[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The precaution adoption process model was used to examine the predictors of 2 behaviors recommended to reduce the risk of developing osteoporosis: calcium consumption and weight-bearing exercise. A total of 452 premenopausal women completed a mailed questionnaire assessing stage in the precaution adoption process and 12 knowledge and attitudinal variables. Participants were also given an opportunity to request information about osteoporosis. In all, 11 of the 12 knowledge and attitudinal variables were associated with calcium stage; 8 were associated with exercise stage. Information requests were associated with both calcium and exercise stage. Findings provide substantial support for the precaution adoption process model and suggest that the model can be usefully applied in this area to increase understanding of why many women do not practice behaviors that could reduce their risk of developing osteoporosis.
Health Psychology 04/1996; 15(2):84-93. DOI:10.1037/0278-6184.108.40.206 · 3.95 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As follow-up on data collected in 1966 and 1979 from ninth-grade students in a county school in North Carolina, data were collected in 1993 from the same school system. The 1966 data included responses only from white subjects, but the 1979 and 1993 data also included responses from both white and African-American subjects. As a test of Rokeach, Smith, and Evans' (1960) belief congruence theory [and also of Fiske and Neuberg's (1990) conceptually overlapping temporal-continuum model], subjects in all three periods responded to four questionnaires supposedly completed by other teenagers. The questionnaires differed according to a categorical race (same or opposite) by individuating belief (similar or dissimilar) design. Subjects responded to each of the four other teenagers by making both evaluative judgments and social distance judgments. Belief dissimilar questionnaires were individually constructed according to the belief attributions that each teenager had previously reported for other-race teenagers. The results for white subjects indicated that belief similarity affected all dependent variables, and that these effects did not differ significantly over the three time periods. However, race effects declined over the three periods, as did perceived social disapproval for cross-race contact in the context of various behavioral associations (working together, marriage, and so on). Furthermore, such social disapproval was correlated with the magnitudes of the race effects—in agreement with predictions from belief congruence theory. For African-American subjects the race main effects did not decline significantly from 1979 to 1993, and there were more complex changes over time, indicating that belief similarity had an increasingly larger effect for same- than opposite-race others. Furthermore, unlike in 1979, the race effects for African-American subjects were not correlated with perceived social disapproval.
Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 01/1996; 32(1):39-70. DOI:10.1006/jesp.1996.0003 · 2.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present research involved an examination of interindividual-intergroup discontinuity in the context of three different generalizations of the prisoner's dilemma game (PDG). (Interindividual-intergroup discontinuity is the tendency of intergroup relations to be more competitive and less cooperative than interindividual relations.) Experiment 1 used a multi-prisoner's dilemma (MPD) game to compare interaction between three individuals with interaction between three groups. Results revealed just as much discontinuity between three players (MPD) as between two players (PDG). Experiment 2 used the approach of n-person games to examine two further generalizations from the PDG. One generalization involved the intergroup public goods (IPG) game, and the other the intergroup prisoner's dilemma (IPD) game. With both games, it was found that groups were more competitive than individuals. It was also found that discussion between groups is characterized by a higher frequency of fear and greed statements than is discussion between individuals.