S Ohara

Kyoto University, Kyoto, Kyoto-fu, Japan

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Publications (33)122.9 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: To demonstrate the Bereitschaftspotentials (BPs) over the high lateral convexity in the superior frontal gyrus, movement-related cortical potentials with respect to the middle finger extension were recorded in seven patients with refractory epilepsy who underwent subdural implantation of platinum electrode grids and/or strips covering the high lateral frontal convexity. In two out of the seven patients, BPs were recorded from the electrodes placed on the superior frontal gyrus in the vicinity of the border between the medial and lateral frontal lobes, which were distinct from those recorded from the primary sensorimotor cortex. The results suggest the possible contribution of either the lateral dorsal non-primary motor area or the SMA to the generation of the BPs.
    Neuroscience Letters 06/2006; 399(1-2):1-5. · 2.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The perirolandic regions were studied by extensive electrical stimulation to clarify the topography and somatotopic distribution of negative motor areas (NMAs) and examine the clinical significance of these areas. We evaluated the cortical function elicited by electrical stimulation in 30 patients with tumors or intractable epilepsy. The somatotopic distribution of NMAs was examined by localizing these regions using Talairach's bicommissural reference system. NMAs within the lesions of two patients were removed under local anesthesia. We obtained negative motor responses following the stimulation of 30 electrodes in 15 patients. On the lateral brain surface, the majority of NMAs for the upper extremities were distributed broadly throughout the premotor cortex, while NMAs for the tongue were only found in the inferior frontal gyrus of the dominant hemisphere. During removal of the NMAs within the lesions of two patients, we documented transient hand clumsiness in one patient. NMAs were widely distributed throughout the perirolandic area, as well as the previously reported regions in the inferior frontal gyrus. These areas likely function in the control of skilled movements; dysfunction of such movements transiently follows resection of these regions, but is subsequently well compensated for after surgery. The localization and consequences of resection of NMAs suggests their clinical significance in motor control.
    Clinical Neurophysiology 02/2006; 117(1):33-40. · 3.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: The study goal was to evaluate the clinical usefulness of intravenous EEG recording by placing wire electrodes in the cavernous sinus (CS) and the superior petrosal sinus (SPS) in patients with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), with special emphasis on the ictal recording.Methods: We placed Seeker Lite- 10 guide wire as electrodes in the bilateral CS, SPS, or both to simultaneously record both ictal and interictal EEGs with the scalp EEG in five patients with TLE. In addition, in one patient, we averaged interictal scalp and intravascular EEG time-locked to the epileptiform discharge recorded from the CS/SPS-EEG to further delineate the relationship of the spikes between scalp and intravenous recording.Results: In four of five patients, clinically useful recording was obtained to determine ictal focus. We recorded habitual seizures in three patients, and the detailed characteristics of ictal epileptiform discharges were shown. The averaged waveform of interictal epileptiform discharges clarified the spike distribution in the scalp EEGs, which was otherwise undetectable in the single trace. All of the patients completed the intravenous EEG monitoring without any neurological or psychological problems.Conclusions: The CS/SPS-EEG is a relatively noninvasive method that is useful for the detection of ictal focus and its spreading pattern and thus for the selection of surgical candidate among patients with intractable TLE. Although the number of seizures detected during the short monitoring period may be limited, due to the advantages of its safety and simplicity, it is worth trying for potential surgical candidates before more invasive examinations are applied. A further study with a larger number of patients is needed to estimate its practical risk.
    Epilepsia 08/2005; 41(11):1411 - 1419. · 3.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We analyzed ictal motor symptoms in 10 patients diagnosed to have supplementary motor area (SMA) seizures based on ictal encephalographic (EEG) findings and ictal clinical semiology. Inclusion criteria were (1) EEG seizure pattern in the vertex for the scalp recording or in the area over and/or adjacent to SMA for epicortical recording and (2) ictal motor semiology characterized, as previously reported, by sudden and a brief tonic posturing of extremities and trunk mainly occurring during sleep without loss of consciousness. In 50% (5/10) of the patients, tonic posturing began in one part of the body and moved to other part(s) in 5-10s. Unlike Jacksonian march seen in seizures involving the primary sensorimotor area (S1-M1), it spread in no accordance with the somatotopy in S1-M1. The sequential propagation of tonic posturing may represent the somatotopic organization within the SMA proper.
    Epilepsy Research 01/2005; 62(2-3):179-87. · 2.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To locate the visual motion complex (MT+) and study its response properties in an epilepsy surgery patient. A 17-year-old epilepsy patient underwent invasive monitoring with subdural electrodes in the right temporo-parieto-occipital area. MT+ was investigated by cortical electric stimulation and by epicortical visual evoked potentials time-locked to motion onset of sinusoidal gratings (motion VEP). Motion-related visual evoked magnetic field (motion VEF) was also recorded before the electrode implantation to complement the invasive recording. Motion VEPs revealed two subregions within MT+, generating early and late potentials respectively. The early activity with a peak around 130 ms was localized at a single electrode situated immediately caudal to the initial portion of the ascending limb of the superior temporal sulcus (AL-STS). The late activity, peaking at 242-274 ms, was located ventro-rostrally over three electrodes. Among the four electrodes with motion VEPs, cortical stimulation at the most caudal pair elicited motion-in-depth perception involving the whole visual field. In addition to two subregions revealed on the gyral crown, magnetoencephalography (MEG) demonstrated another subregion with a late motion VEF in AL-STS immediately rostral to the electrode with the early motion VEP. In combination with MEG recording, the present invasive exploration demonstrated human MT+ in a focal area of the temporo-parieto-occipital junction and delineated possible three subregions as indicated by the different latencies and distributions of the motion VEP/VEFs. Comparative MEG and direct electrocorticographic recordings delineated possible subregions within the human MT complex.
    Clinical Neurophysiology 10/2004; 115(9):2056-65. · 3.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In order to clarify the role of the lateral non-primary motor area in the control of voluntary movements, we studied movement-related cortical potentials (MRCPs) by direct epicortical recording from the lateral frontal lobe in nine patients with intractable partial epilepsy as a part of presurgical evaluation. We adopted movement tasks involving different body sites: eye closing, lip pursing, shoulder abduction, middle finger extension, thumb abduction, and foot dorsiflexion. We found that one or two small areas on the caudal lateral convexity of the frontal lobe generated pre-movement potential shifts regardless of the sites of movement (omni-Bereitschaftspotential; "omni-BP"). Such regions were located at or just rostral to the primary motor face area in six subjects, and at or rostral to the primary motor upper extremity area in three. Moreover, half of those areas were identified just adjacent (either rostral or caudal) to the primary negative motor area (PNMA), a cortical area of the lateral frontal lobe where negative motor responses were elicited by electric cortical stimulation. In conclusion, it is suggested that the lateral non-primary motor area plays a significant role, and has a close and direct relationship with other cortical areas in the frontal lobe, just like its counterpart on the mesial frontal cortex (supplementary negative motor area, SNMA).
    Experimental Brain Research 06/2004; 156(2):135-48. · 2.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previous lesion studies in patients and functional imaging studies in normal subjects have led to the notion that the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) has an integrative function for multisensory inputs. However, its electrophysiological properties such as response latencies and distributions of responses to various stimulus modalities in humans have not been fully investigated. The aim of the study is to clarify this issue. We recorded evoked potentials to different kinds of sensory stimuli including somatosensory, auditory and visual modalities in 6 patients with intractable partial epilepsy, who underwent chronic implantation of subdural electrodes in TPJ for presurgical evaluation. In 5 out of 6 subjects, at least one electrode located in TPJ for each subject showed a maximum somatosensory evoked response commonly to electric, passive joint motion and pain stimuli. These electrodes showed the maximum responses also to tone stimuli in all of 4 subjects studied, and to visual motion stimuli in 3 out of 5 subjects studied. The polarity was consistent regardless of the stimulus modality within each individual subject, although the anatomical location, polarity and latency varied among subjects. A small area in TPJ for each individual subject receives sensory information of multiple modalities possibly coming from different receptive sites, although the electrophysiological properties of the responses may vary among subjects. Significance: We confirmed the convergence of somatosensory, auditory and visual evoked responses at human TPJ.
    Clinical Neurophysiology 06/2004; 115(5):1145-60. · 3.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To clarify the functional subdivisions of the human lateral premotor cortex (PM) in the visuomotor control. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were epicortically recorded from PM in 5 epilepsy patients. S1-Go/NoGo choice delayed reaction time (RT), S1-warned S2-Go simple RT and control fixation paradigms were compared using paired visual stimuli (S1, S2). Signal-related activity peaked at 176-194 ms after S1 in the ventrorostral PM (PMvr) in all 3 paradigms, indicating its role in signal perception. Early set-related activity was recorded with its peak <810 ms after S1 in the dorsorostral PM (PMdr) and was larger in the choice than in the simple RT paradigm, suggesting its role in signal selection. Its cognitive component was recorded as surface-positive transients at PMdr, while its motoric aspect, seen as negative transients, extended to the caudal PM. Late sustained set-related activity was observed in preparation for hand movement in the caudal PM at the hand and face positive motor areas. After presentation of S2, movement-related activity was observed at the hand sensorimotor area for motor execution, following the signal-related activity at PMvr. The present ERP study suggests the temporally sequential representation of predominantly 'cognitive' function in the rostral PM and 'motor' function in the caudal PM. The rostrocaudal cognitive-motor gradient was demonstrated in the lateral premotor cortex in humans by means of an epicortical ERP approach.
    Clinical Neurophysiology 06/2003; 114(6):1102-15. · 3.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A 52-year-old right handed man presented with medically intractable partial seizures consisting of numbness on the left upper back spreading to the left upper as well as lower limbs. Head computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed a round calcified lesion in the depth of the superior ramus of the right sylvian fissure. Ictal electrocorticographic recording with chronically implanted subdural electrodes showed low voltage fast activities starting exclusively from an electrode located on the right inferior parietal lobule. No apparent ictal activities were observed from the depth electrodes inserted in the parietal operculum. Somatosensory evoked potentials of 75 ms to 145 ms latency were recorded from the ictal onset zone, which was 2 cm caudal to the perisylvian area corresponding to the second somatosensory area. Seizures arising from the inferior parietal lobule including the angular and supuramarginal gyri can produce partial seizures whose ictal semiology and scalp electroencephalography are indistinguishable from the ones originating from the second somatosensory area.
    Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery & Psychiatry 04/2003; 74(3):367-9. · 4.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Atonic seizures are commonly seen in patients with generalized epilepsy but only infrequently in patients with partial epilepsy. Clinically generalized atonic seizures as a partial epilepsy have not been studied in detail with video/EEG monitoring. Here we describe the clinical and physiologic characteristics of atonic seizures due to partial epilepsy and discuss the underlying mechanism. Two patients with partial epilepsy manifesting atonic seizures, one with frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE) and the other with parietal lobe epilepsy (PLE), were reported. The long-term video/EEG monitoring, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and interictal fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) were investigated in each patient. Paroxysmal diminution of muscle tone mainly involved the axial muscles in both patients. In contrast with the abrupt falls seen in patients with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, the falls in these patients were slow, taking 2-5 s to fall down. Ictal EEG records showed low-voltage fast activity in the frontocentral area followed by repetitive spikes at the midline frontocentral area in the patient with FLE, and rhythmic spikes in the left central area in the patient with PLE. Interictal FDG-PET disclosed hypometabolic regions consistent with the clinical and EEG findings. Slow falls might be a feature of atonic seizures in partial epilepsy. Long-lasting atonia in partial epilepsy could be due to either one of the following two possible mechanisms: (a) epileptic activities arising from the negative motor area, of which 50-Hz electric stimulation causes motor inhibition, or (b) sustained atonia with successive electromyogram (EMG) silent periods caused by epileptic discharges arising from the inhibitory area of the primary sensorimotor area.
    Epilepsia 12/2002; 43(11):1425-31. · 3.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To clarify the relationship between epileptogenic zone and supplementary motor area (SMA) in patients who were regarded as the optimal surgical candidates for their intractable SMA seizures. We analyzed the epileptogenic zone at/or adjacent to the SMA in four patients with clinical SMA seizures. All four patients had noninvasive presurgical evaluations (long-term video/EEG monitoring, MRI, and neuroimaging with radioisotopes), which provided convergent results between ictal semiology and the epileptogenic area, and thus, they had chronically implanted subdural electrodes, and finally had focus resection with a follow-up period of more than 2 years. Three patients had lesions shown by MRI outside the SMA, and one patient had a lesion within the SMA. Interictal epileptiform discharges were seen at/or outside the SMA. Ictal EEG pattern originated from the SMA in one patient, from the high lateral frontal area in two patients, and from the precuneus in one patient. In the latter three patients, the ictal EEG pattern immediately spread to the SMA. Those ictal onset zones were consistently localized within/or just adjacent to the lesions revealed by MRI. Only one patient had SMA resection, and three had the resection of epileptogenic zone by preserving the SMA. No neurological deficits developed and good seizure control was achieved. Among surgical candidates for intractable SMA seizures, frontal cortex other than SMA or even parietal cortex can be epileptogenic, and thus, the SMA itself may not necessarily have to be resected. This notion is clinically important when selecting surgical candidates as well as when planning presurgical invasive evaluation in patients with intractable SMA seizures.
    Journal of the Neurological Sciences 11/2002; 202(1-2):43-52. · 2.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to investigate the effect of low-frequency electric cortical stimulation on epileptic focus in humans. We stimulated the epileptic focus in a patient with medically intractable mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) by means of subdural electrodes and evaluated the change in the number of interictal epileptiform discharges. We used biphasic electric current of 0.3-ms duration presented at 0.9-Hz frequency for 250 s, comparing stimulus intensity of 7.5, 2, and 0.5 mA. Interictal epileptiform discharges at the ictal focus occurred less frequently after the stimulation with the intensity of 0.5 mA. With the intensity of 7.5 mA and 2.0 mA, however, habitual auras were elicited by the stimulation, and afterdischarges were seen on the cortical EEG. Low-frequency, low-intensity electric cortical stimulation could produce inhibitory effects on epileptic activity. At the same time, however, a caution for possible induction of EEG seizures is needed, even when applying low-frequency electric stimulation.
    Epilepsia 06/2002; 43(5):491-5. · 3.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the cortical control of muscular activity, coherence between cortical oscillatory activity and electromyogram (EMG) might be useful. In this paper, we discussed two aspects of this cortical–muscular coherence; (1) Which part of the brain is involved in the generation of this coherence? (2) The functional relevance of multiple frequency bands in the cortical–muscular coherence. To answer the first question, electrocorticogram (ECoG)–EMG coherence was studied in patients with intractable seizures or brain tumors. Cortical–muscular coherence was observed not only at the primary sensorimotor area but also at the supplementary motor area. Regarding the spectral structure, the beta band coherence peaking at around 20 Hz was seen during the weak-to-moderate contraction. However, during the very strong contraction (>80% of the maximal strength), electroencephalogram (EEG)–EMG coherence was observed within the gamma band (40 Hz). In addition, coherence in the alpha band (10 Hz) can be detected in some subjects during the weak contraction, which was not necessarily associated with the physiologic tremor. Cortical–muscular coherence in the different frequency bands may represent the different coupling mechanisms.
    International Congress Series 01/2002; 1226:109-119.
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    ABSTRACT: In human, both primary and nonprimary motor areas are involved in the control of voluntary movements. However, the dynamics of functional coupling among different motor areas has not been fully clarified yet. Because it has been proposed that the functional coupling among cortical areas might be achieved by the synchronization of oscillatory activity, we investigated the electrocorticographic coherence between the supplementary motor and primary sensorimotor areas (SMA and S1-M1) by means of event-related partial coherence analysis in 11 intractable epilepsy patients. We found premovement increase of coherence between the SMA proper and S1-M1 at the frequency of 0-33 Hz and between the pre-SMA and S1-M1 at 0-18 Hz. Coherence between the SMA proper and M1 started to increase 0.9 sec before the movement onset and peaked 0.3 sec after the movement. There was no systematic difference within the SMA (SMA proper vs pre-SMA) or within the S1-M1, in terms of the time course as well as the peak value of coherence. The phase spectra revealed near-zero phase difference in 57% (20 of 35) of region pairs analyzed, and the remaining pairs showed inconsistent results. This increase of synchronization between multiple motor areas in the preparation and execution of voluntary movements may reflect the multiregional functional interactions in human motor behavior.
    Journal of Neuroscience 01/2002; 21(23):9377-86. · 6.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Two functional brain-mapping techniques, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and cortical stimulation by chronically implanted subdural electrodes, were used in combination for presurgical evaluation of three patients with intractable, partial motor seizures. Brain mapping was focused on characterizing motor-related areas in the medial frontal cortex, where all patients had organic lesions. Behavioral tasks for fMRI involved simple finger and foot movements in all patients and mental calculations in one of them. These tasks allowed us to discriminate several medial frontal motor areas: the presupplementary motor areas (pre-SMA), the somatotopically organized SMA proper, and the foot representation of the primary motor cortex. All patients subsequently underwent cortical stimulation through subdural electrodes placed onto the medial hemispheric wall. In each patient, the cortical stimulation map was mostly consistent with that patient's brain map by fMRI. By integrating different lines of information, the combined fMRI and cortical stimulation map will contribute not only to safe and effective surgery but also to further understanding of human functional neuroanatomy.
    Experimental Brain Research 07/2001; 138(4):403-9. · 2.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Two functional brain-mapping techniques, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and cortical stimulation by chronically implanted subdural electrodes, were used in combination for presurgical evaluation of three patients with intractable, partial motor seizures. Brain mapping was focused on characterizing motor-related areas in the medial frontal cortex, where all patients had organic lesions. Behavioral tasks for fMRI involved simple finger and foot movements in all patients and mental calculations in one of them. These tasks allowed us to discriminate several medial frontal motor areas: the presupplementary motor areas (pre-SMA), the somatotopically organized SMA proper, and the foot representation of the primary motor cortex. All patients subsequently underwent cortical stimulation through subdural electrodes placed onto the medial hemispheric wall. In each patient, the cortical stimulation map was mostly consistent with that patient's brain map by fMRI. By integrating different lines of information, the combined fMRI and cortical stimulation map will contribute not only to safe and effective surgery but also to further understanding of human functional neuroanatomy.
    Experimental Brain Research 05/2001; 138(4):403-409. · 2.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Two functional brain-mapping techniques, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and cortical stimulation by chronically implanted subdural electrodes, were used in combination for presurgical evaluation of three patients with intractable, partial motor seizures. Brain mapping was focused on characterizing motor-related areas in the medial frontal cortex, where all patients had organic lesions. Behavioral tasks for fMRI involved simple finger and foot movements in all patients and mental calculations in one of them. These tasks allowed us to discriminate several medial frontal motor areas: the presupplementary motor areas (pre-SMA), the somatotopically organized SMA proper, and the foot representation of the primary motor cortex. All patients subsequently underwent cortical stimulation through subdural electrodes placed onto the medial hemispheric wall. In each patient, the cortical stimulation map was mostly consistent with that patient's brain map by fMRI. By integrating different lines of information, the combined fMRI and cortical stimulation map will contribute not only to safe and effective surgery but also to further understanding of human functional neuroanatomy.
    Experimental Brain Research 01/2001; 138(4):403-409. · 2.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In order to clarify the functional role of the supplementary motor area (SMA) and its rostral part (pre-SMA) in relation to the rate of repetitive finger movements, we recorded movement-related cortical potentials (MRCPs) directly from the surface of the mesial frontal lobe by using subdural electrode grids implanted in four patients with intractable partial epilepsy. Two subregions in the SMA were identified based on the anatomical location and the different response to cortical stimulation. In three of the four subjects, we also recorded MRCPs from the surface of the lateral convexity covering the primary sensorimotor areas (SI-MI), which were defined by cortical stimulation and SEP recording. The subjects extended the middle finger or opposed the thumb against other fingers of the same hand at a self-paced rate of 0.2 Hz (slow) and 2 Hz (rapid), each in separate sessions. As a result, pre-and postmovement potentials were clearly seen at the SI-MI in both slow- and rapid-rate movements. By contrast, in the SMA, especially in the pre-SMA, premovement potentials were not seen and postmovement potentials were seldom seen in the rapid rate movement. In the slow-rate condition, pre- and postmovement potentials were clearly seen in both the pre-SMA and the SMA proper. In conclusion, the SMA, especially the pre-SMA, is less activated electrophysiologically in the rapid-rate movements, while the SI-MI remains active regardless of the movement rate.
    Experimental Brain Research 12/2000; 135(2):163-72. · 2.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To clarify how the primary sensorimotor and supplementary motor areas are involved in the generation of the rhythmicity of electromyogram (EMG) activity during continuous muscle contraction. We analyzed the coherence between subdurally recorded cortical electroencephalograms (EEG) and EMGs of the contralateral wrist extensor muscle during continuous isometric contraction in 8 patients with medically intractable epilepsy. In all subjects, a significant coherence between the primary motor area (M1) and EMG was observed at the peak frequency of 15+/-3 Hz (means+/-SD). In the primary somatosensory area (S1) of 7 subjects and the supplementary motor area proper (SMA proper) of 4 subjects, significant coherence with EMG was observed at 12+/-5 and 15+/-4 Hz, respectively. The time lags revealed by cross-correlogram were 10+/-3, 7+/-1 and 22+/-8 ms in the M1, S1 and SMA proper, respectively, with the EMG lagging in all areas. These findings suggest that the rhythmic activity in the SMA proper, as well as in the S1 and M1, is related to the generation of the rhythmicity of EMG activity.
    Clinical Neurophysiology 12/2000; 111(11):2014-24. · 3.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The study goal was to evaluate the clinical usefulness of intravenous EEG recording by placing wire electrodes in the cavernous sinus (CS) and the superior petrosal sinus (SPS) in patients with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), with special emphasis on the ictal recording. We placed Seeker Lite-10 guide wire as electrodes in the bilateral CS, SPS, or both to simultaneously record both ictal and interictal EEGs with the scalp EEG in five patients with TLE. In addition, in one patient, we averaged interictal scalp and intravascular EEG time-locked to the epileptiform discharge recorded from the CS/SPS-EEG to further delineate the relationship of the spikes between scalp and intravenous recording. In four of five patients, clinically useful recording was obtained to determine ictal focus. We recorded habitual seizures in three patients, and the detailed characteristics of ictal epileptiform discharges were shown. The averaged waveform of interictal epileptiform discharges clarified the spike distribution in the scalp EEGs, which was otherwise undetectable in the single trace. All of the patients completed the intravenous EEG monitoring without any neurological or psychological problems. The CS/SPS-EEG is a relatively noninvasive method that is useful for the detection of ictal focus and its spreading pattern and thus for the selection of surgical candidate among patients with intractable TLE. Although the number of seizures detected during the short monitoring period may be limited, due to the advantages of its safety and simplicity, it is worth trying for potential surgical candidates before more invasive examinations are applied. A further study with a larger number of patients is needed to estimate its practical risk.
    Epilepsia 12/2000; 41(11):1411-9. · 3.91 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

880 Citations
122.90 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1998–2005
    • Kyoto University
      • • Human Brain Research Center
      • • Department of Brain Pathophysiology
      • • Department of Neurology
      Kyoto, Kyoto-fu, Japan
  • 2001
    • The Graduate University for Advanced Studies
      Миура, Kanagawa, Japan