A Sallustio

Università degli Studi di Bari Aldo Moro, Bari, Apulia, Italy

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Publications (36)91.72 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: To describe an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis in people who had eaten at a hash house in southern Italy. Study design: Case control study. Methods: A clinical case of gastroenteritis was defined as a person who had eaten at the hash house from 29 August to 4 September 2011 and who experienced defined gastrointestinal symptoms within 72 hours, or a person with a laboratory-confirmed salmonella infection without symptoms. A convenience sample was enrolled as the control group. Environmental and human samples were collected, and Salmonella infantis was identified by polymerase chain reaction. Univariate analysis was performed for each food type, and multivariate analysis was performed for each food type and demographic variable (gender, age). Results: Twenty-three cases of gastroenteritis were notified between 1 and 4 September 2011, two of which were admitted to the local hospital. Multivariate analysis showed that porchetta [odds ratio (OR) 22.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.2-152.6, z = 3.13, P = 0.002] and roasted meat (OR 14.4, 95% CI 1.7-122.0, z = 2.45, P = 0.014) were associated with gastrointestinal symptoms. Environmental and human isolates exhibited the same sequence type (ST 32). Conclusions: This experience highlighted that, in the control of a foodborne outbreak, integrated epidemiological and laboratory surveillance enables rapid identification of the source of infection, thus reducing the risk of an epidemic.
    Public Health 05/2014; 128(5). DOI:10.1016/j.puhe.2014.02.002 · 1.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pneumococcal disease epidemiology has changed after introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. Seven-valent vaccine (PCV7) has been effective in reducing invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). In Europe, PCV13 effectiveness was estimated at 78% (95% CI: -18-96%) for 2-priming doses. In Italy, PCV7 was introduced in 2006 in the childhood immunization schedule and replaced with PCV13 in 2010. In Apulia, vaccination coverage has reached 95.1% (birth-cohort 2010). We estimated PCV program effectiveness and its impact on S.pneumoniae diseases. PCV Effectiveness We used the screening method. We calculated the Proportion of Population Vaccinated from immunization registries and detected cases through a laboratory-confirmed surveillance among hospitalized children ≤60 mo. A confirmed IPD case was a child with PCR positive for S.pneumoniae. Differences among children were assessed with the Chi-square or the Fisher exact test (P value<0.05). PCV Impact: We constructed time series using outcome-specific Poisson regression models: hospitalization rate in pre-PCV era and hospitalization Risk Ratios (RRs) with 95% CIs for both PCV7 and PCV7/PCV13 shifting era. We calculated hospitalization RR with 95% CIs comparing pre-PCV years with vaccination period. The PCV effectiveness was 84.3%(95% CI: 84.0-84.6%). In May 2010-January 2013, we enrolled 159 suspected IPD of whom four were confirmed. Two (fully vaccinated) were caused by serotype 9V, one (not vaccinated) by serotype 3, one (vaccinated with 2 PCV13 doses) by 15B/C. The most important reduction was for pneumococcal pneumonia (RR: 0.43, 95% CI: 0.21-0.90). The PCV program show promising results in terms of both PCV13 effectiveness and its impact in reducing IPD in children<5 y.
    Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics 10/2013; 10(1). DOI:10.4161/hv.26650 · 3.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The aim of the study is to describe temporal trend, distribution and characteristics of new HIV infections detected in Puglia Region in years 2007-2011. Methods: Case surveillance data for all individuals newly diagnosed with HIV infection in these years were analysed. Risk factors associated with late presentation at diagnosis were analysed by multivariate logistic analysis. Results: In the years 2007-2011 a total of 632 new diagnoses of HIV infection were notified. 573 (90,7%) of all cases were residents (83,8% Italians, 16,2% migrants). Among residents, 76,8% were males (median age 36 years), 23,2% females (median age 30 years). On the whole, 58,3% were late presenters (LP) and 40,8% were subjects with advanced HIV disease (AHD). At multivariate analysis, older age and being a migrant were risk factors significantly associated with late presentation at diagnosis. Conclusions: Clinical-epidemiological analysis of new HIV diagnosis/infections in Puglia shows a high proportion of LP and AHD. The results of the study strongly suggest the need to promote access to counselling and screening services of subjects at high risk of late presentation for a better targeting of information campaigns.
    Annali di igiene: medicina preventiva e di comunità 01/2013; 25(4):291-298. DOI:10.7416/ai.2013.1931
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Raw seafood consumption was identified as the major risk factor for hepatitis A during the large epidemic of 1996 and 1997 in Puglia (South Italy). In Puglia, vaccination for toddlers and preadolescents has been recommended since 1998.The aim of the study was to evaluate the incidence, seroprevalence, molecular epidemiology, and environmental circulation of hepatitis A virus (HAV) in Puglia more than ten years after the introduction of anti-HAV vaccination in the regional immunization program. METHODS: Data on the incidence of acute hepatitis A in Puglia were analyzed. Characteristics and risk factors of 97 acute hepatitis A cases occurring in 2008--2009 were analyzed. Serum samples from 868 individuals aged 0 to 40 years were tested for anti-HAV antibodies. Fecal samples from 49 hepatitis A cases were analyzed by sequence analysis in the VP1/P2A region. In 2008, 203 mussel samples and 202 water samples from artesian wells were tested for HAV-RNA. RESULTS: Between 1998 and 2009, the incidence of acute hepatitis A declined from 14.8 to 0.8 per 100,000. The most frequent risk factors reported by cases in 2008--2009 were shellfish consumption (85%) and travel outside of Puglia or Italy (26%). Seroepidemiologic survey revealed high susceptibility to HAV in children and adults up to age 30 (65%-70%). None of the mussel or water samples were HAV-positive. Phylogenetic analysis revealed co-circulation of subtypes IA (74%) and IB (26%) and clustering of strains with strains from Germany and France, and those previously circulating in Puglia. CONCLUSION: Vaccination and improved sanitation reduced the incidence of hepatitis A. Strict monitoring and improved vaccination coverage are needed to prevent disease resurgence.
    BMC Infectious Diseases 10/2012; 12(1):271. DOI:10.1186/1471-2334-12-271 · 2.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: HPV type-specific distribution was evaluated in genital samples collected from 151 women from West Africa and Horn of Africa, living in the Asylum Seeker Center in Bari Palese (Italy), undergoing voluntary screening correlated with cytological abnormalities. HPV-DNA was assayed by Linear Array HPV genotyping test. HPV DNA was detected in 39.1 % of the women, 42.5 % of which had multiple infection and 69.5 % had high-risk HPV infection. Age-prevalence rates evidenced a peak of HPV infection in women ≤20 years of age (53.1 %). HPV 53 and 16 were the most common viral types (13.5 and 12.0 % respectively). Abnormal Pap test results were found in 4.4 % of women with known cytological result. Although a prevalence of HPV positive women higher in African than in European women was expected, the differing rate between residents and migrants African women must be investigated in future studies.
    Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health 08/2012; · 1.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: HPV type-specific distribution was evaluated in genital samples collected from 151 women from West Africa and Horn of Africa, living in the Asylum Seeker Center in Bari Palese (Italy), undergoing voluntary screening correlated with cytological abnormalities. HPV-DNA was assayed by Linear Array HPV genotyping test. HPV DNA was detected in 39.1 % of the women, 42.5 % of which had multiple infection and 69.5 % had high-risk HPV infection. Age-prevalence rates evidenced a peak of HPV infection in women ≤ 20 years of age (53.1 %). HPV 53 and 16 were the most common viral types (13.5 and 12.0 % respectively). Abnormal Pap test results were found in 4.4 % of women with known cytological result. Although a prevalence of HPV positive women higher in African than in European women was expected, the differing rate between residents and migrants African women must be investigated in future studies.
    Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health 02/2012; 15(1). DOI:10.1007/s10903-012-9698-z · 1.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Raw seafood consumption was identified as the major risk factor for hepatitis A during the large epidemic of 1996 and 1997 in Puglia (South Italy). In Puglia, vaccination for toddlers and preadolescents has been recommended since 1998. The aim of the study was to evaluate the incidence, seroprevalence, molecular epidemiology, and environmental circulation of hepatitis A virus (HAV) in Puglia more than ten years after the introduction of anti-HAV vaccination in the regional immunization program.
    BMC Infectious Diseases 01/2012; 12:271. · 2.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of wild poliovirus or sabin-like poliovirus in 152 stool samples from migrants in the Accommodation Center in Italy and liquid waste from the sewage systems. Two surveys were performed in 2008 and 2011. All stool samples were negative for enterovirus and poliovirus. One of the liquid samples analyzed was positive for Coxsackievirus type B5.
    Journal of Travel Medicine 01/2012; 19:61-63. · 1.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of wild poliovirus or sabin-like poliovirus in 152 stool samples from migrants in the Accommodation Center in Italy and liquid waste from the sewage systems. Two surveys were performed in 2008 and 2011. All stool samples were negative for enterovirus and poliovirus. One of the liquid samples analyzed was positive for Coxsackievirus type B5.
    Journal of Travel Medicine 01/2012; 19(1):61-3. DOI:10.1111/j.1708-8305.2011.00571.x · 1.53 Impact Factor
  • European Respiratory Journal 06/2011; 37(6):1522-4. DOI:10.1183/09031936.00172510 · 7.13 Impact Factor
  • Eurosurveillance: bulletin europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin 06/2011; · 4.66 Impact Factor
  • European Respiratory Journal 06/2011; · 7.13 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 04/2011; · 5.44 Impact Factor
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    Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 04/2011; · 5.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a frequent cause of human lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) for which macrolides are the treatment of choice. The aim of this study was to determine the rate of macrolide resistance and to subtype M. pneumoniae strains in Italy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: During an outbreak of M. pneumoniae infections in southern Italy in 2010, 48 clinical specimens from 43 paediatric patients hospitalized for LRTIs were analysed for macrolide resistance. The mutations associated with resistance (A2063G and A2064G) and M. pneumoniae subtypes were detected by sequencing the targeted domain V region of the 23S rRNA gene and a region in the MPN528a gene, respectively. RESULTS: Macrolide resistance genotypes were detected in 11 (26%) of the 43 M. pneumoniae-positive children. The A2063G mutation was identified in seven patients and the A2064G mutation was identified in the remaining four. Upon admission, the isolates from three patients showed a susceptible genotype but subsequently acquired the A2063G mutation. Genotyping revealed M. pneumoniae subtype 1 in 33 of 40 sequenced strains and subtype 2 in the remaining 7. There was no association between macrolide resistance or susceptibility and the M. pneumoniae subtypes. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of macrolide resistance among M. pneumoniae strains in Italy. Our findings indicate an unexpected high prevalence of macrolide resistance genotypes in children, and so macrolide resistance should be carefully considered in patients who do not respond appropriately to antibiotic treatment. The epidemiological monitoring of macrolide resistance has become necessary in Italy and in the rest of Europe.
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    ABSTRACT: Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a frequent cause of human lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) for which macrolides are the treatment of choice. The aim of this study was to determine the rate of macrolide resistance and to subtype M. pneumoniae strains in Italy. During an outbreak of M. pneumoniae infections in southern Italy in 2010, 48 clinical specimens from 43 paediatric patients hospitalized for LRTIs were analysed for macrolide resistance. The mutations associated with resistance (A2063G and A2064G) and M. pneumoniae subtypes were detected by sequencing the targeted domain V region of the 23S rRNA gene and a region in the MPN528a gene, respectively. Macrolide resistance genotypes were detected in 11 (26%) of the 43 M. pneumoniae-positive children. The A2063G mutation was identified in seven patients and the A2064G mutation was identified in the remaining four. Upon admission, the isolates from three patients showed a susceptible genotype but subsequently acquired the A2063G mutation. Genotyping revealed M. pneumoniae subtype 1 in 33 of 40 sequenced strains and subtype 2 in the remaining 7. There was no association between macrolide resistance or susceptibility and the M. pneumoniae subtypes. This is the first report of macrolide resistance among M. pneumoniae strains in Italy. Our findings indicate an unexpected high prevalence of macrolide resistance genotypes in children, and so macrolide resistance should be carefully considered in patients who do not respond appropriately to antibiotic treatment. The epidemiological monitoring of macrolide resistance has become necessary in Italy and in the rest of Europe.
    Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 03/2011; 66(4):734-7. DOI:10.1093/jac/dkr003 · 5.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The surveillance network RotaNet-Italia was established in 2007 in order to investigate the diversity of co-circulating rotavirus strains in Italy, and to provide a baseline for future assessment of possible effects of vaccine implementation in selecting novel versus common rotavirus strains. A total of 2,645 rotavirus strains from pediatric patients with acute diarrhea were collected over three conse-cutive seasons from September 2006 through August 2009, and partially characterized by standardized multiplex RT-PCR. Most of strains (89.1%) belonged to genotypes G1–G4, and G9, associated with either P[8] or P[4], commonly found in humans worldwide. However, in at least 2.0% of cases, viruses exhibited either a G or P type typical of animal viral strains, sug-gesting gene reassortment events between rotaviruses of different origin. Mixed infections with two or more rotavirus strains were observed frequently (7.6% of patients), and depended on the frequencies of co-circulating rotaviruses of one particular genotype. The numbers and genotypes of likely natural reas-sortants of common genotype rotaviruses were found to be correlated with the observed num-bers and genotypes of mixed infections. Large variation in the relative frequency of different rotavirus genotypes was observed between dif-ferent seasons and/or areas of Italy, suggesting independent evolution or differential introduc-tion of viral strains with respect to both time and space.
    Journal of Medical Virology 01/2011; 83:0146-6615. · 2.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the Puglia region (South Italy) about 200 new hospitalizations for cervical cancer are registered every year. The study investigated the frequency of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection and the genotype distribution of HPV in a sample of women with known cytology attending the outpatient clinics of four Gynecological Departments of the University of Bari over a four-year period (2005-2008). Cervical samples from 1,168 women were analyzed for the presence of HPV-DNA through Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) in L1 region and reverse hybridization. The cytological results were associated with HPV positivity and type-specific prevalence. Overall, HPV infection was found in 355 (30.4%) women. HPV-DNA was found in 34.4% of women with a cytological diagnosis of ASCUS, in 46.8% of women with Low-grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion (LSIL) and in 87.0% of women with High-grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion (HSIL)/carcinoma. Also 16.0% of women with normal Pap smear were found to be HPV-DNA positive. The most common HPVgenotype was type 16 found in 27.3% of positives, followed by type 53 (11.5%), type 66 (9.2%) and type 31 (9.0%). HPV genotype 18 was found in 6.4% of positives. Types 16 or 18 were detected in about 34% (120/355) of all infected women, in about 33% of LSIL and in 60% of HSIL/ carcinoma HPV-positive women. Among low risk (LR) genotypes, type 61 was found in 10.7% of HPV positive women, type 62 in 8.4%, type 42 in 8.1% and type CP6108 in 7.8%. The findings of the study give evidence that HPV infection is frequent in the studied cohort of women. The most widespread genotypes found were 16 and 53. These data may represent a benchmark for future evaluation after the recent introduction of vaccination against HPV in 12-year-old girls.
    Journal of preventive medicine and hygiene 12/2010; 51(4):139-45.
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    ABSTRACT: We report a fatal case of overwhelming pneumococcal infection in an asplenic young adult not vaccinated against Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae).
    Eurosurveillance: bulletin europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin 01/2010; 15(23). · 4.66 Impact Factor