[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rice BGlu1 β-glucosidase nucleophile mutant E386G is a glycosynthase that can synthesize p-nitrophenyl (pNP)-cellooligosaccharides of up to 11 residues. The X-ray crystal structures of the E386G glycosynthase with and without α-glucosyl fluoride were solved and the α-glucosyl fluoride complex was found to contain an ordered water molecule near the position of the nucleophile of the BGlu1 native structure, which is likely to stabilize the departing fluoride. The structures of E386G glycosynthase in complexes with cellotetraose and cellopentaose confirmed that the side chains of N245, S334, and Y341 interact with glucosyl residues in cellooligosaccharide binding subsites +2, +3, and +4. Mutants in which these residues were replaced in BGlu1 β-glucosidase hydrolyzed cellotetraose and cellopentaose with k(cat) /K(m) values similar to those of the wild type enzyme. However, the Y341A, Y341L, and N245V mutants of the E386G glycosynthase synthesize shorter pNP-cellooligosaccharides than do the E386G glycosynthase and its S334A mutant, suggesting that Y341 and N245 play important roles in the synthesis of long oligosaccharides. X-ray structural studies revealed that cellotetraose binds to the Y341A mutant of the glycosynthase in a very different, alternative mode not seen in complexes with the E386G glycosynthase, possibly explaining the similar hydrolysis, but poorer synthesis of longer oligosaccharides by Y341 mutants.
Protein Science 03/2012; 21(3):362-72. · 2.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The rice BGlu1 β-D-glucosidase nucleophile mutant E386G is a glycosynthase that catalyzes the synthesis of cellooligosaccharides from α-d-glucopyranosyl fluoride (GlcF) donor and p-nitrophenyl (pNP) cellobioside (Glc2-pNP) or cello-oligosaccharide acceptors. When activity with other donors and acceptors was tested, the initial enzyme preparation cleaved pNP-β-D-glucopyranoside (Glc-pNP) and pNP-β-D-fucopyranoside (Fuc-pNP) to pNP and glucose and fucose, suggesting contamination with wild type BGlu1 β-glucosidase. The products from reaction of GlcF and Fuc-pNP included Fuc-β-(1→3)-Fuc-pNP, Glc-β-(1→3)-Fuc-pNP, and Fuc-β-(1→4)-Glc-β-(1→3)-Fuc-pNP, suggesting the presence of both wild type BGlu1 and its glycosynthase. Inhibition of the BGlu1 β-glucosidase activity within this preparation by cyclophellitol confirmed that the E386G glycosynthase preparation was contaminated with wild type BGlu1. Rice BGlu1 E386G-2, generated from a new construct designed to minimize back-mutation, showed glycosynthase activity without wild type hydrolytic or transglycosylation activity. E386G-2 catalyzed transfer of glycosyl residues from GlcF, α-L-arabinosyl fluoride, α-D-fucosyl fluoride, α-D-galactosyl fluoride, α-D-mannosyl fluoride, and α-D-xylosyl fluoride donors to Glc2-pNP acceptor. The synthetic products from the reactions of α-fucosyl fluoride and α-mannosyl fluoride donors were confirmed to result from addition of a β-(1→4)-linked glycosyl residue. Moreover, the E386G glycosynthase transferred glucose from GlcF donor to glucose, cellobiose, Glc-pNP, Fuc-pNP, pNP-β-D-galactopyranoside, and pNP-β-D-xylopyranoside acceptors, but little to pNP-β-D-mannopyranoside. Production of longer oligosaccharides occurred most readily on acceptors with an equatorial 4-OH. Elimination of wild type contamination thereby allowed a clear assessment of BGlu1 E386G glycosynthase catalytic abilities.
Carbohydrate research 02/2012; 352:51-9. · 2.03 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rice BGlu1 beta-glucosidase is a glycosyl hydrolase family 1 enzyme that acts as an exoglucanase on beta-(1,4)- and short beta-(1,3)-linked gluco-oligosaccharides. Mutations of BGlu1 beta-glucosidase at glutamate residue 414 of its natural precursor destroyed the enzyme's catalytic activity, but the enzyme could be rescued in the presence of the anionic nucleophiles such as formate and azide, which verifies that this residue is the catalytic nucleophile. The catalytic activities of three candidate mutants, E414G, E414S, and E414A, in the presence of the nucleophiles were compared. The E414G mutant had approximately 25- and 1400-fold higher catalytic efficiency than E414A and E414S, respectively. All three mutants could catalyze the synthesis of mixed length oligosaccharides by transglucosylation, when alpha-glucosyl fluoride was used as donor and pNP-cellobioside as acceptor. The E414G mutant gave the fastest transglucosylation rate, which was approximately 3- and 19-fold faster than that of E414S and E414A, respectively, and gave yields of up to 70-80% insoluble products with a donor-acceptor ratio of 5:1. (13)C-NMR, methylation analysis, and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry showed that the insoluble products were beta-(1,4)-linked oligomers with a degree of polymerization of 5 to at least 11. The BGlu1 E414G glycosynthase was found to prefer longer chain length oligosaccharides that occupy at least three sugar residue-binding subsites as acceptors for productive transglucosylation. This is the first report of a beta-glucansynthase derived from an exoglycosidase that can produce long-chain cello-oligosaccharides, which likely reflects the extended oligosaccharide-binding site of rice BGlu1 beta-glucosidase.