[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our recent work (Séralini et al., 2012) remains to date the most detailed study involving the life-long consumption of an agricultural genetically modified organism (GMO). This is true especially for NK603 maize for which only a 90-day test for commercial release was previously conducted using the same rat strain (Hammond et al., 2004). It is also the first long term detailed research on mammals exposed to a highly diluted pesticide in its total formulation with adjuvants. This may explain why 75% of our first criticisms arising within a week, among publishing authors, come from plant biologists, some developing patents on GMOs, even if it was a toxicological paper on mammals, and from Monsanto Company who owns both the NK603 GM maize and Roundup herbicide (R). Our study has limits like any one, and here we carefully answer to all criticisms from agencies, consultants and scientists, that were sent to the Editor or to ourselves. At this level, a full debate is biased if the toxicity tests on mammals of NK603 and R obtained by Monsanto Company remain confidential and thus unavailable in an electronic format for the whole scientific community to conduct independent scrutiny of the raw data. In our article, the conclusions of long-term NK603 and Roundup toxicities came from the statistically highly discriminant findings at the biochemical level in treated groups in comparison to controls, because these findings do correspond in an blinded analysis to the pathologies observed in organs, that were in turn linked to the deaths by anatomopathologists. GM NK603 and R cannot be regarded as safe to date.
Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association 11/2012; · 2.99 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The health effects of a Roundup-tolerant genetically modified maize (from 11% in the diet), cultivated with or without Roundup, and Roundup alone (from 0.1 ppb in water), were studied 2 years in rats. In females, all treated groups died 2–3 times more than controls, and more rapidly. This difference was visible in 3 male groups fed GMOs. All results were hormone and sex dependent, and the pathological profiles were comparable. Females developed large mammary tumors almost always more often than and before controls, the pituitary was the second most disabled organ; the sex hormonal balance was modified by GMO and Roundup treatments. In treated males, liver congestions and necrosis were 2.5–5.5 times higher. This pathology was confirmed by optic and transmission electron microscopy. Marked and severe kidney nephropathies were also generally 1.3–2.3 greater. Males presented 4 times more large palpable tumors than controls which occurred up to 600 days earlier. Biochemistry data confirmed very significant kidney chronic deficiencies; for all treatments and both sexes, 76% of the altered parameters were kidney related. These results can be explained by the non linear endocrine-disrupting effects of Roundup, but also by the overexpression of the transgene in the GMO and its metabolic consequences.
Food and Chemical Toxicology 09/2012; · 3.01 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We tested the presence of glyphosate in the urines of a farmer who sprayed a glyphosate based herbicide on his land, and in his family, as his children were born with birth defects that could be due to or promoted by pesticides. Gly-phosate residues were measured in urines a day before, during, and two days after spraying, by liquid chromatogra-phy-linear ion trap mass spectrometry. Glyphosate reached a peak of 9.5 µg/L in the farmer after spraying, and 2 µg/L were found in him and in one of his children living at a distance from the field, two days after the pulverization. Oral or dermal absorptions could explain the differential pesticide excretions, even in family members at a distance from the fields. A more detailed following of agricultural practices and family exposures should be advocated together with in-formation and recommendations.
Journal of Environmental Protection 01/2012; 3(3):1001-1003.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose We reviewed 19 studies of mammals fed with commercialized genetically modified soybean and
maize which represent, per trait and plant, more than 80% of all environmental genetically modified
organisms (GMOs) cultivated on a large scale, after they were modified to tolerate or produce a pesticide.
We have also obtained the raw data of 90-day-long rat tests following court actions or official requests.
The data obtained include biochemical blood and urine parameters of mammals eating GMOs with
numerous organ weights and histopathology findings.
Methods We have thoroughly reviewed these tests from a statistical and a biological point of view. Some
of these tests used controversial protocols which are discussed and statistically significant results that
were considered as not being biologically meaningful by regulatory authorities, thus raising the question
of their interpretations.
Results Several convergent data appear to indicate liver and kidney problems as end points of GMO diet
effects in the above-mentioned experiments. This was confirmed by our meta-analysis of all the in vivo
studies published, which revealed that the kidneys were particularly affected, concentrating 43.5% of all
disrupted parameters in males, whereas the liver was more specifically disrupted in females (30.8% of all
Conclusions The 90-day-long tests are insufficient to evaluate chronic toxicity, and the signs highlighted
in the kidneys and livers could be the onset of chronic diseases. However, no minimal length for the tests
is yet obligatory for any of the GMOs cultivated on a large scale, and this is socially unacceptable in
terms of consumer health protection. We are suggesting that the studies should be improved and
prolonged, as well as being made compulsory, and that the sexual hormones should be assessed too, and
moreover, reproductive and multigenerational studies ought to be conducted too.
Environmental Sciences Europe. 01/2011; 23:10 [online].