Shigeru Toki

Hiroshima University, Hiroshima-shi, Hiroshima-ken, Japan

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Publications (14)37.58 Total impact

  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: AimCognitive impairment may account for functional and occupational disability in patients with bipolar disorder even during periods of euthymia. While imaging suggests structural, neurochemical, and functional abnormalities in bipolar disorder patients, the pathophysiology of these deficits has not been elucidated. It was hypothesized that euthymic bipolar patients would have different cortical activation during a verbal fluency task compared to healthy controls, and that psychosocial functioning would be associated with prefrontal cortical activation during the task in the bipolar group. Methods Ten euthymic bipolar patients and 10 healthy control participants (matched for age, gender, and years of education) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a verbal fluency task, tapping task and visual task. Correlational analysis between the fMRI brain activation and clinical variables of the participants, including Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) score, was performed. ResultsCompared to the controls, euthymic bipolar patients had significantly greater activation in the bilateral precuneus with similar behavioral performance during the verbal fluency task. There were no significant differences between the groups for the visual task or the simple motor task. Activation in both the left anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) were significantly positively correlated with GAF score in the euthymic bipolar patients. Conclusion Both the ACC and lateral PFC regions are components of a neural network that plays a critical role in psychosocial functioning, and are often found to be affected in bipolar patients.
    Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 11/2013; · 2.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The judgment of the approachability of others based on their facial appearance often precedes social interaction. Whether we ultimately approach or avoid others may depend on such judgments. Method: We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to determine the neural basis for such approachability judgments and the relationship between these judgments and trait anxiety. Participants viewed ambiguous (i.e. neutral) or relatively unambiguous (i.e. angry, happy) faces, assessing either the approachability or the sex of the person depicted. Results: Neutral faces elicited more inconsistent responses within participants only during approachability judgment, suggesting ambiguous property as signals. The contrast pertaining to the interaction between task and face valence demonstrated activation in several areas, such that the left amygdala and medial, middle and inferior frontal gyri were responsive to angry faces when subjects were asked to recognize the sex (implicit task) and to neutral faces when required to discern the approachability (explicit task). Moreover, the blood oxygenation level-dependent change within the left amygdala in response to neutral faces during the judgment of approachability was positively correlated with participant trait anxiety. Conclusions: These findings extend a proposed model of social cognition by highlighting the functional engagement of the amygdala in approachability judgments, which underlie an individual's sensitivity to ambiguous sources of probable threat. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Neuropsychobiology 09/2013; 68(3):156-167. · 2.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Altered emotional memory is one of the core cognitive functions that causes and maintains depression. Although many studies have investigated the relationship between hippocampal volume, depression and treatment response, no studies have investigated the relationship for hippocampal activity. Additionally, few studies have examined the relationship between functional and structural abnormalities in depression. We conducted a functional and volumetric MRI study investigating associative encoding of positive, negative and neutral word pairs in 13 healthy controls, and 14 untreated depressives. We carried out fMRI during a memory-encoding task at baseline. Treatment response was clinically assessed six weeks after pharmacotherapy began. Then, we explored the relation between brain activation during encoding of each word pair and symptomatic improvement. Relative to controls, depressives exhibited decreased activity in the left hippocampus during encoding positive word pairs and, in contrast, increased activity in the right hippocampus during encoding negative or neutral word pairs. Poor response to treatment was associated with smaller activation within the left hippocampus during the memory encoding of positive word pairs. Overall results were not confounded by hippocampal volume. We could not appreciate any disease alteration during the retrieving phase. We found qualitative differences in hippocampus functioning between depressives and healthy controls. In addition, the left hippocampus could have an effect on treatment response in depression by contributing to the dysfunctional encoding of positive information.
    Journal of affective disorders 08/2013; · 3.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pain is a multidimensional phenomenon. Patients with somatoform pain disorder suffer from long-lasting pain, with the pathology being closely associated with cognitive–emotional components. Differences be-tween these patients and controls in cerebral responses to pain stimuli have been reported. However, to our knowledge, no studies of somatoform pain disorder have evaluated altered pain-related brain activation as modulated by emotional dysregulation. We examined the distinct neural mechanism that is engaged in re-sponse to two different pain intensities in a sad emotional condition, performing functional magnetic reso-nance imaging (fMRI) on a group of 11 somatoform pain patients and an age-matched control group. Our results showed that the ratio for low-pain intensity ratings between the sad and neutral conditions in pa-tients was higher than in controls. They also showed significant increased activation in the anterior/posterior insula in the low pain sadness condition. Furthermore, there was specific functional connectivity between the anterior insula and the parahippocampus in patients during presentation of low-pain stimuli in the sad con-text. These findings suggest that a negative emotional context such as sadness contributes to dysfunctional pain processing in somatoform pain disorder. Greater sensitivity to low levels of pain in an emotional context of sadness might be an important aspect of the psychopathology of somatoform pain disorder.
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    ABSTRACT: Pain is a multidimensional phenomenon. Patients with somatoform pain disorder suffer from long-lasting pain, with the pathology being closely associated with cognitive-emotional components. Differences between these patients and controls in cerebral responses to pain stimuli have been reported. However, to our knowledge, no studies of somatoform pain disorder have evaluated altered pain-related brain activation as modulated by emotional dysregulation. We examined the distinct neural mechanism that is engaged in response to two different pain intensities in a sad emotional condition, performing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) on a group of 11 somatoform pain patients and an age-matched control group. Our results showed that the ratio for low-pain intensity ratings between the sad and neutral conditions in patients was higher than in controls. They also showed significant increased activation in the anterior/posterior insula in the low pain sadness condition. Furthermore, there was specific functional connectivity between the anterior insula and the parahippocampus in patients during presentation of low-pain stimuli in the sad context. These findings suggest that a negative emotional context such as sadness contributes to dysfunctional pain processing in somatoform pain disorder. Greater sensitivity to low levels of pain in an emotional context of sadness might be an important aspect of the psychopathology of somatoform pain disorder.
    NeuroImage : clinical. 01/2013; 2:782-9.
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    ABSTRACT: Neuroimaging studies have investigated differences in neural correlates between abstract and concrete concepts but this has not been done with Japanese participants. Concrete words have higher imageability than abstract words, such that they elicit more visual imagery. The present study used functional MRI to investigate brain activity of Japanese participants (N = 16) during generation of visual images for written concrete or abstract Japanese kanji words. Concrete words elicited significantly more activation than abstract words in the left middle frontal gyrus (LMFG), bilateral superior frontal gyrus, and left fusiform gyrus (LFG). Psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analyses were performed to assess LMFG and LFG functional connections. LMFG activity was accompanied by increased functional interaction with the left superior parietal lobule (LSPL), and LFG activity was accompanied by increased functional interaction with the LMFG. This finding suggests that the LMFG plays an important role in visual imagery, with interactions between this region and both the LSPL and LFG.
    Neuroscience Research 01/2013; · 2.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pain is a multidimensional phenomenon. Previous psychological studies have shown that a person's subjective pain threshold can change when certain emotions are recognized. We examined this association with magnetoencephalography. Magnetic field strength was recorded with a 306-channel neuromagnetometer while 19 healthy subjects (7 female, 12 male; age range = 20-30 years) experienced pain stimuli in different emotional contexts induced by the presentation of sad, happy, or neutral facial stimuli. Subjects also rated their subjective pain intensity. We hypothesized that pain stimuli were affected by sadness induced by facial recognition. We found: 1) the intensity of subjective pain ratings increased in the sad emotional context compared to the happy and the neutral contexts, and 2) event-related desynchronization of lower beta bands in the right hemisphere after pain stimuli was larger in the sad emotional condition than in the happy emotional condition. Previous studies have shown that event-related desynchronization in these bands could be consistently observed over the primary somatosensory cortex. These findings suggest that sadness can modulate neural responses to pain stimuli, and that brain processing of pain stimuli had already been affected, at the level of the primary somatosensory cortex, which is critical for sensory processing of pain. PERSPECTIVE: We found that subjective pain ratings and cortical beta rhythms after pain stimuli are influenced by the sad emotional context. These results may contribute to understanding the broader relationship between pain and negative emotion.
    The journal of pain: official journal of the American Pain Society 04/2012; 13(7):628-35. · 3.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In general, emotion is known to enhance memory processes. However, the effect of emotion on associative memory and the underling neural mechanisms remains largely unexplored. In this study, we explored brain activation during an associative memory task that involved the encoding and retrieval of word and face pairs. The word and face pairs consisted of either negative or positive words with neutral faces. Significant hippocampal activation was observed during both encoding and retrieval, regardless of whether the word was negative or positive. Negative and positive emotionality differentially affected the hemodynamic responses to encoding and retrieval in the amygdala, with increased responses during encoding negative word and face pairs. Furthermore, activation of the amygdala during encoding of negative word and neutral face pairs was inversely correlated with subsequent memory retrieval. These findings suggest that activation of the amygdala induced by negative emotion during encoding may disrupt associative memory performance.
    PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(9):e24862. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The development of neuroimaging methods has enabled significant advances toward elucidating the mechanism of cognition, behavior and emotion. This article first reviews recent human neuroimaging studies that examined the neurocircuitry of emotion and emotion regulation. Next, we review the neuroimaging literature of the effects of cognitive behavioral therapy for depression. Lastly, we provide the brain mechanism that the emotional support regulates psychological pain in ostracism, and then discuss a biological model of psychotherapy. We hope that the present review can help us, not only to better understand the biological basis of cognition, behavior and emotion in psychotherapy, but also to be aware of effects of psychotherapy on brain.
    Seishin shinkeigaku zasshi = Psychiatria et neurologia Japonica 01/2011; 113(11):1088-94.
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    ABSTRACT: It is well known that early life events induce long-lasting psychophysiological and psychobiological influences in later life. In rodent studies, environmental enrichment after weaning prevents the adulthood behavioral and emotional disturbances in response to early adversities. We compared the behavioral effect of neonatal isolation (NI) with the effect of NI accompanied by tactile stimulation (NTS) to determine whether NTS could reverse or prevent the effects of NI on the adulthood behavioral and emotional responses to environmental stimuli. In addition, we also examined the sex difference of the NTS effect. Measurements of body weights, an open-field locomotor test, an elevated plus maze test, a hot-plate test, and a contextual fear-conditioning test were performed on postnatal day 60. As compared with rats subjected to NI, rats subjected to NTS showed significantly higher activity and exploration in the open-field locomotor test, lower anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze test, and significantly prolonged latencies in the hot-plate test, and this effect was equal among males and females. In the contextual fear-conditioning test, whereas NTS significantly reduced the enhanced freezing time due to NI in females, no significant difference in the freezing time between NI and NTS was found in males. These findings indicate that adequate tactile stimulation in early life plays an important role in the prevention of disturbances in the behavioral and emotional responses to environmental stimuli in adulthood induced by early adverse experiences.
    Behavioural Brain Research 02/2008; 186(1):91-7. · 3.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We studied the neural activation associated with anticipations of emotional pictures using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) by directly comparing certain with uncertain anticipation conditions. While being scanned with fMRI, healthy participants (n=18) were cued to anticipate and then perceive emotional stimuli having predictable (i.e., certain) emotional valences (i.e., positive and negative), given a preceding cue, as well as cued stimuli of uncertain valence (positive or negative). During anticipation of pictures with certain negative valence, activities of supracallosal anterior cingulate cortex, ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, insula, and amygdala were enhanced relative activity levels that for the uncertain emotional anticipation condition. This result suggests that these brain regions are involved in anticipation of negative images, and that their activity levels may be enhanced by the certainty of anticipation. Furthermore, the supracallosal anterior cingulate cortex showed functional connectivity with the insula, prefrontal cortex, and occipital cortex during the certain negative anticipation. These findings are consistent with an interpretation that top-down modulation, arising from anterior brain regions, is engaged in certain negative anticipation within the occipital cortex. It is thought that the limbic system involving the amygdala, ACC, and insula, engaged emotional processes, and that the input system involving the visual cortex entered an idling state.
    Neuropsychologia 02/2008; 46(1):102-10. · 3.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Rodent studies have revealed that the early rearing environment plays an important role in the development of stress vulnerability, memory and cognition. Although early lighting conditions (ELC) are involved in these neuronal developments through both maternal and offspring behavior, their influence has not been fully elucidated. Thus, by using Sprague-Dawley rats, we examined whether ELC affected maternal care by the dam and the subsequent neurodevelopment of the offspring. Prolonged dark phase conditions (PDC) (light/dark, 6/18 h) and prolonged light phase conditions (light/dark, 18/6 h) were administered from postnatal day 2 to postnatal day 14. Throughout this period, maternal care and the circadian rhythmicity of dams were investigated. In adolescence and adulthood of the offspring, we measured anxiety-like behavior, social interaction, object recognition memory, activity rhythm and corticosterone response to stress with hippocampal expression of N-methyl-D-aspartate and glucocorticoid receptor mRNAs. PDC altered maternal care and circadian rhythmicity in the dam compared with normal lighting conditions and prolonged light phase conditions. PDC markedly increased anxiety-like behavior, decreased social interaction and object recognition memory, and inhibited corticosterone feedback in offspring later in life. Furthermore, hippocampal levels of glucocorticoid receptor mRNA and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 2B mRNA in rats subjected to PDC were significantly lower than in animals subjected to normal lighting conditions. In the adult offspring, the circadian rhythm of locomotor activity was not affected. These findings suggested that ELC affect mother-infant interactions and subsequently at least partially alter the neurobehavioral development of offspring.
    European Journal of Neuroscience 03/2007; 25(3):815-29. · 3.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A number of clinical studies in which early adversities were defined retrospectively, demonstrated that early adverse experiences increased the morbidity rate of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in later life. However, no prospective studies have yet been conducted to elucidate whether early adversity affects the risk or severity of PTSD. Thus, we examined whether early adversity would strengthen the severity of PTSD symptoms in later life by using neonatal isolation (NI) and single prolonged stress (SPS) as an animal model of PTSD. We measured anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze (EPM), contextual freezing in the contextual fear (CF) test, and analgesia in the flinch-jump and hot-plate tests in four groups of adult rats (sham, NI, SPS, and NI+SPS). NI significantly enhanced the SPS-induced decrease in the percentage of open arm time and open arm entries in the EPM, enhanced the SPS-induced increase in contextual freezing, and strengthened SPS-induced analgesia, without any changes in locomotor activity in the open field locomotor test. In addition, we examined the effect of environmental enrichment (EE). Repeated exposure to EE ameliorated the NI-induced enhancement of contextual freezing, but not anxiety-like behavior or analgesia, in response to SPS. The results of the present study demonstrated that while early adversity strengthened PTSD-like symptoms, EE alleviated the enhanced contextual freezing by NI and SPS. These findings suggest that early adversity may worsen dysfunction of the amygdala and hippocampus in PTSD, and an early intervention may alleviate the early adversity-mediated enhancement of hippocampal dysfunction in PTSD.
    Behavioural Brain Research 11/2006; 173(1):129-37. · 3.33 Impact Factor
  • The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 12/2004; 65(11):1576-7. · 5.81 Impact Factor