compete indirectly for nutrients and growth factors. Whether tumor cells could also compete directly, for example by elimination of rivals, is not known. Here we show that human cells can directly compete by a mechanism of engulfment called entosis. By entosis, cells are engulfed, or cannibalized while alive, and subsequently undergo cell death. We find that the identity of engulfing ("winner") and engulfed ("loser") cells is dictated by mechanical deformability controlled by RhoA and actomyosin, where tumor cells with high deformability preferentially engulf and outcompete neighboring cells with low deformability in heterogeneous populations. We further find that activated Kras and Rac signaling impart winner status to cells by downregulating contractile myosin, allowing for the internalization of neighboring cells that eventually undergo cell death. Finally, we compute the energy landscape of cell-in-cell formation, demonstrating that a mechanical differential between winner and loser cells is required for entosis to proceed. These data define a mechanism of competition in mammalian cells that occurs in human tumors.Cell Research advance online publication 24 October 2014; doi:10.1038/cr.2014.138.
Cell Research 11/2014; 24:1299-1310. DOI:10.1038/cr.2014.138 · 12.41 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
We have previously reported the crucial roles of oncogenic Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) in inhibiting apoptosis and disrupting cell polarity via the regulation of phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) expression in human colorectal cancer HCT116 cells in three-dimensional cultures (3DC). Herein we evaluated the effects of resveratrol, a PDE4 inhibitor, on the luminal cavity formation and the induction of apoptosis in HCT116 cells.
Materials and methods:
Apoptosis was detected by immunofluorescence using confocal laser scanning microscopy with an antibody against cleaved caspase-3 in HCT116 cells treated with or without resveratrol in a two-dimensional culture (2DC) or 3DC.
Resveratrol did not induce apoptosis of HCT116 cells in 2DC, whereas the number of apoptotic HCT116 cells increased after resveratrol treatment in 3DC, leading to formation of a luminal cavity.
Resveratrol induced apoptosis of HCT116 cells in 3DC, resulting in the formation of a luminal cavity, probably by inhibiting PDE4 activity.
Anticancer research 08/2014; 34(8):4551-5. · 1.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ZFAT (zinc-finger gene in AITD susceptibility region), originally identified as a candidate susceptibility gene for autoimmune thyroid disease, has been reported to be involved in various cellular processes and several common diseases including multiple sclerosis. Recent studies revealed that mouse Zfat is a novel critical regulator for both thymocyte differentiation and peripheral T-cell homeostasis. Zfat deficiency at early thymocyte developmental stages results in the inhibition of the development of CD4(+)CD8(+) thymocytes with an impaired positive selection. Zfat deficiency in peripheral T-cells results in a reduction in the number of T-cells with decreased expression of the interleukin-7 receptor-α (IL-7Rα) that is critical for T-cell homeostasis. In addition, T-cell antigen receptor stimulation-induced responses of Zfat-deficient T-cells are also impaired, with reduced IL-2Rα expression. This review highlights and discusses the roles of Zfat in thymocyte differentiation of T-cells and in the homeostasis of naive T-cells with recent work.
Anticancer research 08/2014; 34(8):4489-4495. · 1.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background/aim:
Docking protein 2 (Dok2) is an adapter protein which is involved in hematopoiesis. However, it still remains unclear how Dok2 functions in regulation of transcription of hematopoietic genes. To address this issue, we knocked-down Dok2 mRNA in mouse erythroleukemia cells which highly express Dok2 intrinsically.
Materials and methods:
Mouse erythroleukemia cells were transfected with Dok2 siRNA for 24 h and gene expression of erythroid differentiation-related genes, such as GATA binding protein 1 (Gata1), Krüppel-like factor 1 (Klf1), α-globin and β-globin were assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction.
Among the tested genes, expression of Klf1 exhibited a 1.94-fold increase when compared to the control 24 h after transfection. Immunocytochemistry and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed that Dok2 protein localizes in the nucleus and binds to the promoter region of Klf1 gene.
Dok2 is able to control Klf1 expression by transcriptional regulation through directly binding to its promoter region.
Anticancer research 08/2014; 34(8):4561-7. · 1.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There are currently no approved targeted therapies for advanced KRAS mutant (KRASMT) colorectal cancer (CRC). Using a unique systems biology approach, we identified JAK1/2-dependent activation of STAT3 as the key mediator of resistance to MEK inhibitors in KRASMT CRC in vitro and in vivo. Further analyses identified acute increases in c-MET activity following treatment with MEK inhibitors in KRASMT CRC models, which was demonstrated to promote JAK1/2-STAT3-mediated resistance. Furthermore, activation of c-MET following MEK inhibition was found to be due to inhibition of the ERK-dependent metalloprotease ADAM17, which normally inhibits c-MET signaling by promoting shedding of its endogenous antagonist, soluble "decoy" MET. Most importantly, pharmacological blockade of this resistance pathway with either c-MET or JAK1/2 inhibitors synergistically increased MEK-inhibitor-induced apoptosis and growth inhibition in vitro and in vivo in KRASMT models, providing clear rationales for the clinical assessment of these combinations in KRASMT CRC patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The KRAS oncogene influences angiogenesis, metastasis and chemoresistance in colorectal cancers (CRCs), and these processes are all enhanced in hypoxic conditions. To define functional activities of mutant KRAS in a hypoxic microenvironment, we first performed cDNA microarray experiments in isogenic DKs5 and DKO3 colon cancer cell lines that differ only by their expression of mutant KRAS (K-ras(D13) ). Adrenomedullin (ADM) was identified as one of the most significantly upregulated genes in DKs5 cells that express the KRAS oncogene in hypoxia (3.2-fold, p = 1.47 × 10(-5) ). Ectopic expression of mutant KRAS (K-ras(V12) ) in Caco-2 cells (K-ras(WT) ) induced ADM, whereas selective knockdown of mutant KRAS alleles (K-ras(D13) or K-ras(V12) ) in HCT116, DLD1 and SW480 colon cancer cells suppressed the expression of ADM in hypoxia. Knockdown of ADM in colon tumor xenografts blocked angiogenesis and stimulated apoptosis, resulting in tumor suppression. Furthermore, ADM also regulated colon cancer cell invasion in vitro. Among 56 patients with CRC, significantly higher expression levels of ADM were observed in samples harboring a KRAS mutation. Collectively, ADM is a new target of oncogenic KRAS in the setting of hypoxia. This observation suggests that therapeutic targets may differ depending upon the specific tumor microenvironment.
International Journal of Cancer 05/2014; 134(9):2041-50. DOI:10.1002/ijc.28542 · 5.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: KRAS is mutated in ∼40% of colorectal cancer (CRC), and there are limited effective treatments for advanced KRAS mutant CRC. Therefore, it is crucial that downstream mediators of oncogenic KRAS continue to be studied. We identified p190RhoGAP as being phosphorylated in the DLD1 CRC cell line, which expresses a heterozygous KRAS G13D allele, and not in DKO4 in which the mutant allele has been deleted by somatic recombination. We found that a ubiquitous binding partner of p190RhoGAP, p120RasGAP (RasGAP), is expressed in much lower levels in DKO4 cells compared to DLD1, and this expression is regulated by KRAS. Rescue of RasGAP expression in DKO4 rescued Rho pathway activation and partially rescued tumorigenicity in DKO4 cells, indicating that the combination of mutant KRAS and RasGAP expression is crucial to these phenotypes. We conclude that RasGAP is an important effector of mutant KRAS in CRC.
PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(1):e86103. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0086103 · 3.23 Impact Factor