Stefanie Maier

Universität Trier, Trier, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany

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Publications (9)10.41 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies have demonstrated that positive and negative affective reactivity can be predicted by resting electroencephalographic (EEG) asymmetry in frontal brain regions. These studies used different methods to assess asymmetry and affectivity. The goal of the present study was a conceptual replication of these results and to investigate their independence of employed procedures. Resting EEG of 37 subjects was recorded and affective slides were presented to obtain ratings of subjects' emotional reactions. Different procedures were applied to the data to assess the relation between asymmetries and affective reactivity. Depending on the particular analysis procedure, there were associations between anterior asymmetry and affectivity in line with the published findings, opponent to those findings, or no relation between anterior asymmetry and affective reactivity.
    Psychophysiology 12/2003; 35(4):372 - 388. · 3.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Researchers interested in individual differences of brain asymmetry and affective reactivity have recently used film clips to elicit emotions and provided some standardisation data of emotion ratings for English-speaking samples. The aim of the present study was to examine whether (1) a set of films which already proved to elicit different emotions in English-speaking samples would demonstrate a similar capacity to induce emotions in a German sample and (2) to explore the validity, reliability and sex differences of aggregated indices of affective reactivity. Based on two film sets which have been examined by other investigators in the field, we formed a set of 13 emotion-eliciting films and presented the films along with emotion rating scales to university students. Our findings indicate that most films had the capacity to elicit specific discrete target emotions and the emotions elicited by the negative clips were more distinct than the emotions due to the positive clips. The factor structure of the emotion rating scales indicated that a distinct positive and negative dimension was extracted. The indices of positive and negative affective reactivity demonstrated good reliability and internal consistency. Women reported on greater levels of affective reactivity than men, both for positive and negative affective reactivity.
    Personality and Individual Differences 03/1999; 26(4):627-639. · 1.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies have demonstrated that dispositional positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) can be predicted by resting electroencephalographic (EEG) asymmetry in anterior brain regions. The aim of the present study was a conceptual replication of these results. An extensive literature review suggested that asymmetry might also be related to personality and we investigated the possibility to extend the association between asymmetry and dispositional mood to personality traits. Resting EEG of 36 subjects was recorded and questionnaires were administered to assess PA, NA, extraversion (E) and neuroticism (N). Subjects who scored high on NA had greater relative left-sided cortical activation than subjects scoring low on NA, which was due to greater absolute activation of the left anterior temporal site in high NA scorers. There were no associations between asymmetry and PA. A functional neuroanatomical model is presented which suggests that greater tonical activation of the left temporal cortex increases the susceptibility to experience negative emotions.
    Personality and Individual Differences. 01/1999;
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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies have demonstrated that positive and negative affective reactivity can be predicted by resting electroencephalographic (EEG) asymmetry in frontal brain regions. These studies used different methods to assess asymmetry and affectivity. The goal of the present study was a conceptual replication of these results and to investigate their independence of employed procedures. Resting EEG of 37 subjects was recorded and affective slides were presented to obtain ratings of subjects' emotional reactions. Different procedures were applied to the data to assess the relation between asymmetries and affective reactivity. Depending on the particular analysis procedure, there were associations between anterior asymmetry and affectivity in line with the published findings, opponent to those findings, or no relation between anterior asymmetry and affective reactivity.
    Psychophysiology 08/1998; 35(4):372-88. · 3.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The perception of the emotional content of a stimulus is a preattentive automatic process which causes an emotional reaction. As the ongoing stream of behavior might be disturbed by the emotional reaction, a controlled process is initialited at the same time, which normally leads to an inhibition of the emotional response. By means of event related potentials it should be possible to observe these controlled processes. In a first study using photographs from the International Affective Picture System, Diedrich et al. (1997) reported enhanded P300 amplitudes for emotional stimuli, even when the task distracted from the emotional content of the stimuli. This was interpreted as an index of the additional, controlled information processing elicited by the emotional content of the stimuli. Additionally, Diedrich et al. observed a frontel slow positivity, which might indicate the inhibition of the emotional response. However, this frontal slow wave might also be explained by the stimulus presentation time, which lasted 500 ms. This study is a conceptual replication of the experiment of Diedrich et al. Stimulus presentation time of neutral and emotional slides was varied in three steps (250 ms, 500 ms and 2000 ms). Subjects either performed a structural or an emotion-focused task on the stimuli. The results for the P300 component were exactly replicated. However, the variation of slow frontal positivity differed from that in the first study. Differences in the intensity of the emotional stimuli are discussed as a reason für this result.
    Zeitschrift für Experimentelle Psychologie 01/1997; 44(1):163-85.
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    ABSTRACT: Studied the influence of cognitive and emotion-focused information processing on the late positive complex of the event-related potential. The study aimed to replicate E. Naumann, et al (1992) and extend these results by using a semantic processing task in addition to a structural and an emotion-focused processing task. 56 nouns categorized as emotionally negative or neutral were presented to 54 Ss ages 18–33 yrs who were divided into 3 groups. Ss' attention was directed either to a structural feature of the word, a semantic feature, or the emotional content of the word. EEG recordings 300 msec prior to and 1500 msec after the presentation of the nouns were measured from 9 locations. Vertical and horizontal eye movements were also recorded with electrodes. The expected effect that the fronto-central positive slow wave would only be elicited during emotion-focused processing was not found. In all 3 processing groups, a parietally maximal slow wave was observed. Also, no general valence effect was found. Only the emotion-focused processing group exhibited larger P3 amplitudes for negative nouns. Two explanations for the failure to replicate the results of Naumann et al are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    Journal of Psychophysiology 01/1997; · 1.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from 46 students watching emotionally negative, neutral, and positive color slides. Ss had to attend either to the emotional content (emotion-focused processing) or to a structural feature of the slides (structural processing). It was expected that (1) the late positive slow wave (SW) would have a frontal amplitude maximum in the emotion-focused processing group; (2) SW effects would be different at the frontal and parietal electrode sites; (3) amplitudes in the P3 time range would be larger to negative and positive slides as compared with neutral slides. Results indicate that (1) both processing groups exhibit frontally maximal SW amplitudes from 1,000 msec after stimulus onset, and that emotion-focused processing leads to more positive SW amplitudes at all locations from 600 msec after slide onset; (2) the effects of stimulus valence and hemispheric lateralization on the wave form in the SW time range (from 500 msec on) are different at the frontal and parietal electrode sites; (3) the amplitudes between 600 and 800 msec after slide onset, surrounding a parietally positive peak with a latency of 720 msec, demonstrate the expected effect of larger positive amplitudes to emotionally negative and emotionally positive stimuli. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    Journal of Psychophysiology 01/1997; · 1.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Following Gray's theory of extraversion-introversion, extraverts should react more strongly to stimuli of reward than to stimuli of punishment, while introverts should be more susceptible to stimuli of punishment than to stimuli of reward. These predictions were tested in two experiments using measures of Event-Related Potentials (ERP) as cortical indicators of differential responses to stimuli of varied emotional valence. In Experiment 1, positive, neutral and negative adjectives were used as conditioned stimuli of reward and punishment. Subjects were involved in a processing task in which attention was either attracted to or drawn away from the emotionality of the stimulus material. An interaction of extraversion, emotional valence of stimuli and processing task was found, but did not meet the predictions.In Experiment 2, a startle probe paradigm was used. Foreground stimulation consisted of emotionally positive, neutral and negative slides. Again, extraverts exhibited higher ERP amplitudes to emotionally positive and negative stimuli compared to neutral ones, whereas introverts did not show a differential effect to the emotional content of the stimuli. Thus, Gray's theory could not be confirmed in either one of the experiments. The results suggest that introverts and extraverts respond to emotional stimuli with different processes of compensatory disfacilitation. This interpretation is closer to the presumptions of Eysenck's theory of extraversion.
    Personality and Individual Differences. 01/1996;
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    ABSTRACT: This study was designed to replicate recent findings suggesting that the P3 component of the event-related potential is dependent on the modality of the eliciting stimulus. When assessing this research hypothesis two methodological problems are of special interest: first, the amplitudes have to be normalized, due to problems with the model of the analysis of variance; second, special care has to be taken regarding the beta error, which is the probability of falsely accepting the null hypothesis of a statistical test. A possible modality independence is associated with the acceptance of a null hypothesis. The first problem was assessed by using different normalization procedures and comparing their results. The second was solved by controlling the beta error. Results for P3 amplitudes from two sessions in which 61 subjects performed in each session an auditory and a visual oddball task (EEG measured at 11 locations) showed no influence of modality on the P3 elicited by the rare, task relevant, stimulus. Influences of modality were observed for the P3 elicited by the frequent stimulus. As it is quite unlikely that P3 generating sources are strongly active during the processing of the frequent stimulus, this effect is possibly due to a component overlap from the vertex potential.
    Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 11/1992; 83(4):254-64.