Shaker R Dakhil

Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, United States

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Publications (120)1160.73 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Hot flashes are a common symptom in breast cancer survivors that can negatively impact quality of life. Preliminary data suggested that magnesium might be used as an effective low-cost treatment of hot flashes with minimal adverse effects. A four-arm, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial was conducted. Postmenopausal women with a history of breast cancer and bothersome hot flashes were randomized into treatment groups of magnesium oxide 800 or 1,200 mg daily or corresponding placebo groups at a 2:2:(1:1) ratio. Hot flash frequency and hot flash score (number × mean severity) were measured using a validated hot flash diary. A 1-week baseline period preceded initiation of study medication. The primary endpoint was intrapatient difference in mean hot flash score between baseline and treatment periods, comparing each magnesium group with the combined placebo groups using a gatekeeping procedure. Results were analyzed using repeated-measures and growth curve models on weekly hot flash scores based on a modified intent-to-treat principle. Two hundred eighty-nine women enrolled between December 2011 and March 2013. Study groups were well balanced for baseline characteristics. Mean hot flash scores, mean hot flash frequencies, and associated changes during the treatment period were similar for each group. An increased incidence of diarrhea and a corresponding lower incidence of constipation were reported in magnesium arms compared with placebo. No statistically significant difference in other toxicities or quality-of-life measures was observed. The results of this trial do not support the use of magnesium oxide for hot flashes.
    Menopause (New York, N.Y.) 11/2014; · 3.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Prior economic analysis that compared the 12-gene assay to published patterns of care predicted the assay would improve outcomes while lowering medical costs for stage II, T3, mismatch-repair-proficient (MMR-P) colon cancer patients. This study assessed the validity of those findings with real-world adjuvant chemotherapy (aCT) recommendations from the US third-party payer perspective.
    PharmacoEconomics 08/2014; · 3.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Oncotype DX colon cancer assay is a clinically validated predictor of recurrence risk in stage II colon cancer patients. This prospective study evaluated the impact of recurrence score (RS) results on physician recommendations regarding adjuvant chemotherapy in T3, mismatch repair-proficient (MMR-P) stage II colon cancer patients.Patients and Methods.Stage IIA colon cancer patients were enrolled in 17 centers. Patient tumor specimens were assessed by the RS test (quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction) and mismatch repair (immunohistochemistry). For each patient, the physician's recommended postoperative treatment plan of observation, fluoropyrimidine monotherapy, or combination therapy with oxaliplatin was recorded before and after the RS and mismatch repair results were provided.Results.Of 221 enrolled patients, 141 patients had T3 MMR-P tumors and were eligible for the primary analysis. Treatment recommendations changed for 63 (45%; 95% confidence interval: 36%-53%) of these 141 T3 MMR-P patients, with intensity decreasing for 47 (33%) and increasing for 16 (11%). Recommendations for chemotherapy decreased from 73 patients (52%) to 42 (30%), following review of RS results by physician and patient. Increased treatment intensity was more often observed at higher RS values, and decreased intensity was observed at lower values (p = .011).Conclusion.Compared with traditional clinicopathological assessment, incorporation of the RS result into clinical decision making was associated with treatment recommendation changes for 45% of T3 MMR-P stage II colon cancer patients in this prospective multicenter study. Use of the RS assay may lead to overall reduction in adjuvant chemotherapy use in this subgroup of stage II colon cancer patients.
    The Oncologist 04/2014; · 4.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The present exploratory analysis examined the efficacy, safety, and quality-of-life effects of everolimus (EVE) + exemestane (EXE) in the subgroup of patients in BOLERO-2 whose last treatment before study entry was in the (neo)adjuvant setting. In BOLERO-2, patients with hormone-receptor-positive (HR(+)), human epidermal growth factor receptor-2-negative (HER2(-)) advanced breast cancer recurring/progressing after a nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor (NSAI) were randomly assigned (2:1) to receive EVE (10 mg/day) + EXE (25 mg/day) or placebo (PBO) + EXE. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS) by local assessment. Overall, 137 patients received first-line EVE + EXE (n = 100) or PBO + EXE (n = 37). Median PFS by local investigator assessment nearly tripled to 11.5 months with EVE + EXE from 4.1 months with PBO + EXE (hazard ratio = 0.39; 95 % CI 0.25-0.62), while maintaining quality of life. This was confirmed by central assessment (15.2 vs 4.2 months; hazard ratio = 0.32; 95 % CI 0.18-0.57). The marked PFS improvement in patients receiving EVE + EXE as first-line therapy for disease recurrence during or after (neo)adjuvant NSAI therapy supports the efficacy of this combination in the first-line setting. Furthermore, the results highlight the potential benefit of early introduction of EVE + EXE in the management of HR(+), HER2(-) advanced breast cancer in postmenopausal patients.
    Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 12/2013; · 4.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cumulative neurotoxicity is a prominent toxicity of oxaliplatin-based therapy. Intravenous calcium and magnesium have been extensively used to reduce oxaliplatin-induced neurotoxicity. This trial was designed to definitively test whether calcium/magnesium decreases oxaliplatin-related neurotoxicity. In all, 353 patients with colon cancer undergoing adjuvant therapy with FOLFOX (fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin) were randomly assigned to intravenous calcium/magnesium before and after oxaliplatin, a placebo before and after, or calcium/magnesium before and placebo after. The primary end point was cumulative neurotoxicity measured by the sensory scale of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy 20 tool. There were no statistically significant neuropathy differences among the study arms as measured by the primary end point or additional measures of neuropathy, including clinician-determined measurement of the time to grade 2 neuropathy by using the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events scale or an oxaliplatin-specific neuropathy scale. In addition, calcium/magnesium did not substantially decrease oxaliplatin-induced acute neuropathy. This study does not support using calcium/magnesium to protect against oxaliplatin-induced neurotoxicity.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 12/2013; · 17.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive (HR(+)) breast cancer in whom disease progresses or there is recurrence while taking a nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor (NSAI) are usually treated with exemestane (EXE), but no single standard of care exists in this setting. The BOLERO-2 trial demonstrated that adding everolimus (EVE) to EXE improved progression-free survival (PFS) while maintaining quality of life when compared with EXE alone. Because many women with HR(+) advanced breast cancer are elderly, the tolerability profile of EVE plus EXE in this population is of interest. BOLERO-2, a phase III randomized trial, compared EVE (10 mg/d) and placebo (PBO), both plus EXE (25 mg/d), in 724 postmenopausal women with HR(+) advanced breast cancer recurring/progressing after treatment with NSAIs. Safety and efficacy data in elderly patients are reported at 18-month median follow-up. Baseline disease characteristics and treatment histories among the elderly subsets (≥ 65 years, n = 275; ≥ 70 years, n = 164) were generally comparable with younger patients. The addition of EVE to EXE improved PFS regardless of age (hazard ratio, 0.59 [≥ 65 years] and 0.45 [≥ 70 years]). Adverse events (AEs) of special interest (all grades) that occurred more frequently with EVE than with PBO included stomatitis, infections, rash, pneumonitis, and hyperglycemia. Elderly EVE-treated patients had similar incidences of these AEs as did younger patients but had more on-treatment deaths. Adding EVE to EXE offers substantially improved PFS over EXE and was generally well tolerated in elderly patients with HR(+) advanced breast cancer. Careful monitoring and appropriate dose reductions or interruptions for AE management are recommended during treatment with EVE in this patient population.
    Clinical Breast Cancer 12/2013; 13(6):421-432.e8. · 2.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cetuximab and bevacizumab have each been demonstrated to prolong survival when added to chemotherapy in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the potential benefit of combining cetuximab and bevacizumab together with a platinum-based doublet had not been explored. We designed this phase II trial to evaluate the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of the combination of carboplatin, paclitaxel, cetuximab, and bevacizumab in chemotherapy-naive patients with advanced, nonsquamous NSCLC. Patients received with up to six cycles of carboplatin (area under curve 6), paclitaxel (200 mg/m), cetuximab (400 mg/m day 1 then 250 mg/m weekly), and bevacizumab (15 mg/kg) every 21 days. Patients with an objective response or stable disease received maintenance cetuximab (250 mg/m weekly) and bevacizumab (15 mg/kg every 21 days) until disease progression. The primary endpoint was safety as defined by the frequency and severity of hemorrhagic toxicities. Secondary endpoints included response rate, progression-free survival, overall survival, and toxicity. Molecular biomarkers were assessed in an exploratory manner. The primary endpoint of grade 4 or higher hemorrhage of 2% (95% confidence interval: 0%-7%) met prespecified criteria for safety. One hundred ten patients were enrolled. There were four treatment-related deaths including lung hemorrhage (2), infection (1), and unknown (1). Median progression-free survival was 7 months and median overall survival was 15 months. The response rate was 56% with an overall disease control rate of 77%. This regimen was safe, feasible, and effective as a frontline treatment of advanced NSCLC, providing the basis for the ongoing phase III trial S0819.
    Journal of thoracic oncology: official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer 11/2013; · 4.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is currently no consensus on optimal front-line therapy for patients with follicular lymphomas (FL). We analyzed a Phase III randomized intergroup trial comparing 6 cycles of CHOP-R with six cycles of CHOP followed by iodine I-131 tositumomab radioimmunotherapy (RIT) to assess whether any subsets benefitted more from one treatment or the other, and to compare three prognostic models. We conducted univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses of 532 patients enrolled on this trial and compared the prognostic value of the FLIPI, FLIPI2, and LDH + β2M models. Outcomes were excellent, but not statistically different between the two study arms (5 year PFS of 60% with CHOP-R and 66% with CHOP-RIT [p =0.11]; 5-yr OS of 92% with CHOP-R and 86% with CHOP-RIT [p=0.08]; overall response rate of 84% for both arms). The only factor found to potentially predict the impact of treatment was serum β2 microglobulin (β2M); among patients with normal β2M, CHOP-RIT patients had better PFS compared to CHOP-R patients, whereas among patients with high serum β2M, PFS by arm was similar (interaction p-value=.02). Conclusions All three prognostic models (FLIPI, FLIPI2, LDH + β2M) predicted both PFS and OS well, though the LDH + β2M model is easiest to apply and identified an especially poor risk subset. In an exploratory analysis using the latter model, there was a statistically significant trend suggesting that low risk patients had superior observed PFS if treated with CHOP-RIT, whereas high risk patients had a better PFS with CHOP-R.
    Clinical Cancer Research 10/2013; · 8.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is no consensus chemotherapy regimen with concurrent radiotherapy (RT) for inoperable stage IIIA/B non-small-cell lung cancer. This trial evaluated pemetrexed with carboplatin (PCb) or cisplatin (PC) with concurrent RT followed by consolidation pemetrexed. In this open-label, noncomparative phase II trial, patients with inoperable stage IIIA/B non-small-cell lung cancer (initially all histologies, later restricted to nonsquamous) were randomized (1:1) to PCb or PC with concurrent RT (64-68 Gy over days 1-45). Consolidation pemetrexed monotherapy was administered every 21 days for three cycles. Primary endpoint was 2-year overall survival (OS) rate. From June 2007 to November 2009, 98 patients were enrolled (PCb: 46; PC: 52). The 2-year OS rate was PCb: 45.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 29.5-60.0%); PC: 58.4% (95% CI, 42.6-71.3%), and in nonsquamous patients was PCb: 48.0% (95% CI, 29.0-64.8%); PC: 55.8% (95% CI, 38.0-70.3%). Median time to disease progression was PCb: 8.8 months (95% CI, 6.0-12.6 months); PC: 13.1 months (95% CI, 8.3-not evaluable [NE]). Median OS (months) was PCb: 18.7 (95% CI, 12.9-NE); PC: 27.0 (95% CI, 23.2-NE). The objective response rates (ORRs) were PCb: 52.2%; PC: 46.2%. Grade 4 treatment-related toxicities (% PCb/% PC) were: anemia, 0/1.9; neutropenia, 6.5/3.8; thrombocytopenia, 4.3/1.9; and esophagitis, 0/1.9. Most patients completed scheduled chemotherapy and RT during induction and consolidation phases. No drug-related deaths were reported during chemoradiotherapy. Because of study design, efficacy comparisons cannot be made. However, both combinations with concurrent RT were active and well tolerated.
    Journal of thoracic oncology: official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer 08/2013; · 4.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Safe, effective interventions to improve cancer-related fatigue (CRF) are needed because it remains a prevalent, distressing, and activity-limiting symptom. Based on pilot data, a phase III trial was developed to evaluate the efficacy of American ginseng on CRF. A multisite, double-blind trial randomized fatigued cancer survivors to 2000mg of American ginseng vs a placebo for 8 weeks. The primary endpoint was the general subscale of the Multidimensional Fatigue Symptom Inventory-Short Form (MFSI-SF) at 4 weeks. Changes from baseline at 4 and 8 weeks were evaluated between arms by a two-sided, two-sample t test. Toxicities were evaluated by self-report and the National Cancer Institute's Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) provider grading. Three hundred sixty-four participants were enrolled from 40 institutions. Changes from baseline in the general subscale of the MFSI-SF were 14.4 (standard deviation [SD] = 27.1) in the ginseng arm vs 8.2 (SD = 24.8) in the placebo arm at 4 weeks (P = .07). A statistically significant difference was seen at 8 weeks with a change score of 20 (SD = 27) for the ginseng group and 10.3 (SD = 26.1) for the placebo group (P = .003). Greater benefit was reported in patients receiving active cancer treatment vs those who had completed treatment. Toxicities per self-report and CTCAE grading did not differ statistically significantly between arms. Data support the benefit of American ginseng, 2000mg daily, on CRF over an 8-week period. There were no discernible toxicities associated with the treatment. Studies to increase knowledge to guide the role of ginseng to improve CRF are needed.
    CancerSpectrum Knowledge Environment 07/2013; · 14.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION:: After early reports of vandetanib's efficacy in the induction setting, we evaluated the effect of combination docetaxel, carboplatin, and vandetanib, followed by maintenance therapy with either vandetanib, or placebo on progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. METHODS:: Patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer were randomized to induction docetaxel (75 mg/m) + carboplatin (area under the curve of 6) on day 1 of a 21-day cycle, and daily vandetanib (100 mg/day orally) for four cycles, followed by daily vandetanib (300 mg/day orally) or placebo until progression. Eligible patients had measurable disease, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0 of 1, and no prior cytotoxic or targeted agents for advanced disease. RESULTS:: One hundred sixty-two patients were randomized; 158 began induction treatment. Fifty-eight patients began maintenance vandetanib or placebo (median, 3.5 cycles). Median PFS for patients randomized to maintenance vandetanib was 4.5 months (95% confidence interval, 3.3-5.8 months), and for patients randomized to maintenance placebo was 4.2 months (95% confidence interval, 2.8-4.9 months). An exploratory analysis showed prolonged PFS for patients randomized to vandetanib maintenance (stratified log-rank p= 0.07) as also in a multivariate model adjusting for sex and stage (p = 0.02). Differences in PFS were not observed among patients who began maintenance therapy. Toxicities were similar to other studies of these agents. CONCLUSION:: Neither arm showed improvement over historical median PFS of 4.6 months, although patients who began maintenance and were randomized to vandetanib had somewhat better outcomes than those randomized to placebo. Given its acceptable toxicity profile, there may be a role for vandetanib in maintenance.
    Journal of thoracic oncology: official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer 05/2013; · 4.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lapatinib adds to the efficacy of trastuzumab in preclinical models and also in the neo-adjuvant setting. This study assesses the safety and feasibility of adding lapatinib to paclitaxel and trastuzumab (THL) as part of the adjuvant therapy for HER2-positive breast cancer (HER2+ BC). In this single-arm phase II study, patients with stages I-III HER2+ BC received standard anthracycline-based chemotherapy followed by weekly taxane, with concurrent standard trastuzumab, plus daily lapatinib for a total of 12 months. The primary endpoint was symptomatic congestive heart failure, secondary endpoints included overall safety. A total of 109 eligible patients were enrolled. Median follow-up is 4.3 years. No patients experienced congestive heart failure while on treatment. Mean left ventricular ejection fraction at baseline and at the end of THL were 63.6 % (N = 109, SD = 5.7) and 59.8 % (N = 98, SD = 8.1), respectively [mean change -3.95 % (N = 98, SD = 8.3), p < 0.001]. One hundred and two patients initiated post-AC treatment; of them, 31 % experienced grade 3 (no G4) diarrhea with lapatinib at 750 mg/day. The addition of lapatinib to paclitaxel and trastuzumab following AC does not add cardiac toxicity. Lapatinib dose of 750 mg/day in combination with standard chemotherapy plus trastuzumab has acceptable overall tolerability.
    Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 03/2013; · 4.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Postmenopausal women with hormone receptor–positive (HR+) breast cancer in whom disease progresses or there is recurrence while taking a nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor (NSAI) are usually treated with exemestane (EXE), but no single standard of care exists in this setting. The BOLERO-2 trial demonstrated that adding everolimus (EVE) to EXE improved progression-free survival (PFS) while maintaining quality of life when compared with EXE alone. Because many women with HR+ advanced breast cancer are elderly, the tolerability profile of EVE plus EXE in this population is of interest. Patients and Methods BOLERO-2, a phase III randomized trial, compared EVE (10 mg/d) and placebo (PBO), both plus EXE (25 mg/d), in 724 postmenopausal women with HR+ advanced breast cancer recurring/progressing after treatment with NSAIs. Safety and efficacy data in elderly patients are reported at 18-month median follow-up. Results Baseline disease characteristics and treatment histories among the elderly subsets (≥ 65 years, n = 275; ≥ 70 years, n = 164) were generally comparable with younger patients. The addition of EVE to EXE improved PFS regardless of age (hazard ratio, 0.59 [≥ 65 years] and 0.45 [≥ 70 years]). Adverse events (AEs) of special interest (all grades) that occurred more frequently with EVE than with PBO included stomatitis, infections, rash, pneumonitis, and hyperglycemia. Elderly EVE-treated patients had similar incidences of these AEs as did younger patients but had more on-treatment deaths. Conclusion Adding EVE to EXE offers substantially improved PFS over EXE and was generally well tolerated in elderly patients with HR+ advanced breast cancer. Careful monitoring and appropriate dose reductions or interruptions for AE management are recommended during treatment with EVE in this patient population.
    Clinical Breast Cancer 01/2013; 13(6):421–432.e8. · 2.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSEAdvanced follicular lymphomas (FL) are considered incurable with conventional chemotherapy and there is no consensus on the best treatment approach. Southwest Oncology Group (SWOG) and Cancer and Leukemia Group B compared the safety and efficacy of two immunochemotherapy regimens for FL in a phase III randomized intergroup protocol (SWOG S0016) that enrolled 554 patients with previously untreated, advanced-stage FL between March 1, 2001, and September 15, 2008. PATIENTS AND METHODS Patients were eligible for the study if they had advanced-stage (bulky stage II, III, or IV) evaluable FL of any grade (1, 2, or 3) and had not received previous therapy. In one arm of the study, patients received six cycles of cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) chemotherapy at 3-week intervals with six doses of rituximab (CHOP-R). In another arm of the study, patients received six cycles of CHOP followed by consolidation with tositumomab/iodine I-131 tositumomab radioimmunotherapy (RIT).ResultsAfter a median follow-up period of 4.9 years, the 2-year estimate of progression-free survival (PFS) was 76% on the CHOP-R arm and 80% on the CHOP-RIT arm (P = .11). The 2-year estimate of overall survival (OS) was 97% on the CHOP-R arm and 93% on the CHOP-RIT arm (P = .08). CONCLUSION There was no evidence of a significant improvement in PFS comparing CHOP-RIT with CHOP-R. However, PFS and OS were outstanding on both arms of the study. Future studies are needed to determine the potential benefits of combining CHOP-R induction chemotherapy with RIT consolidation and/or extended rituximab maintenance therapy.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 12/2012; · 17.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Patients undergoing treatment for cancer often report problems with their cognitive function, which is an essential component of health-related quality of life. Pursuant to this, a two-arm randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, phase III clinical trial was conducted to evaluate Ginkgo biloba (EGB 761) for the prevention of chemotherapy-related cognitive dysfunction in patients with breast cancer. METHODS: Previously chemotherapy naïve women about to receive adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer were randomized to receive 60 mg of EGB 761 or a matching placebo twice daily. The study agent was to begin before their second cycle of chemotherapy and to be taken throughout chemotherapy and 1 month beyond completion. The primary measure for cognitive function was the High Sensitivity Cognitive Screen (HSCS), with a secondary measure being the Trail Making Tests (TMT) A and B. Subjective assessment of cognitive function was evaluated by the cognitive subscale of the Perceived Health Scale (PHS) and the Profile of Mood States (POMS). Data were collected at baseline and at intervals throughout and after chemotherapy, up to 24 months after completion of adjuvant treatment. The primary statistical analysis included normalized area under the curve (AUC) comparisons of the HSCS, between the arms. Secondary analyses included evaluation of the other measures of cognition as well as correlational analyses between self-report and cognitive testing. RESULTS: One hundred and sixty-six women provided evaluable data. There were no significant differences in AUC up to 12 months on the HSCS between arms at the end of chemotherapy or at any other time point after adjuvant treatment. There were also no significant differences in TMT A or B at any data point. Perceived cognitive functions, as measured by the PHS and confusion/bewilderment subscale of the POMS, were not different between arms at the end of chemotherapy. There was also little correlation between self-reported cognition and cognitive testing. No differences were observed in toxicities per Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) assessment between Ginkgo biloba and placebo throughout the study; however, after chemotherapy, the placebo group reported worse nausea (p = .05). CONCLUSION: This study did not provide any support for the notion that Ginkgo biloba, at a dose of 60 mg twice a day, can help prevent cognitive changes from chemotherapy. These analyses do provide data to further support the low associations between patients' self-report of cognition and cognitive performance, based on more formal testing.
    Supportive Care in Cancer 11/2012; · 2.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE We conducted a double-blind randomized clinical trial of the following four regimens for controlling delayed nausea (DN): group 1: palonosetron + dexamethasone on day 1 with prochlorperazine on days 2 and 3; group 2: granisetron + dexamethasone on day 1 with prochlorperazine on days 2 and 3; group 3: aprepitant + palonosetron + dexamethasone on day 1 with aprepitant + dexamethasone on days 2 and 3; and group 4: palonosetron + dexamethasone on day 1 with prochlorperazine + dexamethasone on days 2 and 3. PATIENTS AND METHODS Chemotherapy-naive patients received doxorubicin, epirubicin, cisplatin, carboplatin, or oxaliplatin. The primary end point was average nausea assessed four times daily on days 2 and 3. Primary analyses were whether nausea control would be improved by using palonosetron versus granisetron on day 1 (group 1 v group 2); by adding dexamethasone on days 2 and 3 (group 1 v group 4); and by using aprepitant versus prochlorperazine (group 3 v group 4). Statistical significance was set at P = .017. Results Two hundred thirty-four, 234, 241, and 235 evaluable patients were accrued to groups 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Adjusted mean differences for the three planned analyses were as follows: palonosetron versus granisetron: -0.01 (95% CI, -0.23 to 0.20; P = .72); adding dexamethasone on days 2 and 3: 0.20 (95% CI, -0.02 to 0.41; P = .01); and using aprepitant versus prochlorperazine: -0.03 (95% CI, -0.24 to 0.19; P = .56). CONCLUSION The addition of dexamethasone on days 2 and 3 reduced DN. Palonosetron and granisetron have similar effects on DN. The beneficial effect of adding aprepitant for control of DN was the same as adding prochlorperazine.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 08/2012; 30(27):3389-95. · 17.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE Major concerns surround combining chemotherapy with bevacizumab in patients with colon cancer presenting with an asymptomatic intact primary tumor (IPT) and synchronous yet unresectable metastatic disease. Surgical resection of asymptomatic IPT is controversial. PATIENTS AND METHODS Eligibility for this prospective, multicenter phase II trial included Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status 0 to 1, asymptomatic IPT, and unresectable metastases. All received infusional fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin (mFOLFOX6) combined with bevacizumab. The primary end point was major morbidity events, defined as surgical resection because of symptoms at or death related to the IPT. A 25% major morbidity rate was considered acceptable. Secondary end points included overall survival (OS) and minor morbidity related to IPT requiring hospitalization, transfusion, or nonsurgical intervention. Results Ninety patients registered between March 2006 and June 2009: 86 were eligible with follow-up, median age was 58 years, and 52% were female. Median follow-up was 20.7 months. There were 12 patients (14%) with major morbidity related to IPT: 10 required surgery (eight, obstruction; one, perforation; and one, abdominal pain), and two patients died. The 24-month cumulative incidence of major morbidity was 16.3% (95% CI, 7.6% to 25.1%). Eleven IPTs were resected without a morbidity event: eight for attempted cure and three for other reasons. Two patients had minor morbidity events only: one hospitalization and one nonsurgical intervention. Median OS was 19.9 months (95% CI, 15.0 to 27.2 months). CONCLUSION This trial met its primary end point. Combining mFOLFOX6 with bevacizumab did not result in an unacceptable rate of obstruction, perforation, bleeding, or death related to IPT. Survival was not compromised. These patients can be spared initial noncurative resection of their asymptomatic IPT.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 08/2012; 30(26):3223-8. · 17.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aromatase inhibitor anastrozole inhibits estrogen synthesis. Fulvestrant binds and accelerates degradation of estrogen receptors. We hypothesized that these two agents in combination might be more effective than anastrozole alone in patients with hormone-receptor (HR)-positive metastatic breast cancer. Postmenopausal women with previously untreated metastatic disease were randomly assigned, in a 1:1 ratio, to receive either 1 mg of anastrozole orally every day (group 1), with crossover to fulvestrant alone strongly encouraged if the disease progressed, or anastrozole and fulvestrant in combination (group 2). Patients were stratified according to prior or no prior receipt of adjuvant tamoxifen therapy. Fulvestrant was administered intramuscularly at a dose of 500 mg on day 1 and 250 mg on days 14 and 28 and monthly thereafter. The primary end point was progression-free survival, with overall survival designated as a prespecified secondary outcome. The median progression-free survival was 13.5 months in group 1 and 15.0 months in group 2 (hazard ratio for progression or death with combination therapy, 0.80; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.68 to 0.94; P=0.007 by the log-rank test). The combination therapy was generally more effective than anastrozole alone in all subgroups, with no significant interactions. Overall survival was also longer with combination therapy (median, 41.3 months in group 1 and 47.7 months in group 2; hazard ratio for death, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.65 to 1.00; P=0.05 by the log-rank test), despite the fact that 41% of the patients in group 1 crossed over to fulvestrant after progression. Three deaths that were possibly associated with treatment occurred in group 2. The rates of grade 3 to 5 toxic effects did not differ significantly between the two groups. The combination of anastrozole and fulvestrant was superior to anastrozole alone or sequential anastrozole and fulvestrant for the treatment of HR-positive metastatic breast cancer, despite the use of a dose of fulvestrant that was below the current standard. (Funded by the National Cancer Institute and AstraZeneca; SWOG ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00075764.).
    New England Journal of Medicine 08/2012; 367(5):435-44. · 54.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bisphosphonates are thought to act through the osteoclast by changing bone microenvironment. Previous findings of adjuvant clodronate trials in different populations with operable breast cancer have been mixed. The National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) protocol B-34 aims to ascertain whether oral clodronate can improve outcomes in women with primary breast cancer. NSABP B-34 is a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 3323 women with stage 1-3 breast cancer. After surgery to remove the tumour, patients were stratified by age, axillary nodes, and oestrogen and progesterone receptor status and randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to either oral clodronate 1600 mg daily for 3 years (n=1662) or placebo (1661). The primary endpoint was disease-free survival, analysed by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00009945. Median follow-up was 90·7 months (IQR 82·7-100·0) and 3311 patients had data for this period. Disease-free survival did not differ between groups (286 events in the clodronate group vs 312 in the placebo group; hazard ratio 0·91, 95% CI 0·78-1·07; p=0·27). Moreover, no differences were recorded for overall survival (0·84, 0·67-1·05; p=0·13), recurrence-free interval (0·83, 0·67-1·04; p=0·10), or bone metastasis-free interval (0·77, 0·55-1·07; p=0·12). Non-bone metastasis-free interval was slightly increased with clodronate (0·74, 0·55-1·00; p=0·047). Analyses in women age 50 years or older on study entry showed benefits of clodronate for recurrence-free interval (0·75, 0·57-0·99; p=0·045), bone metastasis-free interval (0·62, 0·40-0·95; p=0·027), and non-bone metastasis-free interval (0·63, 0·43-0·91; p=0·014), but not for overall survival (0·80, 0·61-1·04, p=0·094). Adherence to treatment at 3 years was 56% for the clodronate group and 60% for the placebo group. Grade 3 or higher liver dysfunction was noted in 23 of 1612 patients in the clodronate group and 12 of 1623 patients in the placebo group; grade 3-4 diarrhoea was noted in 28 patients in the clodronate group and in ten in the placebo group. There was one possible case of osteonecrosis of the jaw in the clodronate group. Findings of NSABP B-34 suggest that bisphosphonates might have anticancer benefits for older postmenopausal women. A meta-analysis of adjuvant bisphosphonate trials is suggested before recommendations for use in non-osteoporotic postmenopausal women with primary breast cancer are made. National Cancer Institute, Bayer Oy (formerly Schering Oy).
    The Lancet Oncology 06/2012; 13(7):734-42. · 25.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pegfilgrastim-induced bone pain is a significant clinical problem that may result in discontinuation of pegfilgrastim and lead to less effective chemotherapy dosing. Interventions for pegfilgrastim-induced bone pain are needed. The University of Rochester Cancer Center Clinical Community Oncology Program Research Base randomly assigned 510 patients at 17 sites to receive either naproxen (500 mg two times per day) or placebo on the day of pegfilgrastim administration, continuing for 5 to 8 days after pegfilgrastim. Patients recorded pain severity (using a scale of 0 to 10) and duration in daily diaries. The primary outcome measure was the area under the curve (AUC) for pain for days 1 through 5. Secondary outcome measures included the identification of risk factors for the development of pain and response to naproxen. Patients' mean age was 55.6 years and 86% were female. Sixty-eight percent of patients had breast cancer and 10% had lung cancer. Pain reached its peak at 3 days for both groups. The mean AUC for pain was 7.71 for the placebo group and 6.04 for the naproxen group (P = .037). Naproxen reduced maximum pain from 3.40 to 2.59 (P = .005). Naproxen also reduced overall pain incidence from 71.3% to 61.1% (P = .020) and duration from 2.40 to 1.92 days (P = .009). The reduction in severe pain (> 5 on a scale of 1 to 10) from 27.0% to 19.2% was also significant (P = .048). Risk factors could not be identified to predict incidence, severity, or ability to prevent pegfilgrastim-induced bone pain. Our phase III randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial demonstrated that naproxen at a dose of 500 mg twice per day is effective in reducing the incidence and severity of pegfilgrastim-induced bone pain.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 04/2012; 30(16):1974-9. · 17.88 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

8k Citations
1,160.73 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2012
    • Michigan State University
      East Lansing, Michigan, United States
  • 2002–2012
    • Mayo Clinic - Rochester
      Rochester, Minnesota, United States
    • University of Colorado
      Denver, Colorado, United States
    • Arizona Research Center
      Phoenix, Arizona, United States
  • 2011
    • Dana-Farber Cancer Institute
      • Department of Medical Oncology
      Boston, MA, United States
  • 2010
    • University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center
      • Department of Thoracic Head Neck Medical Oncology
      Houston, TX, United States
  • 2006–2010
    • Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research
      • • Department of Oncology
      • • Division of Hematology
      Rochester, Michigan, United States
    • St. Elizabeth's Medical Center
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2009
    • University of Washington Seattle
      Seattle, Washington, United States
    • University of California, Davis
      Davis, California, United States
    • Mayo Clinic - Scottsdale
      Scottsdale, Arizona, United States
  • 2008
    • Magee-Womens Hospital
      Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States
    • Oregon Health and Science University
      Portland, Oregon, United States
    • Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center
      Seattle, Washington, United States
  • 2005–2006
    • Kansas City VA Medical Center
      Kansas City, Missouri, United States
  • 2002–2006
    • University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      Galveston, TX, United States
  • 2004
    • Stanford University
      • Department of Radiation Oncology
      Stanford, CA, United States
  • 2003–2004
    • US Oncology
      The Woodlands, Texas, United States
  • 1994
    • National Cancer Institute (USA)
      Maryland, United States