Stuart R Lipsitz

Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States

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Publications (503)2793.9 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Importance: There is extensive evidence suggesting that black men with localized prostate cancer (PCa) have worse cancer-specific mortality compared with their non-Hispanic white counterparts. Objective: To evaluate racial disparities in the use, quality of care, and outcomes of radical prostatectomy (RP) in elderly men (≥65 years) with nonmetastatic PCa. Design, setting, and participants: This retrospective analysis of outcomes stratified according to race (black vs non-Hispanic white) included 2020 elderly black patients (7.6%) and 24 462 elderly non-Hispanic white patients (92.4%) with localized PCa who underwent RP within the first year of PCa diagnosis in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare database between 1992 and 2009. The study was performed in 2014. Main outcomes and measures: Process of care (ie, time to treatment, lymph node dissection), as well as outcome measures (ie, complications, emergency department visits, readmissions, PCa-specific and all-cause mortality, costs) were evaluated using Cox proportional hazards regression. Multivariable conditional logistic regression and quantile regression were used to study the association of racial disparities with process of care and outcome measures. Results: The proportion of black patients with localized prostate cancer who underwent RP within 90 days was 59.4% vs 69.5% of non-Hispanic white patients (P < .001). In quantile regression of the top 50% of patients, blacks had a 7-day treatment delay compared with non-Hispanic whites. (P < .001). Black patients were less likely to undergo lymph node dissection (odds ratio [OR], 0.76 [95% CI, 0.66-0.80]; P < .001) but had higher odds of postoperative visits to the emergency department (within 30 days: OR, 1.48 [95% CI, 1.18-1.86]); after 30 days or more (OR, 1.45 [95% CI, 1.19-1.76]) and readmissions (within 30 days: OR, 1.28 [95% CI, 1.02-1.61]); ≥30 days (OR, 1.27 [95% CI, 1.07-1.51]) compared with non-Hispanic whites. The surgical treatment of black patients was associated with a higher incremental annual cost (the top 50% of blacks spent $1185.50 (95% CI , $804.85-1 $1566.10; P < .001) more than the top 50% of non-Hispanic whites). There was no difference in PCa-specific mortality (P = .16) or all-cause mortality (P = .64) between black and non-Hispanic white men. Conclusions and relevance: Blacks treated with RP for localized PCa are more likely to experience adverse events and incur higher costs compared with non-Hispanic white men; however, this does not translate into a difference in PCa-specific or all-cause mortality.
    10/2015; DOI:10.1001/jamaoncol.2015.3384
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Much teaching to surgical residents takes place in the operating room (OR). The explicit content of what is taught in the OR, however, has not previously been described. This study investigated the content of what is taught in the OR, specifically during laparoscopic cholecystectomies (LCs), for which a cognitive task analysis (CTA), explicitly delineating individual steps, was available in the literature. Methods: A checklist of necessary technical and decision-making steps to be executed during performance of LCs, anchored in the previously published CTA, was developed. A convenience sample of LCs was identified over a 12-month period from February 2011 to February 2012. Using the checklist, a trained observer recorded explicit teaching that occurred regarding these steps during each observed case. All observations were tallied and analyzed. Results: In all, 51 LCs were observed; 14 surgery attendings and 33 residents participated in the observed cases. Of 1042 observable teaching points, only 560 (53.7%) were observed during the study period. As a proportion of all observable steps, technical steps were observed more frequently, 377 (67.3%), than decision-making steps, 183 (32.7%). Also when focusing on technical and decision-making steps alone, technical steps were taught more frequently (60.9% vs 43.3%). Conclusions: Only approximately half of all possible observable teaching steps were explicitly taught during LCs in this study. Technical steps were more frequently taught than decision-making steps. These findings may have important implications: a better understanding of the content of intraoperative teaching would allow educators to steer residents' preoperative preparation, modulate intraoperative instruction by members of the surgical faculty, and guide residents to the most appropriate teaching venues.
    Journal of Surgical Education 10/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jsurg.2015.09.008 · 1.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives To examine the prevalence of cervical spine fractures after falls in older Americans, to show changes in recent years, and to compare 12-month outcomes between individuals with cervical and hip fracture after falls.DesignRetrospective study of Medicare data from 2007 to 2011.SettingAcute care hospitals.ParticipantsIndividuals aged 65 and older with cervical or hip fracture after a fall.MeasurementsCervical fracture rate, 12-month mortality, and readmission rate after injury.ResultsRates of cervical fracture increased from 4.6 per 10,000 in 2007 to 5.3 per 10,000 in 2011; rates of hip fracture decreased from 77.3 per 10,000 in 2007 to 63.5 per 10,000 in 2011. Participants with cervical fracture with and without spinal cord injury (SCI) were more likely than those with hip fracture to receive treatment at large hospitals (59.4% and 54.1% vs 28.1%, P < .001), teaching hospitals (49.3% and 40.0% vs 13.4%, P < .001), and regional trauma centers (46.3% and 38.5% vs 13.0%, P < .001). Participants with cervical fracture without (24.7%) and with SCI (41.7%) had greater risk-adjusted mortality at 1 year than those with hip fracture (22.7%) (P < .001). By 1 year, 73.4% of participants with cervical fracture with and 59.5% without SCI and 59.3% of those with hip fracture had died or were readmitted to the hospital (P < .001).Conclusion Cervical spinal fractures occur in one of every 2,000 Medicare beneficiaries annually and appear to be increasing over time. Participants with cervical fracture had greater mortality than those with hip fracture. Given the increasing prevalence and the poor outcomes in this population, hospitals need to develop processes to improve care for these vulnerable individuals.
    Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 10/2015; 63(10). DOI:10.1111/jgs.13670 · 4.57 Impact Factor
  • S Emani · D.Y. Ting · M Healey · S.R. Lipsitz · H Ramelson · V Suric · D.W. Bates ·
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    ABSTRACT: Background: A core measure of the meaningful use of EHR incentive program is the generation and provision of the clinical summary of the office visit, or the after visit summary (AVS), to patients. However, little research has been conducted on physician perceptions and beliefs about the AVS. Objectives: Evaluate physician perceptions and beliefs about the AVS and the effect of the AVS on workload, patient outcomes, and the care the physician delivers. Methods: A cross-sectional online survey of physicians at two academic medical centers (AMCs) in the northeast who are participating in the meaningful use EHR incentive program. Results: Of the 1 795 physicians at both AMCs participating in the incentive program, 853 completed the survey for a response rate of 47.5%. Eighty percent of the respondents reported that the AVS was easy (very easy or quite easy or somewhat easy) to generate and provide to patients. Nonetheless, more than three-fourths of the respondents reported a negative effect of generating and providing the AVS on workload of office staff (78%) and workload of physicians (76%). Primary care physicians had more positive beliefs about the effect of the AVS on patient outcomes than specialists (p<0.001) and also had more positive beliefs about the effect of the AVS on the care they delivered than specialists (p<0.001). Conclusions: Achieving the core meaningful use measure of generating and providing the AVS was easy for physicians but it did not necessarily translate into positive beliefs about the effect of the AVS on patient outcomes or the care the physician delivered. Physicians also had negative beliefs about the effect of the AVS on workload. To promote positive beliefs among physicians around the AVS, organizations should obtain physician input into the design and implementation of the AVS and develop strategies to mitigate its negative impacts on workload.
    Applied Clinical Informatics 10/2015; 6(3):577-590. DOI:10.4338/ACI-2015-04-RA-0043 · 0.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction Ensuring that patients receive care that is consistent with their goals and values is a critical component of high-quality care. This article describes the protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial of a multicomponent, structured communication intervention. Methods and analysis Patients with advanced, incurable cancer and life expectancy of <12 months will participate together with their surrogate. Clinicians are enrolled and randomised either to usual care or the intervention. The Serious Illness Care Program is a multicomponent, structured communication intervention designed to identify patients, train clinicians to use a structured guide for advanced care planning discussion with patients, ‘trigger’ clinicians to have conversations, prepare patients and families for the conversation, and document outcomes of the discussion in a structured format in the electronic medical record. Clinician satisfaction with the intervention, confidence and attitudes will be assessed before and after the intervention. Self-report data will be collected from patients and surrogates approximately every 2 months up to 2 years or until the patient's death; patient medical records will be examined at the close of the study. Analyses will examine the impact of the intervention on the patient receipt of goal-concordant care, and peacefulness at the end of life. Secondary outcomes include patient anxiety, depression, quality of life, therapeutic alliance, quality of communication, and quality of dying and death. Key process measures include frequency, timing and quality of documented conversations. Ethics and dissemination This study was approved by the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute Institutional Review Board. Results will be reported in peer-reviewed publications and conference presentations. Trial registration number Protocol identifier NCT01786811; Pre-results.
    BMJ Open 10/2015; 5(10):e009032. DOI:10.1136/bmjopen-2015-009032 · 2.27 Impact Factor

  • Journal of the American College of Surgeons 10/2015; 221(4):S130-S131. DOI:10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2015.07.308 · 5.12 Impact Factor

  • Journal of the American College of Surgeons 10/2015; 221(4):S54. DOI:10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2015.07.116 · 5.12 Impact Factor

  • Journal of the American College of Surgeons 10/2015; 221(4):S133. DOI:10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2015.07.314 · 5.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The importance of leadership is recognized in surgery, but the specific impact of leadership style on team behavior is not well understood. In other industries, leadership is a well-characterized construct. One dominant theory proposes that transactional (task-focused) leaders achieve minimum standards and transformational (team-oriented) leaders inspire performance beyond expectations. Study design: We videorecorded 5 surgeons performing complex operations. Each surgeon was scored on the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire, a validated method for scoring transformational and transactional leadership style, by an organizational psychologist and a surgeon researcher. Independent coders assessed surgeons' leadership behaviors according to the Surgical Leadership Inventory and team behaviors (information sharing, cooperative, and voice behaviors). All coders were blinded. Leadership style (Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire) was correlated with surgeon behavior (Surgical Leadership Inventory) and team behavior using Poisson regression, controlling for time and the total number of behaviors, respectively. Results: All surgeons scored similarly on transactional leadership (range 2.38 to 2.69), but varied more widely on transformational leadership (range 1.98 to 3.60). Each 1-point increase in transformational score corresponded to 3 times more information-sharing behaviors (p < 0.0001) and 5.4 times more voice behaviors (p = 0.0005) among the team. With each 1-point increase in transformational score, leaders displayed 10 times more supportive behaviors (p < 0.0001) and displayed poor behaviors 12.5 times less frequently (p < 0.0001). Excerpts of representative dialogue are included for illustration. Conclusions: We provide a framework for evaluating surgeons' leadership and its impact on team performance in the operating room. As in other fields, our data suggest that transformational leadership is associated with improved team behavior. Surgeon leadership development, therefore, has the potential to improve the efficiency and safety of operative care.
    Journal of the American College of Surgeons 10/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2015.09.013 · 5.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It is known that emergency surgery in the elderly is associated with high short-term mortality, but longer-term outcomes are not well described. We hypothesized that 30-day mortality may underestimate the true operative mortality experienced in this cohort. The purposes of this study were to characterize postoperative mortality rates extending to 1 year and to identify preoperative predictors of 1 year mortality after emergency abdominal surgery. We retrospectively reviewed the records of all patients older than 70 years who underwent emergency abdominal surgery at a major teaching hospital between 2006 and 2011. Demographics, preoperative physiology, prehospital status, body mass index, laboratory values, Charlson scores, comorbid conditions, American Society of Anesthesiologists classification, and operative details were recorded. The primary end point was 1-year mortality. Complementary log-log binary regression was used to determine independent predictors of death. Model discrimination was evaluated using the c statistic. A total of 390 patients met our inclusion criteria. The mean age was 79 years, and 56% were women. Postoperative mortality was 16.2% at 30 days and 32.5% at 1 year, reflecting a doubling of mortality over 11 months. Independent preoperative predictors of 1-year mortality were Charlson score of 4 or higher (hazard ratio [HR], 1.79; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.38-2.34), American Society of Anesthesiologists class of 4 or higher (HR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.22-2.21), albumin less than 3.5 (HR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.31-2.28), and body mass index lower than 18.5 (HR, 3.36; 95% CI, 1.48-6.86). The c statistic was 0.81. The 1-year mortality after emergency surgery in the elderly is significantly higher than that at 30 days. We identified a constellation of preoperative clinical markers that were highly predictive of this poor late outcome. The presence of these findings in the emergency setting should prompt preoperative discussion about treatment goals and encourage surgeons to set realistic expectations about outcomes with the patient and family. Future studies will develop a clinical scoring tool that can be applied at the bedside to provide more effective counseling for this high-risk population. Epidemiologic/prognostic study, level III; therapeutic study, level IV.
    09/2015; 79(3):349-58. DOI:10.1097/TA.0000000000000773
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    ABSTRACT: For complex surveys with a binary outcome, logistic regression is widely used to model the outcome as a function of covariates. Complex survey sampling designs are typically stratified cluster samples, but consistent and asymptotically unbiased estimates of the logistic regression parameters can be obtained using weighted estimating equations (WEEs) under the naive assumption that subjects within a cluster are independent. Despite the relatively large samples typical of many complex surveys, with rare outcomes, many interaction terms, or analysis of subgroups, the logistic regression parameters estimates from WEE can be markedly biased, just as with independent samples. In this paper, we propose bias-corrected WEEs for complex survey data. The proposed method is motivated by a study of postoperative complications in laparoscopic cystectomy, using data from the 2009 United States' Nationwide Inpatient Sample complex survey of hospitals. © The Author(s) 2015.
    Statistical Methods in Medical Research 08/2015; DOI:10.1177/0962280215596550 · 4.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Medical organizations have increased interest in identifying and improving behaviors that threaten team performance and patient safety. Three hundred and sixty degree evaluations of surgeons were performed at 8 academically affiliated hospitals with a common Code of Excellence. We evaluate participant perceptions and make recommendations for future use. Three hundred and eighty-five surgeons in a variety of specialties underwent 360-degree evaluations, with a median of 29 reviewers each (interquartile range 23 to 36). Beginning 6 months after evaluation, surgeons, department heads, and reviewers completed follow-up surveys evaluating accuracy of feedback, willingness to participate in repeat evaluations, and behavior change. Survey response rate was 31% for surgeons (118 of 385), 59% for department heads (10 of 17), and 36% for reviewers (1,042 of 2,928). Eighty-seven percent of surgeons (95% CI, 75%-94%) agreed that reviewers provided accurate feedback. Similarly, 80% of department heads believed the feedback accurately reflected performance of surgeons within their department. Sixty percent of surgeon respondents (95% CI, 49%-75%) reported making changes to their practice based on feedback received. Seventy percent of reviewers (95% CI, 69%-74%) believed the evaluation process was valuable, with 82% (95% CI, 79%-84%) willing to participate in future 360-degree reviews. Thirty-two percent of reviewers (95% CI, 29%-35%) reported perceiving behavior change in surgeons. Three hundred and sixty degree evaluations can provide a practical, systematic, and subjectively accurate assessment of surgeon performance without undue reviewer burden. The process was found to result in beneficial behavior change, according to surgeons and their coworkers. Copyright © 2015 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Journal of the American College of Surgeons 07/2015; 221(4). DOI:10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2015.06.017 · 5.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Accountable care organizations are designed to improve value by decreasing costs and maintaining quality. Strategies to maximize value are needed for high-risk surgery. We wanted to understand whether certain patient groups were differentially associated with better outcomes at high-volume hospitals in terms of quality and cost. In all, 37,746 patients underwent elective major lung resection in 1,273 hospitals in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample from 2007 to 2011. Patients were stratified by hospital volume quartile and substratified by preoperative mortality risk, age, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease status. Mortality was evaluated using clustered multivariable hierarchical logistic regression controlling for patient comorbidity, demographics, and procedure. Adjusted cost was evaluated using generalized linear models fit to a gamma distribution. Patients were grouped into volume quartiles based on cases per year (less than 21, 21 to 40, 40 to 78, and more than 78). Patient characteristics and procedure mix differed across quartiles. Overall, mortality decreased across volume quartiles (lowest 1.9% versus highest 1.1%, p < 0.0001). Patients aged more than 80 years were associated with greater absolute and relative mortality rates than patients less than 60 years old in highest volume versus lowest volume hospitals (age more than 80 years, 4.2% versus 1.3%, p < 0.0001, odds ratio 3.31, 95% confidence interval: 1.89 to 5.80; age less than 60 years, 1.0% versus 0.8%, p = 0.19, odds ratio 1.38, 95% confidence interval: 0.74 to 2.56). Patients with high preoperative risk (more than 75th percentile) were also associated with lower absolute mortality in high-volume hospitals. Adjusted costs were not significantly different across quartiles or patient strata. Older patients show a significantly stronger volume-outcome relationship than patients less than 60 years of age. Costs were equivalent across volume quartile and patient strata. Selective patient referral may be a strategy to improve outcomes for elderly patients undergoing lung resection. Copyright © 2015 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    The Annals of thoracic surgery 06/2015; 100(3). DOI:10.1016/j.athoracsur.2015.03.076 · 3.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We previously identified a range of 4344-5028 annual operations per 100,000 people to be related to desirable health outcomes. From this and other evidence, the Lancet Commission on Global Surgery recommends a minimum rate of 5000 operations per 100,000 people. We evaluate rates of growth and estimate the time it will take to reach this minimum surgical rate threshold. We aggregated country-level surgical rate estimates from 2004 to 2012 into the twenty-one Global Burden of Disease (GBD) regions. We calculated mean rates of surgery proportional to population size for each year and assessed the rate of growth over time. We then extrapolated the time it will take each region to reach a surgical rate of 5000 operations per 100,000 population based on linear rates of change. All but two regions experienced growth in their surgical rates during the past 8 years. Fourteen regions did not meet the recommended threshold in 2012. If surgical capacity continues to grow at current rates, seven regions will not meet the threshold by 2035. Eastern Sub-Saharan Africa will not reach the recommended threshold until 2124. The rates of growth in surgical service delivery are exceedingly variable. At current rates of surgical and population growth, 6.2 billion people (73 % of the world's population) will be living in countries below the minimum recommended rate of surgical care in 2035. A strategy for strengthening surgical capacity is essential if these targets are to be met in a timely fashion as part of the integrated health system development.
    World Journal of Surgery 06/2015; 39(9). DOI:10.1007/s00268-015-3113-6 · 2.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Postpartum hemorrhage is a leading cause of maternal death worldwide. Rapid provision of uterotonics after childbirth is recommended to reduce the incidence and severity of postpartum hemorrhage. Data obtained through direct observation of childbirth practices, collected in a study of the World Health Organization's Safe Childbirth Checklist in Karnataka, India, were used to measure if oxytocin prepared for administration and available at the bedside before birth was associated with decreased time to administration after birth. This was an observational study of provider behavior: data were obtained during a baseline assessment of health worker practices prior to introduction of the Safe Childbirth Checklist, representing behavior in the absence of any intervention. Analysis was based on 330 vaginal deliveries receiving oxytocin at any point postpartum. Oxytocin was prepared and available at bedside for approximately 39% of deliveries. We found that advance preparation and bedside availability of oxytocin was associated with increased likelihood of oxytocin administration within 1 minute after delivery (adjusted risk ratio = 4.89, 95% CI = 2.61, 9.16), as well as with decreased overall time to oxytocin administration after delivery (2.9 minutes sooner in adjusted models, 95% CI = -5.0, -0.9). Efforts to reduce postpartum hemorrhage should include recommendations and interventions to ensure advance preparation and bedside availability of oxytocin to facilitate prompt administration of the medicine after birth. © Moucheraud et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are properly cited. To view a copy of the license, visit
    Global Health: Science and Practice 06/2015; 3(2):300-4. DOI:10.9745/GHSP-D-14-00239
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    ABSTRACT: Face transplantation is an increasingly feasible option for patients with severe disfigurement. Donors and recipients are currently matched based on immune compatibility, skin characteristics, age, and gender. Aesthetic outcomes of the match are not always optimal and not possible to study in actual cases due to ethical and logistical challenges. We have used a reproducible and inexpensive three-dimensional virtual face transplantation (VFT) model to study this issue. Sixty-one VFTs were performed using reconstructed high-resolution computed tomography angiographs of male and female subjects aged 20-69 years. Twenty independent reviewers evaluated the level of disfigurement of the posttransplant models. Absolute differences in 9 soft-tissue measurements and 16 bony cephalometric measurements from each of the VFT donor and recipient pretransplant model pairs were correlated to the reviewers' evaluation of disfigurement after VFT through a multivariate logistic regression model. Five soft-tissue measurements and 3 bony measurements were predictive of the rating of disfigurement after VFT (odds ratio; 95% confidence interval): trichion-to-nasion facial height (1.106; 1.066-1.148), endocanthal width (1.096; 1.051-1.142), exocanthal width (1.067; 1.036-1.099), mouth/chelion width (1.064; 1.019-1.110), subnasale-to-menton facial height (1.029; 1.003-1.056), inner orbit width (1.039; 1.009-1.069), palatal plane/occlusal plane angle (1.148; 1.047-1.258), and sella-nasion/mandibular plane angle (1.079; 1.013-1.150). This study provides early evidence for the importance of soft-tissue and bony measurements in planning of facial transplantation. With future improvements to immunosuppressive regimens and increased donor availability, these measurements may be used as an additional criterion to optimize posttransplant outcomes.
    05/2015; 3(5):1. DOI:10.1097/GOX.0000000000000343
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    ABSTRACT: To assess whether hospital rates of secondary complications could serve as a performance benchmark and examine associations with mortality. Failure to rescue (death after postoperative complication) is a challenging target for quality improvement. Secondary complications (complications after a first or "index" complication) are intermediate outcomes in the rescue process that may provide specific improvement targets and give us insight into how rescue fails. We used American College of Surgeons' National Surgical Quality Improvement Program data (2008-2012) to define hospital rates of secondary complications after 5 common index complications: pneumonia, surgical site infection (SSI), urinary tract infection, transfusion/bleed events, and acute myocardial infarction (MI). Hospitals were divided into quintiles on the basis of risk- and reliability-adjusted rates of secondary complications, and these rates were compared along with mortality. A total of 524,860 patients were identified undergoing one of the 62 elective, inpatient operations. After index pneumonia, secondary complication rates varied from 57.99% in the highest quintile to 22.93% in the lowest [adjusted odds ratio (OR), 4.64; confidence interval (CI), 3.95-5.45). Wide variation was seen after index SSI (58.98% vs 14.81%; OR, 8.53; CI, 7.41-9.83), urinary tract infection (38.41% vs 8.60%; OR, 7.81; CI, 6.48-9.40), transfusion/bleeding events (27.14% vs 12.88%; OR, 2.54; CI, 2.31-2.81), and acute MI (64.45% vs 23.86%, OR, 6.87; CI, 5.20-9.07). Hospitals in the highest quintile had significantly greater mortality after index pneumonia (10.41% vs 6.20%; OR, 2.17; CI, 1.6-2.94), index MI (18.25% vs 9.65%; OR, 2.67; CI, 1.80-3.94), and index SSI (2.75% vs 0.82%; OR, 3.93; CI, 2.26-6.81). Hospital-level rates of secondary complications (failure to arrest complications) vary widely, are associated with mortality, and may be useful for quality improvement and benchmarking.
    Annals of surgery 04/2015; DOI:10.1097/SLA.0000000000001227 · 8.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Reducing maternal and neonatal deaths are important global health priorities. We have previously shown that up to a country-level caesarean delivery rate (CDRs) of roughly 19·0%, cesarean delivery rates and maternal mortality ratio (MMR) and neonatal mortality rate (NMR) were inversely correlated. We investigated the absolute reductions in maternal and neonatal deaths if countries with low CDR increased their rates to a range of greater than 7·2% but less than or equal to 19·1%. We calculated maternal and neonatal deaths in 2013 and 2012, respectively, for countries with CDR 7·2% or less (N=45) with available data from the World Bank Development Indicators. We modelled the expected reduction in deaths in these countries if they had the 25th and 75th MMR and NMR percentiles observed for countries (N=48) with CDRs ranging from greater than 7·2% but less than or equal to 19·1%. This model assumes that if countries with low CDRs increased their rates of caesarean delivery to greater than 7·2% but less than or equal to 19·1%, they would achieve levels of MMR and NMR observed in countries with those CDRs. We estimate 176 078 (95% CI 163 258-188 898) maternal and 1 117 257 (95% CI 1 033 611-1 200 902) neonatal deaths occurred in 45 countries with low CDRs in 2013 and 2012, respectively. If these countries had the 25th and 75th MMR and NMR percentiles (MMR, IQR 36-190; NMR, 9-24) observed in countries (N=48) with a CDR ranging from greater than 7·2% but less than or equal to 19·1%, there would be a potential reduction of 109 762-163 513 and 279 584-803 129 maternal and neonatal deaths, respectively. Increasing caesarean delivery in countries with low CDRs could avert as many as 163 513 maternal deaths and 803 129 neonatal deaths annually. These findings assume that as health systems develop the capacity to deliver surgical care, there is a concurrent improvement in the quality of care and in the ability to rescue women and neonates who would otherwise die. Improving access to safe caesarean delivery should be a central focus in surgical care globally. None. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    The Lancet 04/2015; 385:S33. DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(15)60828-5 · 45.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent work has indicated an increase in surgical services, especially in resource poor settings. However, the rate of growth is poorly understood and likely insufficient to meet public health needs. We previously identified a range of 4344 to 5028 operations per 100 000 population annually to be related to desirable health outcomes. From this and other evidence, the Lancet Commission on Global Surgery recommends a minimum rate of 5000 operations per 100 000 population. We evaluate rates of growth in surgery and estimate the time it will take to reach this minimum surgical rate threshold. We aggregated 2004 and 2012 country-level surgical rate estimates into the 21 Global Burden of Disease (GBD) regions. We calculated mean rates of surgery proportional to population size and estimate rate of growth between these years. We then extrapolated the time it will take to reach a surgical rate of 5000 operations per 100 000 population based on linear rates of change. All but two regions (central Europe and southern Latin America) experienced growth in their surgical rates during the past 8 years; the fastest growth occurred in regions with the lowest surgical rates. 14 regions representing 79% of the world's population (5·5 billion people) did not meet the recommended surgical rate threshold in 2012. If surgical capacity grows at current rates, seven regions (central sub-Saharan Africa, east Asia, eastern sub-Saharan Africa, north Africa and middle east, south Asia, southeast Asia, and western sub-Saharan Africa) will not meet the recommended surgical rate threshold by 2035; Eastern Sub-Saharan Africa will not reach this level until 2124. The rates of growth in surgical service delivery are exceedingly variable, but the largest growth rates were noted in the poorest regions. Although this study does not address the quality of care, and rates of surgery are unlikely to change linearly, this exercise is useful to project how many years it could take regions to reach specific surgical rates. At current rates of growth, 4·9 billion people (70% of the world's population) will still be living in countries below the minimum recommended rate of surgery in 2035. A strategy for strengthening surgical capacity is essential if these targets are to be met as part of integrated health system development. None. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    The Lancet 04/2015; 385:S14. DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(15)60809-1 · 45.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It was previously estimated that 234·2 million operations were performed worldwide in 2004. The association between surgical rates and population health outcomes is not clear. We re-estimated global surgical volume to track changes over time and assess rates associated with healthy populations. We gathered demographic, health, and economic data for 194 WHO member states. Surgical volumes were obtained from published studies and other reports from 2005 onwards. We estimated rates of surgery for all countries without available data based on health expenditure in 2012 and assessed the proportion of surgery comprised by caesarean delivery. The rate of surgery was plotted against life expectancy to describe the association between surgical care and this health indicator. We identified 66 countries reporting surgical data between 2005 and 2013. We estimate that 312·9 million operations (95% CI 266·2-359·5) took place in 2012-a 33·6% increase over 8 years; the largest proportional increase occurred in countries spending US$400 or less per capita on health care. Caesarean delivery comprised 29·8% (5·8 million operations) of the total surgical volume in poor health expenditure countries compared with 10·8% (7·8 million operations) in low health expenditure countries and 2·7% (5·1 million operations) in high health expenditure countries. We noted a correlation between increased life expectancy and increased surgical rates up to 1533 operations per 100 000 people, with significant but less dramatic improvement above this rate. Surgical volume is large and continues to grow in all economic environments. A single procedure-caesarean delivery-comprised almost a third of surgical volume in the most resource-limited settings. Surgical care is an essential part of health care and is associated with increased life expectancy, yet many low-income countries fail to achieve basic levels of service. Improvements in capacity and delivery of surgical services must be a major component of health system strengthening. None. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    The Lancet 04/2015; 385:S11. DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(15)60806-6 · 45.22 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

16k Citations
2,793.90 Total Impact Points


  • 2015
    • Massachusetts General Hospital
      • Department of Surgery
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2005-2015
    • Brigham and Women's Hospital
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Center for Surgery and Public Health
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
    • University of South Florida St. Petersburg
      St. Petersburg, Florida, United States
    • Creighton University
      Omaha, Nebraska, United States
    • New York University
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 1993-2015
    • Harvard University
      • Department of Health Policy and Management
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1990-2015
    • Harvard Medical School
      • • Department of Surgery
      • • Department of Medicine
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2014
    • The University of Chicago Medical Center
      • Section of Urology
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
  • 2012
    • St. Joseph Hospital, Orange
      Orange, California, United States
  • 2010-2012
    • Beverly Hospital, Boston MA
      BVY, Massachusetts, United States
    • University of Miami Miller School of Medicine
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Miami, Florida, United States
  • 1990-2012
    • Dana-Farber Cancer Institute
      • • Lank Center for Genitourinary Oncology
      • • Department of Biostatistics and Computational Biology
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2011
    • Cedars-Sinai Medical Center
      • Cedars Sinai Medical Center
      Los Ángeles, California, United States
  • 1999-2010
    • Medical University of South Carolina
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Division of Biostatistics and Epidemiology
      Charleston, South Carolina, United States
  • 2009
    • CUNY Graduate Center
      New York, New York, United States
  • 2008-2009
    • Partners HealthCare
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2007
    • Texas A&M University
      • Department of Statistics
      College Station, Texas, United States
  • 1999-2005
    • University of Rochester
      • Division of Pediatric Cardiology
      Rochester, New York, United States
  • 2003
    • University Center Rochester
      Рочестер, Minnesota, United States
  • 2002
    • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
      • Department of Biostatistics
      North Carolina, United States
  • 1991-1998
    • Massachusetts Department of Public Health
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States